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1.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1466536

Resumo

The establishment of the social hierarchy of piglets after birth is one of the factors responsible for aggressive disputes among swine. This behavior results in lesions on the face of piglets and on the nipple of sows. Methods such as clipping or grinding of teeth procedures are conducted to the reduction of losses related to the welfare and growth performance of the animals. However, this management has been questioned about the pain and stress. Since 2001, The European Union legislation which describes patterns of animal welfare prohibits the handling of clipping or grinding of teeth of piglets as a routine measure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding or not of teeth in piglet behavior in the nursery. Were used to obtain the data: 34 sows and their piglets, with 11.3 on average. The study was conducted during the summer, in the city of Concordia, SC. At birth, the piglets were separated into rooms according to the order of birth and type of treatment directed to the litters. The management of tooth grind was always held on the second day postpartum along with weighing, the tail docking and castration of male piglets. The behavior was obtained with the aid of an ethogram with variables like sleeping, breastfeeding, eating and drinking water, stereotypies, aggression, standing, lying or sitting, playfulness and exploratory behavior. The observatio


ês.

2.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1493022

Resumo

The effects of crude protein levels in commercial diets were evaluated on growing and finishing gilts performance. There were forty-eight commercial gilts with 30kg (growing phase) and 60kg (finishing phase) average live weights from free disease farm. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with six replications and two animals per experimental unit. The protein levels were 19.5, 18.0, 16.5, and 15.0% in growing and 18.0, 16.5, 15.0 and 13.5% in finishing phases. During growing phase it was observed a quadratic effect of protein levels on final weight, weight gain, phase length and the optimal estimate level was 17% crude protein. The economic evaluation indicated the diet with 18% crude protein for growing phase. The quadratic responses to protein level at finishing phase indicate practically the same protein levels (15.2 to 15.3% crude protein) at age with 95kg, final weight and carcass yield percentage. The greater economic gain occurred with gilts receiving 15.0% crude protein level from 60 to 95kg. Segregate gilts from commercial production system presented better performance when received diets with 17% crude protein from 30 to 60kg and 15% crude protein from 60 to 95kg.


Os efeitos da concentração proteica de dietas comerciais foram avaliados no desempenho de leitoas em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 48 animais comerciais com pesos médios iniciais de 30kg (fase crescimento) e 60kg (fase de terminação), oriundos de granja livre de doenças. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os níveis proteicos foram: 19,5; 18,0; 16,5 e 15,0% na fase de crescimento e 18,0; 16,5; 15,0 e 13,5% na fase de terminação. Durante a fase de crescimento houve efeito quadrático do nível proteico no peso final, ganho de peso e duração da fase e, estimou-se como ótimo 17,0% de proteína bruta. Entretanto, ao se considerar a avaliação econômica nesta fase, a melhor dieta foi a que continha 18% de proteína bruta. Na fase de terminação, as respostas quadráticas na idade aos 95kg, peso ao final da terminação e rendimento de carcaça sugeriram, praticamente, o mesmo nível de proteína (15,2 a 15,3%). Dos níveis estudados, 15,0% de proteína bruta permitiu maior retorno econômico dos 60 aos 95kg de peso vivo. Leitoas segregadas do sistema de produção comercial, tiveram melhor desempenho ao consumirem dietas com 17% de proteína bruta dos 30 aos 60kg e 15% de proteína bruta dos 60 aos 95kg.

3.
Ci. Rural ; 40(10)2010.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-706811

Resumo

This research was conducted in order to compare the effects of organic and inorganic sources of mineral sources on performance, blood parameters and deposition of minerals in tissues and organs of nursery piglets. This experiment used 54 piglets from a commercial line, which were weaned at the mean age of 24 days and mean weight of 7.35±0,88kg, in a randomized block design with two treatments, nine replicates and three animals per replicate. The treatments consisted of rations supplemented with either organic or inorganic mineral sources (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Se) during the 24 to 57 days old. It was evaluated daily feed intake, daily weight gain, gain ratio, hematological parameters, mineral deposition in tissues and organs. The organic mineral sources fed from 24 to 57 days of age improved daily weight gain (P=0.06) and feed: gain ratio (P=0.05) and also raised red blood cell count (P=0.10); however, no effect was found on mineral deposition in the masseter muscle, liver, heart, spleen or kidneys. Therefore, organics minerals sources increased performance of nursery piglets.


A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de comparar os efeitos de fontes orgânicas e inorgânicas de microminerais sobre o desempenho, os parâmetros sanguíneos e a deposição de minerais em tecidos e órgãos de leitões desmamados. Foram utilizados 54 leitões de genética comercial, desmamados com idade média de 24 dias e peso médio de 7,35±0,88kg, num delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos, nove repetições e três animais por parcela. Os tratamentos foram representados pelo uso de rações suplementadas com minerais de fontes orgânicas ou inorgânicas (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn e Se) no período dos 24 aos 57 dias de idade. Foram avaliados o consumo diário de ração, o ganho diário de peso, a conversão alimentar, os parâmetros hematológicos e a deposição de minerais em tecidos e órgãos. As fontes orgânicas de minerais nas rações fornecidas dos 24 aos 57 dias de idade melhoraram o ganho diário de peso (P=0,06) e a conversão alimentar (P=0,05) e aumentaram o número de hemáceas (P=0,10), contudo não influenciaram a deposição de minerais no músculo masseter, fígado, coração, baço e rim. Portanto, o suplemento de minerais de fontes orgânicas foi mais eficiente para o desempenho dos leitões na fase de creche.

