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HEMOPHAGOCYTOSIS BY BLASTS IN A CHILD WITH ACUTE MONOCYTIC LEUKEMIA AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY.

Farias, Mariela Granero; Freitas, Priscila Aparecida Correa; Spagnol, Fabiane; Souza, Meriene Viquetti de; Alegretti, Ana Paula; Riegel, Mariluce; Taniguchi, Adriano Nori Rodrigues; Daudt, Liane Esteves.
Rev Paul Pediatr; 39: e2019290, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638943

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the case of a child who presented hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated with acute monocytic leukemia after chemotherapy, with hemophagocytosis caused by leukemic cells. CASE DESCRIPTION In a university hospital in Southern Brazil, a 3-year-old female was diagnosed with acute monocytic leukemia with normal karyotype. The chemotherapy regimen was initiated, and she achieved complete remission six months later, relapsing after four months with a complex karyotype involving chromosomes 8p and 16q. The bone marrow showed vacuolated blasts with a monocytic aspect and evidence of hemophagocytosis. The child presented progressive clinical deterioration and died two months after the relapse.

COMMENTS:

HLH is a rare and aggressive inflammatory condition characterized by cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, fever, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Although rare, malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH) is fatal. The patient in this case report met five out of the eight established criteria for HLH. The evolution of the patient's karyotype, regardless of the diagnostic profile, seemed secondary to the treatment for acute monocytic leukemia. In this case, the cytogenetic instability might have influenced the abnormal behavior of leukemic cells. This is a rare case of HLH in a child with acute monocytic leukemia.
Selo DaSilva