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Amyloid-ß Interactions with Lipid Rafts in Biomimetic Systems: A Review of Laboratory Methods.

Staneva, Galya; Watanabe, Chiho; Puff, Nicolas; Yordanova, Vesela; Seigneuret, Michel; Angelova, Miglena I.
Methods Mol Biol; 2187: 47-86, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770501
Biomimetic lipid bilayer systems are a useful tool for modeling specific properties of cellular membranes in order to answer key questions about their structure and functions. This approach has prompted scientists from all over the world to create more and more sophisticated model systems in order to decipher the complex lateral and transverse organization of cellular plasma membranes. Among a variety of existing biomembrane domains, lipid rafts are defined as small, dynamic, and ordered assemblies of lipids and proteins, enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts appear to be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by affecting the aggregation of the amyloid-ß (Aß) peptide at neuronal membranes thereby forming toxic oligomeric species. In this review, we summarize the laboratory methods which allow to study the interaction of Aß with lipid rafts. We describe step by step protocols to form giant (GUVs) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) containing raft-mimicking domains surrounded by membrane nonraft regions. Using fluorescence microscopy GUV imaging protocols, one can design experiments to visualize micron-scale raft-like domains, to determine the micron-scale demixing temperature of a given lipid mixture, construct phase diagram, and photogenerate domains in order to assess the dynamics of raft formation and raft size distribution. LUV fluorescence spectroscopy protocols with proper data analysis can be used to measure molecular packing of raft/nonraft regions of the membrane, to report on nanoscale raft formation and determine nanoscale demixing temperature. Because handling of the Aß requires dedicated laboratory experience, we present illustrated protocols for Aß-stock aliquoting, Aß aqueous solubilization, oligomer preparation, determination of the Aß concentration before and after filtration. Thioflavin binding, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy protocols are described as complementary methods to detect Aß aggregation kinetics, aggregate sizes, and morphologies of observed aggregates.
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