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1.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 17(1): 11-15, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436286

Resumo

Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH) is a metabolic disorder that mainly affects young animals. This disease causes imbalance between the levels of calcium and phosphorus, culminating in bone changes. Wild animals raised in captivity can develop the disease when they are given an inadequate diet. The aim of this study is to report the clinical findings, the complementary exams and the therapeutics utilized in a Leopardus geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) cub originated from captivity with NSH. The animal went through complementary imaging exams and biochemical evaluation that respectively revealed generalized osteopenia and pathological fracture of the right femur, reduction of serum calcium level and elevation of serum phosphorus level. The diagnosis of NSH was established by associating the history, clinical signs, and findings of ancillary exams. The treatment was based on diet correction, mineral and vitaminic supplementation and sun exposure. The NSH diagnosis was stablished by associating history, clinical signs, imaging exams findings and serum biochemicals. The early identification of this disease is of paramount importance, because in this way corrections can be made in food management, in order to provide successful clinical recovery and promote quality of life for wild captive animals.(AU)


O hiperparatireoidismo secundário nutricional (HSN) é uma desordem metabólica que acomete principalmente animais jovens. Essa doença cursa com desequilíbrio entre os níveis de cálcio e fósforo, culminando com alterações ósseas. Animais silvestres quando criados em cativeiro podem desenvolver a doença quando recebem uma dieta inadequada. O obje-tivo deste estudo é relatar os achados clínicos, os exames complementares e a terapêutica utilizada em um filhote de Leopardus geoffroyi (gato-do-mato-grande)proveniente de cativeiro com HSN. O animal passou por exames complementares de imagem e avaliação bioquímica que revelaram respectivamente osteopenia generalizada e fratura patológica de fêmur direito, redução dos níveis séricos de cálcio e elevação do fósforo. O diagnóstico de HSN foi estabelecido associando o histórico, sinais clínicos e achados dos exames complementares. O tratamento foi baseado na correção da dieta, suplementação mineral e vitamínica e exposição solar. A identificação precoce dessa doença é de suma importância, pois dessa forma podem ser feitas correções no manejo alimentar, afim de proporcionar a recuperação clínica com êxito e promover qualidade de vida para os animais selva-gens de cativeiro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Felidae/fisiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/veterinária , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 42: Pub. 1204, Sept. 11, 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30769

Resumo

Background: The genus Clostridium includes a group of Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria which producing endosporesand produce toxins when encounter conditions favorable to their development. These toxins can be produced and absorbedin the intestinal lumen, as occurs in cases of enterotoxemia (Clostridium perfringens), or are produced in areas of tissuenecrosis after bacterial infections, as seen in tetanus (C. tetani), blackleg (C. chauvoei) and bacillary hemoglobinuria(C. haemolyticum), or in infections by C. chauvoei, C. novyi and C. septicum frequently associated with cases of malignant edema. The aim of this research was relates the epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of the clostridiosisobserved in the region of infl uence of the Setor de Patologia Veterinária of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.Materials, Methods & Results: The necropsy records were reviewed from January 1996 to December 2011 to identifythe cases of clostridiosis that were diagnosed. In the period, 4.689 necropsies were performed by the (SPV-UFRGS). Atotal of 135 cases (2.88%) were associated with clostridiosis. The most prevalent clostridiosis included tetanus (48.15%)in horses, cattle, sheep and goats; botulism (17.04%) in cattle and enterotoxemia (22.96%) in goats. Additional diseaseswere blackleg (5.93%) in cattle, necrotic myositis/malignant edema in horses and sheep and bacillary hemoglobinuria incattle, both with 4 cases each (2.96%).Discussion: Tetanus, enterotoxemia, and botulism were the most prevalent clostrodiosis diagnosed at SPV-UFRGS andtogether accounted for approximately 90% of cases in the period 1996-2011. As for blackleg, bacillary hemoglobinuria,and necrotic myositis/malignant edema, together they represented slightly less than 10% of the clostridioses in the period.The most signifi cant clostridiosis in the period studied was tetanus, affecting cattle, sheep, and horses. There was a largenumber...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Cavalos , Ovinos , Herbivoria , Tétano , Enterotoxemia , Carbúnculo
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 42: Pub.1204-Dec. 12, 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457207