4.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1477937

Resumo

This research was conducted in order to compare the effects of organic and inorganic sources of mineral sources on performance, blood parameters and deposition of minerals in tissues and organs of nursery piglets. This experiment used 54 piglets from a commercial line, which were weaned at the mean age of 24 days and mean weight of 7.35±0,88kg, in a randomized block design with two treatments, nine replicates and three animals per replicate. The treatments consisted of rations supplemented with either organic or inorganic mineral sources (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Se) during the 24 to 57 days old. It was evaluated daily feed intake, daily weight gain, gain ratio, hematological parameters, mineral deposition in tissues and organs. The organic mineral sources fed from 24 to 57 days of age improved daily weight gain (P=0.06) and feed: gain ratio (P=0.05) and also raised red blood cell count (P=0.10); however, no effect was found on mineral deposition in the masseter muscle, liver, heart, spleen or kidneys. Therefore, organics minerals sources increased performance of nursery piglets.


A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de comparar os efeitos de fontes orgânicas e inorgânicas de microminerais sobre o desempenho, os parâmetros sanguíneos e a deposição de minerais em tecidos e órgãos de leitões desmamados. Foram utilizados 54 leitões de genética comercial, desmamados com idade média de 24 dias e peso médio de 7,35±0,88kg, num delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos, nove repetições e três animais por parcela. Os tratamentos foram representados pelo uso de rações suplementadas com minerais de fontes orgânicas ou inorgânicas (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn e Se) no período dos 24 aos 57 dias de idade. Foram avaliados o consumo diário de ração, o ganho diário de peso, a conversão alimentar, os parâmetros hematológicos e a deposição de minerais em tecidos e órgãos. As fontes orgânicas de minerais nas rações fornecidas dos 24 aos 57 dias de idade melhoraram o ganho diário de peso (P=0,06) e a conversão alimentar (P=0,05) e aumentaram o número de hemáceas (P=0,10), contudo não influenciaram a deposição de minerais no músculo masseter, fígado, coração, baço e rim. Portanto, o suplemento de minerais de fontes orgânicas foi mais eficiente para o desempenho dos leitões na fase de creche.

5.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-712039

Resumo

The effects of crude protein levels in commercial diets were evaluated on growing and finishing gilts performance. There were forty-eight commercial gilts with 30kg (growing phase) and 60kg (finishing phase) average live weights from free disease farm. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with six replications and two animals per experimental unit. The protein levels were 19.5, 18.0, 16.5, and 15.0% in growing and 18.0, 16.5, 15.0 and 13.5% in finishing phases. During growing phase it was observed a quadratic effect of protein levels on final weight, weight gain, phase length and the optimal estimate level was 17% crude protein. The economic evaluation indicated the diet with 18% crude protein for growing phase. The quadratic responses to protein level at finishing phase indicate practically the same protein levels (15.2 to 15.3% crude protein) at age with 95kg, final weight and carcass yield percentage. The greater economic gain occurred with gilts receiving 15.0% crude protein level from 60 to 95kg. Segregate gilts from commercial production system presented better performance when received diets with 17% crude protein from 30 to 60kg and 15% crude protein from 60 to 95kg.


Os efeitos da concentração proteica de dietas comerciais foram avaliados no desempenho de leitoas em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 48 animais comerciais com pesos médios iniciais de 30kg (fase crescimento) e 60kg (fase de terminação), oriundos de granja livre de doenças. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os níveis proteicos foram: 19,5; 18,0; 16,5 e 15,0% na fase de crescimento e 18,0; 16,5; 15,0 e 13,5% na fase de terminação. Durante a fase de crescimento houve efeito quadrático do nível proteico no peso final, ganho de peso e duração da fase e, estimou-se como ótimo 17,0% de proteína bruta. Entretanto, ao se considerar a avaliação econômica nesta fase, a melhor dieta foi a que continha 18% de proteína bruta. Na fase de terminação, as respostas quadráticas na idade aos 95kg, peso ao final da terminação e rendimento de carcaça sugeriram, praticamente, o mesmo nível de proteína (15,2 a 15,3%). Dos níveis estudados, 15,0% de proteína bruta permitiu maior retorno econômico dos 60 aos 95kg de peso vivo. Leitoas segregadas do sistema de produção comercial, tiveram melhor desempenho ao consumirem dietas com 17% de proteína bruta dos 30 aos 60kg e 15% de proteína bruta dos 60 aos 95kg.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-467406

Resumo

The establishment of the social hierarchy of piglets after birth is one of the factors responsible for aggressive disputes among swine. This behavior results in lesions on the face of piglets and on the nipple of sows. Methods such as clipping or grinding of teeth procedures are conducted to the reduction of losses related to the welfare and growth performance of the animals. However, this management has been questioned about the pain and stress. Since 2001, The European Union legislation which describes patterns of animal welfare prohibits the handling of clipping or grinding of teeth of piglets as a routine measure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding or not of teeth in piglet behavior in the nursery. Were used to obtain the data: 34 sows and their piglets, with 11.3 on average. The study was conducted during the summer, in the city of Concordia, SC. At birth, the piglets were separated into rooms according to the order of birth and type of treatment directed to the litters. The management of tooth grind was always held on the second day postpartum along with weighing, the tail docking and castration of male piglets. The behavior was obtained with the aid of an ethogram with variables like sleeping, breastfeeding, eating and drinking water, stereotypies, aggression, standing, lying or sitting, playfulness and exploratory behavior. The observatio


ês.

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