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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 889, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1444385

Resumo

Background: Nonambulatory flaccid tetraparesis can be the result of diseases of the peripheral nervous system and it is characterized by generalized lower motor neuron (LMN) signs, as weakness, tetraparesis/tetraplegia, decreased muscle tone and reflexes. The term polyneuropathy is used for dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. In Brazil, there are several etiologies for polyneuropathy in dogs, such as acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis, botulism and myasthenia gravis. Toxoplasma gondii is an uncommon cause of LMN diseases in dogs. The aim of this report was to describe a case of flaccid tetraplegia toxoplasmosis in an adult dog with a Toxoplasma gondii serology with a markedly elevated IgG titer of 1:4096. Case: A 4-year-old intact mongrel male dog, weighing 19.6 kg, was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL) with a 5-day history of weakness that progressed to tetraparesis. Physical examination revealed no significant changes other than the dull and unkempt coat. Neurologic examination revealed severe tetraparesis that was worse in the pelvic limbs, with decreased muscle tone in all four limbs. Postural reactions and the interdigital reflex were absent in all four limbs, as was the patellar reflex, but pain perception was present. There were no clinical signs of dysfunction on examination of the cranial nerves. Laboratory tests were performed, and creatine kinase was elevated (819 U/L). Blood was drawn to look for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum class IgG using the indirect immunofluorescence technique. The antibody titer for Toxoplasma gondii (IgG) was 1:4096. A chest radiograph was performed to look for megaesophagus, and a pulmonary pattern suggestive of mild diffuse pneumonia was observed. Treatment was performed with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and the dog's condition improved slightly. Discussion: Based on lower motor neuron findings, the neurologic lesion was localized in the nerve roots, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junctions, or muscles. The most important diseases in the list of differential diagnoses were immune-mediated or infectious polyradiculoneuritis (toxoplasmosis, neosporosis), myasthenia gravis, toxic polyneuropathy (botulism, chronic organophosphate poisoning), and paraneoplastic polyneuropathy. Among these differential diagnoses, polyradiculoneuritis is one of the most common. It is an idiopathic inflammatory disease. Exposure to raccoon saliva (in the U.S.), vaccination, or infection have been proposed as precipitating causes, but the triggers of this disease remain unknown. Serology for neosporosis was negative, while IgG titers for toxoplasmosis were 1:4096. In a previous study, dogs with acute polyradiculoneuritis were more likely to have T. gondii IgG serum antibody titers than dogs without neurologic signs. Infection with the protozoa T. gondii and N. caninum can cause intense polyradiculoneuritis in dogs accompanied by myositis, especially in puppies. One treatment trial was based on the administration of sulfonamide-trimethoprim with pyrimethamine, whose efficacy in the treatment of toxoplasmosis in dogs has also been reported in the literature. Neurologic deficits improved slightly, and there is a possibility that certain signs may not disappear completely because of the permanent damage caused by inflammation of the nervous system, as observed in the present case. The case had the limitation that it was not possible to perform other laboratory tests to demonstrate histopathologically the presence of Toxoplasma gondii organisms in muscles or nerves. Recovery of normal function is less likely in protozoan polyradiculoneuritis than in noninfectious polyradiculoneuritis. Thus, in the present case, the main suspicion was polyradiculoneuritis secondary to toxoplasmosis. Although it is a rare condition, it is important to consider toxoplasmosis in dogs with LMN-type tetraparesis or tetraplegia.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Paresia/veterinária , Polineuropatias/veterinária , Polirradiculoneuropatia/veterinária , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 725, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366327

Resumo

Background: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy cats presents up to 5 cells/µL, with predominance of mononuclear cells and the presence of more than 1% eosinophils is rare and should always be considered an abnormal finding. There is no consensus on the term eosinophilic pleocytosis, as it is used to indicate the presence of more than 10 eosinophils/µL or more than 10% of the total leukocytes. The increase in eosinophils in the CSF may result from infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic and idiopathic diseases. The objective of this paper is to report a case of marked pleocytosis in CSF, with 84% eosinophils, probably due to toxoplasmosis, in a cat with paraparesis and diffuse spinal pain. Case: A mixed breed female cat, neutered, adult and domiciled in a rural area was presented due to gait abnormalities in the pelvic limbs that started one day before presentation. The general physical examination was unremarkable. On neurological examination it was observed asymmetric deficit of postural reactions in pelvic limbs, patellar reflex normal to increased and pain elicited on palpation of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Based on these findings, the neurological syndrome was classified as thoracolumbar, but with diffuse pain, and the main differential diagnoses were inflammatory/ infectious and neoplastic diseases. The leukogram showed eosinophilia and the serum biochemistry showed no significant changes. Serological assays for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus were negative. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified marked pleocytosis with 84% eosinophils and increase in protein concentration. Myelography showed no compressive or expansive changes. Fungal culture for CSF cryptococcosis was negative. Serum immunofluorescence antibody titer for Toxoplasma gondii (IgG) was 1:256. There was a marked improvement after treatment with sulfametoxazole/trimethoprim and pyrimethamine and after 3 weeks of treatment, there was almost complete recovery of neurological signs and after 9 months the cat was neurologically normal. Discussion: The most common causes of acute-onset thoracolumbar spinal cord syndrome in cats, with diffuse pain on spinal palpation, are meningomyelitis of inflammatory/infectious origin, such as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and neoplasms such as lymphoma. Other meningomyelitis of inflammatory origin, such as infectious and immune-mediated meningomyelitis of unknown origin are considered uncommon in cats. Although the clinical, systemic and neurological signs of FIP and toxoplasmosis may have similarities, in the present case FIP was not considered responsible for the observed signs, as the evolution of the case and the analysis of the CSF tend to be different. The peripheral eosinophilia, the cytological analysis of the CSF, characterized by marked eosinophilic pleocytosis, associated with a positive titer for toxoplasmosis, good response to treatment and improvement in the neurological condition, with survival for more than 9 months after treatment, rules out the possibility of FIP. Neurological signs observed in the absence of systemic signs are more common in cases of protozoan reactivation, which probably occurred in the present case. The possibility of toxoplasmosis in the patient in this report was reinforced by the fact that the animal came from a rural area. Eosinophilia of CSF is most commonly associated with parasitic infections, although it can be caused by a variety of infectious agents, but in the cat of the present report, the marked eosinophilic pleocytosis was likely due to toxoplasmosis, which is a rare occurrence in this specie. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal spinal cord lesions in cats. The identification of laboratory findings as well as the appropriate therapy favored the good evolution of the condition.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Eosinófilos , Leucocitose/veterinária , Mielite/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações
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