Resumo

Background: The genus Clostridium includes a group of Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria which producing endosporesand produce toxins when encounter conditions favorable to their development. These toxins can be produced and absorbedin the intestinal lumen, as occurs in cases of enterotoxemia (Clostridium perfringens), or are produced in areas of tissuenecrosis after bacterial infections, as seen in tetanus (C. tetani), blackleg (C. chauvoei) and bacillary hemoglobinuria(C. haemolyticum), or in infections by C. chauvoei, C. novyi and C. septicum frequently associated with cases of malignant edema. The aim of this research was relates the epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of the clostridiosisobserved in the region of infl uence of the Setor de Patologia Veterinária of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.Materials, Methods & Results: The necropsy records were reviewed from January 1996 to December 2011 to identifythe cases of clostridiosis that were diagnosed. In the period, 4.689 necropsies were performed by the (SPV-UFRGS). Atotal of 135 cases (2.88%) were associated with clostridiosis. The most prevalent clostridiosis included tetanus (48.15%)in horses, cattle, sheep and goats; botulism (17.04%) in cattle and enterotoxemia (22.96%) in goats. Additional diseaseswere blackleg (5.93%) in cattle, necrotic myositis/malignant edema in horses and sheep and bacillary hemoglobinuria incattle, both with 4 cases each (2.96%).Discussion: Tetanus, enterotoxemia, and botulism were the most prevalent clostrodiosis diagnosed at SPV-UFRGS andtogether accounted for approximately 90% of cases in the period 1996-2011. As for blackleg, bacillary hemoglobinuria,and necrotic myositis/malignant edema, together they represented slightly less than 10% of the clostridioses in the period.The most signifi cant clostridiosis in the period studied was tetanus, affecting cattle, sheep, and horses. There was a largenumber...


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Cavalos , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Ovinos , Carbúnculo , Enterotoxemia , Herbivoria , Tétano
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(11): 1339-1344, nov. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-10014

Resumo

Trema micrantha é uma planta arbórea distribuída amplamente no Brasil. Descrevem-se nesse trabalho novos aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos relacionados com a intoxicação por essa planta em equídeos. Dois equinos adultos da raça Crioula e dois asininos, de localidades distintas, foram intoxicados naturalmente por Trema micrantha, após consumirem grande quantidade da planta que ficou disponível a eles após uma poda. Além disso, um cavalo adulto, de outra propriedade, que estava passando por restrição alimentar, se intoxicou após consumir as partes baixas de um grande número de árvores jovens de T. micrantha. Clinicamente, em todos os equídeos a doença se caracterizou por alterações neurológicas, que apareceram três a quatro dias após o consumo da planta, com curso clínico de dois a quatro dias (abreviadas por eutanásia). Os principais achados de necropsia foram observados no fígado, que estavam levemente aumentados e com padrão lobular evidente e no sistema nervoso central (SNC), com múltiplas áreas amareladas, focos de malacia e hemorragia, principalmente, no tronco cerebral e cerebelo. Histologicamente, havia necrose hepática aguda, edema acentuado no SNC com degeneração fibrinoide da parede de vasos associada a hemorragia e trombose e, frequentemente, com infiltrado de neutrófilos. Outras alterações observadas nos encéfalos foram: grande quantidade de astrócitos de Alzheimer tipo II na substância cinzenta, acúmulos de células Gitter e degeneração Walleriana próxima a focos de lesões vasculares. (AU)


Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed in Brazil. This paper describes new epidemiological and pathological aspects of this plant poisoning in equids. Two adult horses, Criollo breed and two donkeys from different locations were naturally poisoned by Trema micrantha after consuming large amounts of the plant which was available to them due to pruning. Also an adult horse from another ranch, which was undergoing dietary restriction, was poisoned after consuming the lower parts of a large number of young T. micrantha trees. Clinically, in all cases, the disease was characterized by neurological symptoms that started 3 to 4 days after consumption of the plant, with a clinical course that varied 2 to 4 days (abbreviated by euthanasia). The main gross findings were in the liver, which had slightly increased lobular pattern evident, and in the central nervous system (CNS) with multiple yellowish areas, foci of malacia and hemorrhage, especially in the brainstem and cerebellum. Histologically, there was acute liver necrosis with marked edema of the CNS with fibrinoid vessel wall degeneration, hemorrhage and thrombosis as well as neutrophil infiltration. Other changes in the brain were Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the gray matter, accumulation of Gitter cells and Wallerian degeneration near to vascular lesion foci. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Equidae/fisiologia , Trema/toxicidade , Plantas Tóxicas/intoxicação , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(10): 1017-1022, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-3795

Resumo

Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122) and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507) were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.(AU)


As intoxicações por Senecio spp. estão entre as principais causas de morte de bovinos no sul do Brasil; portanto, o controle dessas plantas é prioridade para a pecuária local. Depois de uma roçada, o pastejo por 16 ovinos controlou, eficientemente, populações de Senecio brasiliensis e Senecio madagascariensis em uma área de 5,5 hectares, a qual havia se mantido, por oito anos consecutivos, severamente, infestada por essas espécies. Um total de 28.629 plantas, entre S. brasiliensis (10.122) e S.madagascariensis (18.507) foi, virtualmente, eliminado em um período de dois anos. O número de ovelhas foi mantido em três unidades /hectare, mas variáveis lotações de bovinos foram associadas com a disponibilidade de forragem. As principais práticas de manejo sanitário aplicadas aos ovinos foram administrações de anti-helmínticos. Biópsias hepáticas, colhidas antes e após o período de estudo, não revelaram qualquer alteração associável com seneciose. Os níveis de desempenho dos ovinos foram comparáveis aos observados em rebanhos manejados em sistemas extensivos tradicionais no sul do Brasil.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Pastagens , Solanaceae/toxicidade , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 39(1): 01-04, 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456827

Resumo

The Senna occidentalis poisoning occurs by the ingestion of seeds, leaves and stem of the plant, causing degenerative myopathy lesion. In addition, a several animals species are affected. Outbreaks are related with the ration consumption contaminated by seeds. However, few cases of spontaneous ingestion of the plant in fields were described. A rapid clinical disease is characterized by diarrhea, colic and tenesmus. Afterwards, muscular lesions and brownish-urine were revealed. In the end of the disease course, serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are increased. The aim of this study is to describe an outbreak of S. occidentalis poisoning in live cattle, in Triunfo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, occurred in May 2008.[...]


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Intoxicação/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/classificação
7.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 39(1): 01-04, 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-381295

Resumo

The Senna occidentalis poisoning occurs by the ingestion of seeds, leaves and stem of the plant, causing degenerative myopathy lesion. In addition, a several animals species are affected. Outbreaks are related with the ration consumption contaminated by seeds. However, few cases of spontaneous ingestion of the plant in fields were described. A rapid clinical disease is characterized by diarrhea, colic and tenesmus. Afterwards, muscular lesions and brownish-urine were revealed. In the end of the disease course, serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are increased. The aim of this study is to describe an outbreak of S. occidentalis poisoning in live cattle, in Triunfo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, occurred in May 2008.[...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Intoxicação/veterinária , Bovinos/classificação , Plantas Tóxicas/classificação
8.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 1-4, 20110000. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456872

Resumo

Background: Organophosphate compounds are used worldwide in animal agriculture as pesticides, inseticides and herbicides. The inappropriate use of these anticholinesterasic agents may cause poisoning, apart of great economic losses. Organophosphate poisoning may affect all animal species. Organophosphate overdose induce increase in tissue acetylcholine content and, therefore, enhanced parasympathetic and post-ganglionic sympathetic nerve activities. The toxic effects are shown as muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system signs. The muscarinic signs are characterized by increased peristaltism, salivation, lacrimation, nasal discharge, bronchial constrition, miosis and sudoresis, among others. The nicotinic signs are mainly locomotor signs and include muscular tremors, weakness, and flaccid paralysis. The effects on the central nervous system include inquietation, ataxia, convulsions, depression and coma. Minimal differences may be seen in the diseases caused by different compounds; nevertheless, the route of administration may facilitate the exacerbation of some signs instead of others. Case: This paper report an outbreak of organophosphate poisoning in calves. The disease occurred in a dairy farm located in Florida, Uruguay and affected female Holstein 15-day-old calves. The main owner complaints were apathy, standing difficulty and sialorrhea. Seven out of twenty calves presented neurological signs such as incoordination and sternal recumbency. The clinical examination revealed prostration, lacrimation, tongue protusion, muscular weakness and miosis. At anamnesis, the previous application, in the day before, of a pour-on inseticide was noticed. The composition of the commercial product was ethion (15%), which is an insecticide organophosphate widely used as an antiparasitic drug. Affected animals were treated with intravenous atropine sulfate 1% (0.50 mg/kg) and sodium chloride 0.9%. Atropine sulfate is a potent parasympatholytic agent that inhibits the effects of acetylcholine at the postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions. Ten minutes after the treatment, most calves showed an improvement in health status. Only one calf needed two extra doses at 1-hour intervals to recuperate. The presumptive diagnosis was based on the clinical findings and supported by depressed blood cholinesterase level. Discussion: The rapid therapeutic response of affected animals to specific treatment also supports the hypothesis. The outcome of this outbreak relies in the aggressive approach of the team and adequate treatment choice. In spite of other differential diagnosis possibilities such as poisoning by carbamate and pyrethroid, the clinical findings, laboratory result and therapeutic response allowed us to attribute this outbreak to the misuse of organophosphate. The key to an excellent outcome, when dealing with organophosphate poisoning, is immediate treatment.


Assuntos
Animais , Criança , Bovinos , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação/veterinária , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
9.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 1-5, 20110000. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456875

Resumo

Background: Histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC), also known as granulomatous Boxer’s colitis or colitis similar to Whipple’s disease is a condition affecting especially Boxer dogs. The disease is characterized by chronic increase in the defecation frequency, tenesmus, fetid dark-brown stools with blood streaks and mucus. Histopathology of a colorectal biopsy confirms the clinical diagnosis, when infiltrates of markedly PAS-positive macrophages are observed in the colonic lamina propria and submucosa. This communication reports a case of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in a Boxer dog in Brazil. Case: A Boxer dog, with one year and three months of age had been presenting, since it was nine months old, increased frequency of defecation, tenesmus, intermittent diarrhea, loose stools with streaks of liquid blood, and coprophagy; however, no weight loss or appetite loss were noticed. After an initial period of three months experiencing the aforementioned signs, the dog started with persistent diarrhea with bright red blood, mild prostration, weight loss, and voracious appetite. Because of continuous deteriorating condition and treatment refractoriness, the dog was euthanized. At necropsy, the colon was decreased in size with thickened mucosa and foci of ulceration, apart of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Tissue fragments were collected and fixed in 10% formalin, processed following standard procedures for histopathology, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Selected sections from samples of intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes were also stained with Periodic Acid Shiff (PAS) and Brown-Hopps adapted Gram Staining. Microscopic findings in the colon included infiltration with rounded to oval bulky macrophages, with eccentric nuclei and abundant eosinophilic and slightly granular cytoplasm. These macrophages were distributed in the basal lamina propria and submucosa, and there also was diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Extensive multifocal mucosal ulcerations with exposure of the submucosa were also observed. The cytoplasm of macrophages was strongly marked when stained by Periodic Acid Schiff. Macrófagos do cólon e do linfonodo mesentérico não coraram pela técnica de Gram. Discussion: This diagnosis of histiocytic ulcerative colitis was based on the clinical and pathological findings, especially the association of the clinical signs with the infiltrates of markedly PAS-positive macrophages within the colonic lamina propria and submucosa, which is considered a typical characteristic of the condition. The disease afflicts mainly young Boxer dogs, as it was recorded here. In most cases, there is neither weight loss, nor appetite loss, and the hair coat maintains a healthy appearance. However, in chronic cases such this described here, the dogs may show wasting. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings in macrophages of HUC have indicated the participation of Escherichia coli in the etiopathogeny of the disease. The Boxer dog’s predisposition to HUC has been attributed to a hereditary abnormality that confers invasion and persistence of an adherent E. coli group. This paper reports the importance of the histiocytic ulcerative colitis as an enteric condition affecting Boxer dogs also in Brazil.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Colite Ulcerativa/veterinária , Histiócitos/patologia , Técnicas Histológicas/veterinária
10.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 39(3): 1-5, 20110000. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11581

Resumo

Background: Histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC), also known as granulomatous Boxers colitis or colitis similar to Whipples disease is a condition affecting especially Boxer dogs. The disease is characterized by chronic increase in the defecation frequency, tenesmus, fetid dark-brown stools with blood streaks and mucus. Histopathology of a colorectal biopsy confirms the clinical diagnosis, when infiltrates of markedly PAS-positive macrophages are observed in the colonic lamina propria and submucosa. This communication reports a case of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in a Boxer dog in Brazil. Case: A Boxer dog, with one year and three months of age had been presenting, since it was nine months old, increased frequency of defecation, tenesmus, intermittent diarrhea, loose stools with streaks of liquid blood, and coprophagy; however, no weight loss or appetite loss were noticed. After an initial period of three months experiencing the aforementioned signs, the dog started with persistent diarrhea with bright red blood, mild prostration, weight loss, and voracious appetite. Because of continuous deteriorating condition and treatment refractoriness, the dog was euthanized. At necropsy, the colon was decreased in size with thickened mucosa and foci of ulceration, apart of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Tissue fragments were collected and fixed in 10% formalin, processed following standard procedures for histopathology, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Selected sections from samples of intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes were also stained with Periodic Acid Shiff (PAS) and Brown-Hopps adapted Gram Staining. Microscopic findings in the colon included infiltration with rounded to oval bulky macrophages, with eccentric nuclei and abundant eosinophilic and slightly granular cytoplasm. These macrophages were distributed in the basal lamina propria and submucosa, and there also was diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Extensive multifocal mucosal ulcerations with exposure of the submucosa were also observed. The cytoplasm of macrophages was strongly marked when stained by Periodic Acid Schiff. Macrófagos do cólon e do linfonodo mesentérico não coraram pela técnica de Gram. Discussion: This diagnosis of histiocytic ulcerative colitis was based on the clinical and pathological findings, especially the association of the clinical signs with the infiltrates of markedly PAS-positive macrophages within the colonic lamina propria and submucosa, which is considered a typical characteristic of the condition. The disease afflicts mainly young Boxer dogs, as it was recorded here. In most cases, there is neither weight loss, nor appetite loss, and the hair coat maintains a healthy appearance. However, in chronic cases such this described here, the dogs may show wasting. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings in macrophages of HUC have indicated the participation of Escherichia coli in the etiopathogeny of the disease. The Boxer dogs predisposition to HUC has been attributed to a hereditary abnormality that confers invasion and persistence of an adherent E. coli group. This paper reports the importance of the histiocytic ulcerative colitis as an enteric condition affecting Boxer dogs also in Brazil.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Colite Ulcerativa/veterinária , Histiócitos/patologia , Técnicas Histológicas/veterinária
11.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 39(3): 1-4, 20110000. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11578

Resumo

Background: Organophosphate compounds are used worldwide in animal agriculture as pesticides, inseticides and herbicides. The inappropriate use of these anticholinesterasic agents may cause poisoning, apart of great economic losses. Organophosphate poisoning may affect all animal species. Organophosphate overdose induce increase in tissue acetylcholine content and, therefore, enhanced parasympathetic and post-ganglionic sympathetic nerve activities. The toxic effects are shown as muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system signs. The muscarinic signs are characterized by increased peristaltism, salivation, lacrimation, nasal discharge, bronchial constrition, miosis and sudoresis, among others. The nicotinic signs are mainly locomotor signs and include muscular tremors, weakness, and flaccid paralysis. The effects on the central nervous system include inquietation, ataxia, convulsions, depression and coma. Minimal differences may be seen in the diseases caused by different compounds; nevertheless, the route of administration may facilitate the exacerbation of some signs instead of others. Case: This paper report an outbreak of organophosphate poisoning in calves. The disease occurred in a dairy farm located in Florida, Uruguay and affected female Holstein 15-day-old calves. The main owner complaints were apathy, standing difficulty and sialorrhea. Seven out of twenty calves presented neurological signs such as incoordination and sternal recumbency. The clinical examination revealed prostration, lacrimation, tongue protusion, muscular weakness and miosis. At anamnesis, the previous application, in the day before, of a pour-on inseticide was noticed. The composition of the commercial product was ethion (15%), which is an insecticide organophosphate widely used as an antiparasitic drug. Affected animals were treated with intravenous atropine sulfate 1% (0.50 mg/kg) and sodium chloride 0.9%. Atropine sulfate is a potent parasympatholytic agent that inhibits the effects of acetylcholine at the postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions. Ten minutes after the treatment, most calves showed an improvement in health status. Only one calf needed two extra doses at 1-hour intervals to recuperate. The presumptive diagnosis was based on the clinical findings and supported by depressed blood cholinesterase level. Discussion: The rapid therapeutic response of affected animals to specific treatment also supports the hypothesis. The outcome of this outbreak relies in the aggressive approach of the team and adequate treatment choice. In spite of other differential diagnosis possibilities such as poisoning by carbamate and pyrethroid, the clinical findings, laboratory result and therapeutic response allowed us to attribute this outbreak to the misuse of organophosphate. The key to an excellent outcome, when dealing with organophosphate poisoning, is immediate treatment.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Criança , Bovinos , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação/veterinária , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(1): 10-12, Jan. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-7939

Resumo

In a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil, 7 out of 554 cattle were affected and died due to Senecio madagascariensis poisoning. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological findings in the affected cattle were indistinguishable from those usually seen in poisoning caused by other Senecio species. The plant invaded extensive areas in heavily stocked paddocks. Senecio madagascariensis had been spreading in this farm for the last three years, with no control strategy, because neither the farmers nor the local veterinarian knew about the potential risks of this Sernecio species.(AU)


Em um rebanho bovino leiteiro no Rio Grande do Sul, sete de 554 bovinos foram afetados e morreram devido à intoxicação por Senecio madagascariensis. Aspectos clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos observados nos bovinos afetados foram indistinguíveis daqueles usualmente observados em casos de intoxicações por outras espécies de Senecio. A planta invadiu extensas áreas em potreiros mantidos constantemente com altas lotações de bovinos. Senecio madagascariensis esteve se estabelecendo nesta propriedade pelos últimos três anos, sem que qualquer medida de controle fosse adotada pela equipe técnica do estabelecimento, que desconhecia o potencial tóxico dessa espécie de Senecio.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Senécio/intoxicação , Intoxicação por Plantas , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/intoxicação , Plantas Tóxicas , Bovinos
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(12): 1058-1063, 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-14775

Resumo

Este artigo revisa dados relativos à realização de necropsia em fetos suínos abortados e natimortos. Aspectos descritos incluem coleta de material, procedimentos de necropsia, achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos alguns dos quais de pouco ou nenhum significado patológico são frequentemente observados numa rotina de diagnóstico e geralmente interpretados erroneamente como lesões reais ou de importância.(AU)


This paper reviews information on necropsies in stillborn and aborted fetuses from swine. Aspects dealt with include sampling collection, necropsy procedures, gross and histopathological findings, some of which are of little or no pathological significance but often observed in the routine diagnostic work and misinterpreted as real or important lesions.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fetoscopia/mortalidade , Fetoscopia/métodos , Fetoscopia/veterinária , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/mortalidade , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/veterinária
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(8): 637-640, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-14413

Resumo

Descrevem-se dois casos de miosite necrosante causada por Clostridium septicum em equinos. Os dois equinos apresentavam aumento de volume no membro pélvico direito e que se estendia para a região abdominal ventral. Ao corte, essa área era formada por edema sanguinolento e bolhas de gás. Os músculos esqueléticos da região caudal da coxa apresentavam áreas vermelho-escuras, crepitantes, com edema sanguinolento e, ao corte, as áreas mais profundas da musculatura tinham aspecto seco. As principais alterações histopatológicas observadas foram tumefação, vacuolização, necrose hialina e necrose flocular de fibras musculares esqueléticas. Entre as fibras, havia hemorragia, edema e grande quantidade de bacilos com tamanho de 3-6μm. Na coloração de Gram, os bacilos se apresentavam roxos (gram-positivos); quando impregnados pela prata (Warthin-Starry), se mostraram enegrecidos. Nos dois casos, C. septicum foi isolado, em ambiente anaeróbio, do líquido de edema das lesões musculares.(AU)


Two cases of acute necrotizing myositis caused by Clostridium septicum in horses are described. Both horses presented swelling of the right pelvic limb extending to the ventral abdominal region. The cut surface of the affected area revealed blood-stained edema and gas bubbles. The skeletal muscles of the caudal region of the thigh of the affect limbs had dark red discolored areas of blood-stained edema and crepitation; the deep musculature was dry. The main histopathological findings were swelling, vacuolation and hyaline and floccular necrosis of skeletal myofibers; in between myofibers there were hemorrhage, edema and large amounts of bacilli. In both cases, C. septicum was isolated from the edema fluid of muscular lesions.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Miosite/sangue , Miosite/microbiologia , Miosite/mortalidade , Miosite/veterinária , Clostridium septicum/ultraestrutura , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/veterinária , Meios de Cultura/isolamento & purificação
15.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 39(1): 163-166, jan.-fev. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1477454

Resumo

Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de intoxicação por Perreyia flavipes ocorrido em agosto de 2006, em um rebanho bovino de 280 animais, no município de Sombrio, em Santa Catarina. Ocorreram 17 mortes em um lote de 77 bovinos de raça mista com idades entre um e dois anos mantidos em um piquete (P1) de aproximadamente 90 hectares por cerca de 30 dias. Após as primeiras duas mortes, os animais foram movidos para um segundo piquete (P2), onde ainda ocorreram 15 mortes nos cinco dias após a transferência. Seis bovinos foram necropsiados, e amostras de tecidos foram avaliadas para exame histológico. Os achados de necropsia incluíam hemorragias subcutâneas na mucosa do abomaso e superfície subepicárdica. Ascite e edema do abomaso, duodeno, pâncreas e vesícula biliar foram observados. O fígado apresentava-se amarelado com petéquias subcapsulares e acentuação do padrão lobular. No rúmen de três bovinos, foram encontrados fragmentos de corpos e cabeças de larvas de P. flavipes em meio ao conteúdo ruminal. Histologicamente o fígado apresentava tumefação hepatocelular e necrose centrolobular e mediozonal, difusa e acentuada, com hemorragia e congestão centrolobular. Havia depleção e necrose linfóide no baço, placas de Peyer e linfonodos mesentéricos. O diagnóstico de intoxicação pelas larvas da P. flavipes foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, nos achados de necropsia e nas alterações histopatológicas. As lesões hepáticas e em tecidos linfóides, além da grande quantidade de larvas de P. flavipes no primeiro piquete (P1) e no rúmen de animais necropsiados, foram dados importantes para o diagnóstico.


This article describes an outbreak of Perreyia flavipes poisoning in August of 2006 in a cattle herd of 280 animals in Sombrio, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Seventeen bovines between 1 and 2 years old from one herd of 77 mixed breed cattle died. The herd was kept in a paddock of 90 hectares (P1) for 30 days. After de first two deaths occurred, the herd was transferred to a second paddock (P2), and 15 more animals died in the next 5 days. Samples from 6 of these animals were analyzed. During the necropsy, hemorrhage was seen in the subcutaneous tissue, abomasal mucosa, and subepicardial area. The animals presented ascites and edema of the abomasal folds, duodenum, pancreas, and gallbladder. The liver was yellowish, had subcapsular petechial hemorrhages, and accentuated lobular pattern. P. flavipes larval body fragments and heads were found in the rumen content of three of the animals. In the histological examination the liver showed hepatocellular tumefaction, diffuse coagulative necrosis of centrilobular and midzone hepatocytes, hemorrhage and centrilobular congestion. Lymphoid depletion and diffuse necrosis of germinative centers of lymphoid follicles in mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer’s patches and spleen were also observed. The diagnosis of intoxication by P. flavipes larvae in this outbreak was based on the epidemiological data, necropsy, and histological findings. The confirmation of P. flavipes larvae as cause of the outbreak was done by the observation of intact larvae and remnants in the ruminal content of the necropsied bovines and by the presence of a great number of larvae clusters in the paddock 1 (P1).


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos , Himenópteros/patogenicidade , Intoxicação/diagnóstico , Intoxicação/veterinária , Miíase/veterinária , Autopsia/veterinária , Fígado/fisiopatologia
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(5): 401-403, 2009. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-539

Resumo

O pastejo de plantas leguminosas que provocam fermentação excessiva pode causar surtos de timpanismo e mortes em ruminantes. Em uma propriedade no município de São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, oito bovinos de um total de 66 morreram subitamente, ao haverem sido transferidos de um potreiro de campo nativo, para outro cuja pastagem era composta por Trifolium repens e Trifolium pratense. Os animais foram encontrados mortos no amanhecer do dia seguinte à transferência, não foram observados sinais clínicos prévios. Os principais achados macroscópicos incluíram aumento de volume abdominal, protrusão de vagina e língua, distensão ruminal, fígado de coloração pálida e aumento do baço. Na histologia, havia congestão e edema pulmonares e hiperplasia linfóide difusa e acentuada no baço. A evidência de ingestão das leguminosas associada aos achados patológicos e à ausência de microrganismos no exame bacteriológico confirmaram o diagnóstico de timpanismo.(AU)


Leguminous bloat may occur in cattle which graze pastures consisting of lush forages. In a dairy farm located on the municipality of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, eight out of 66 cows died suddenly after being transferred to a paddock whose pastures were composed of Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense. Animals were found dead in the morning of the next day after being transferred; no clinical signs were noticed. Main gross findings included enhanced abdominal volume, protrusion and congestion of the tongue and vagina, ruminal distension, pale liver, and enhanced spleen. Histologically, there were lung congestion and edema, and splenic lymphoid hyperplasia. The evidence of leguminous forages consumption associated with the pathological findings and the absence of growth on bacteriology confirmed the diagnosis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Trifolium/intoxicação , Trifolium/intoxicação , Flatulência/mortalidade , Rúmen/patologia , Morte Súbita/etiologia , Morte Súbita/patologia , Bovinos , Morte Súbita/veterinária
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(3): 205-210, 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-452

Resumo

Descreve-se a reprodução experimental de doença neurológica em ovinos através da administração de bagaço de malte (resíduo cervejaria) contaminado com Aspergillus clavatus. Esse resíduo de cervejaria, cujas amostras revelaram cultura pura de A. clavatus, estava sendo utilizado em duas propriedades, onde ocorreram surtos da doença em bovinos. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se cerca de 2 a 6 dias após a administração do subproduto ou da cultura e a evolução clínica foi de 1,5 a 12 dias. Os sinais clínicos, que foram predominantemente locomotores e respiratórios, incluíram tremores musculares, hiperestesia, taquipnéia progressiva, rigidez de membros pélvicos (mais evidente à locomoção), fraqueza dos posteriores e decúbito. Um ovino também apresentou apoio ocasional sobre os boletos dos membros pélvicos. As anormalidades locomotoras e tremores eram intensificados pelo exercício. Entretanto, em 6 dos 7 ovinos, o apetite e a dipsia eram mantidas até próximo à morte ou eutanásia. O principal achado histológico consistia de degeneração e necrose neuronal cromatolítica em núcleos nervosos específicos do tronco encefálico, cornos ventrais da medula espinhal e gânglios espinhais, trigeminal, estrelado e celíaco. Três ovinos também apresentaram degeneração e necrose leves em músculos dos membros pélvicos e torácicos.(AU)


This paper describes the experimental reproduction of a neurological condition in sheep by the administration of a beer by-product contaminated with Aspergillus clavatus. Samples of this by-product, in which pure cultures of A. clavatus grew, originated from two farms where outbreaks of A. clavatus poisoning in cattle had occurred. The onset of symptomatology was 2 to 6 days after dosage with the contaminated beer by-product or pure A. clavatus culture. The clinical course lasted from one and a half to 12 days. Clinical signs were predominantly of locomotor and respiratory nature and included muscle tremors, hyperesthesia, and progressive tachypnea, rigidity of the pelvic limbs, posterior weakness, and recumbency. One sheep also showed occasional knuckling of fetlocks of the hind limbs. Gait abnormalities and tremors were more pronounced after exercise. In 6 of 7 sheep, appetite and dypsia were maintained until close to death or euthanasia. The main histological findings consisted of chromatolytic neuronal degeneration and necrosis in selected nuclei of the brain stem, the ventral horn of the spinal cord and the spinal, trigeminal, stellate and celiac ganglions. Three sheep also presented slight degenerative and necrotic changes in muscles of the pelvic and thoracic limbs.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Degeneração Neural/induzido quimicamente , Grão Comestível/efeitos adversos , Resíduos , Ovinos
18.
Ci. Rural ; 39(1): 163-166, jan.-fev. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11690

Resumo

Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de intoxicação por Perreyia flavipes ocorrido em agosto de 2006, em um rebanho bovino de 280 animais, no município de Sombrio, em Santa Catarina. Ocorreram 17 mortes em um lote de 77 bovinos de raça mista com idades entre um e dois anos mantidos em um piquete (P1) de aproximadamente 90 hectares por cerca de 30 dias. Após as primeiras duas mortes, os animais foram movidos para um segundo piquete (P2), onde ainda ocorreram 15 mortes nos cinco dias após a transferência. Seis bovinos foram necropsiados, e amostras de tecidos foram avaliadas para exame histológico. Os achados de necropsia incluíam hemorragias subcutâneas na mucosa do abomaso e superfície subepicárdica. Ascite e edema do abomaso, duodeno, pâncreas e vesícula biliar foram observados. O fígado apresentava-se amarelado com petéquias subcapsulares e acentuação do padrão lobular. No rúmen de três bovinos, foram encontrados fragmentos de corpos e cabeças de larvas de P. flavipes em meio ao conteúdo ruminal. Histologicamente o fígado apresentava tumefação hepatocelular e necrose centrolobular e mediozonal, difusa e acentuada, com hemorragia e congestão centrolobular. Havia depleção e necrose linfóide no baço, placas de Peyer e linfonodos mesentéricos. O diagnóstico de intoxicação pelas larvas da P. flavipes foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, nos achados de necropsia e nas alterações histopatológicas. As lesões hepáticas e em tecidos linfóides, além da grande quantidade de larvas de P. flavipes no primeiro piquete (P1) e no rúmen de animais necropsiados, foram dados importantes para o diagnóstico.(AU)


This article describes an outbreak of Perreyia flavipes poisoning in August of 2006 in a cattle herd of 280 animals in Sombrio, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Seventeen bovines between 1 and 2 years old from one herd of 77 mixed breed cattle died. The herd was kept in a paddock of 90 hectares (P1) for 30 days. After de first two deaths occurred, the herd was transferred to a second paddock (P2), and 15 more animals died in the next 5 days. Samples from 6 of these animals were analyzed. During the necropsy, hemorrhage was seen in the subcutaneous tissue, abomasal mucosa, and subepicardial area. The animals presented ascites and edema of the abomasal folds, duodenum, pancreas, and gallbladder. The liver was yellowish, had subcapsular petechial hemorrhages, and accentuated lobular pattern. P. flavipes larval body fragments and heads were found in the rumen content of three of the animals. In the histological examination the liver showed hepatocellular tumefaction, diffuse coagulative necrosis of centrilobular and midzone hepatocytes, hemorrhage and centrilobular congestion. Lymphoid depletion and diffuse necrosis of germinative centers of lymphoid follicles in mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyers patches and spleen were also observed. The diagnosis of intoxication by P. flavipes larvae in this outbreak was based on the epidemiological data, necropsy, and histological findings. The confirmation of P. flavipes larvae as cause of the outbreak was done by the observation of intact larvae and remnants in the ruminal content of the necropsied bovines and by the presence of a great number of larvae clusters in the paddock 1 (P1).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos , Himenópteros/patogenicidade , Miíase/veterinária , Intoxicação/diagnóstico , Intoxicação/veterinária , Autopsia/veterinária , Fígado/fisiopatologia
19.
Ci. Rural ; 39(1): 262-265, jan.-fev. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11659

Resumo

Em junho de 2007, uma mortalidade de bovinos com sinais clínicos e lesões de insuficiência hepática aguda em uma propriedade, na região da encosta da serra do Rio Grande do Sul, foi atribuída ao consumo de Cestrum intermedium. De um total de 17 bovinos, dois morreram com curso clínico inferior a 12 horas, apresentando tremores musculares, andar cambaleante, reações agressivas, decúbito lateral e morte. À necropsia, o fígado estava moderadamente aumentado de volume e com acentuação do padrão lobular. Histologicamente, o fígado apresentava necrose de coagulação centrolobular, difusa, aguda e acentuada. As alterações patológicas associadas à presença e a evidência de consumo da planta pelos bovinos permitiram o diagnóstico.(AU)


In June of 2007, mortality in cattle with clinical signs and lesions of acute hepatic insufficiency on a farm located in the hillside of Rio Grande do Sul mountain range was attributed to Cestrum intermedium consumption. From 17 bovines, two died up to 12 hours presenting clinical signs such as muscular tremors, incoordination, aggressiveness, lateral recumbence and death. Macroscopic lesions were found primary in the liver and were characterized by a slightly increased volume and diffuse accentuation of the lobules. Microscopically, the liver showed diffuse and accentuated centrilobular coagulative necrosis. The presence of Cestrum intermedium plants that was being ingested by the bovine associated with the hepatic lesions was decisive for the diagnosis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos , Cestrum/intoxicação , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/veterinária
20.
Ci. Rural ; 38(5): 1483-1485, ago. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-4806

Resumo

Uma fêmea da raça Jersey com 9 anos de idade apresentou cólicas e dificuldade de defecação progressiva que evoluiu até completa obstrução intestinal. O animal morreu uma semana após uma tentativa infrutífera de corrigir cirurgicamente a obstrução. Na necropsia, as alças intestinais estavam distendidas por acúmulo de cont aeúdo fecal e havia massas de gordura necrótica circundando o segmento final do intestino. Os achados histológicos foram necrose da gordura associada à fibrose intersticial, inflamação crônica com células gigantes tipo corpo estranho, fendas de colesterol e mineralização.(AU)


A 9 year-old Jersey cow showed a clinical picture that initiated with colic, small amounts of feces, and progressed to the complete obstruction of the intestinal passage. The cow died one week after an unsuccessful cirurgic attempt to correct obstruction. At necropsy, the intestinal loops were distended by content accumulation and there were masses of necrotic fat surrounding the final segment of the intestine. The histological findings were fatty necrosis associated with interstitial fibrosis, chronic inflammation with foreign body type giant cells, cholesterol clefts and mineralization.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos , Lipomatose
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