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1.
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20210225, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436810

Resumo

The objectives were to evaluate the effects of monensin and virginiamycin, alone or combined, on supplemented Nellore cattle grazing tropical grass during the rainy season. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate intake, digestibility, CH4 emissions, blood parameters, performance, and carcass characteristics (Exp. 1), and ruminal fermentation and relative abundance of ruminal microorganisms (Exp. 2). Animals (n = 92 Exp. 1 and n = 12 Exp. 2) were distributed in a completely randomized design and allocated in twelve paddocks composed of Urochloa brizantha (A. Rich.) Stapf. cv. Xaraés. A protein-energetic supplementation of 3 g/kg of BW per day was provided to all animals. Supplements were: without additives (WA), monensin alone at 80 mg/kg of product (MN), virginiamycin alone at 150 mg/kg of product (VM), and monensin (80 mg/kg of product) combined with virginiamycin (150 mg/kg of product; MNVM). Treatments did not affect intakes of total dry matter (DM), supplement DM, and nutrients. However, the intakes of forage DM and crude protein decreased in cattle fed MNVM compared with animals fed WA, MN, and VM. Total volatile fatty acids increased in animals fed VM. Ruminal NH3-N decreased, and pH increased in animals fed MN, VM, and MNVM. Relative abundance of total F. succinogenes and S. ruminantium decreased and R. flavefaciens increased in animals fed MN and VM at d 118. Treatments had no effect on enteric CH4 emissions. The average daily gain (ADG) and total gain were greater in cattle fed MNVM than in cattle fed MN. Combination of monensin and virginiamycin altered the rumen microbial populations but did not decrease enteric CH4 emissions. However, it decreased forage dry matter intake without altering the ADG and total weight gain, leading to an increase in feed efficiency. Results from this study indicate an advantage in including feed additives combined in the diet of supplemented Nellore cattle grazing tropical grass during the rainy season.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Virginiamicina/administração & dosagem , Estação Chuvosa , Dieta/veterinária , Aditivos Alimentares
2.
Acta Sci. Anim. Sci. ; 43: e50347, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762011

Resumo

This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P) supplementation on the intake, digestibility, and quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls fed on high-grain diets finished in feedlot. Forty young bulls (30 months old) with an initial body weight (IBW) of 296 ± 25 kg were used. It was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The treatments were: without P supplementation (CO), commercial mineral supplement (CM), and supplementation with dicalcium phosphate (DP) with 2.4, 4.2, or 5.0 g of P per kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Diets were composed of sugarcane bagasse (200 g kg-1) plus concentrate (800 g kg-1) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The meat quality parameters analyzed were pH, color, cooking losses, shear force, and water-holding capacity. P supplementation did not affect the intake and digestibility of nutrients There was no interaction (p > 0.05%) between diets and the aging time for the meat quality parameters. However, bulls fed with DP exhibited lower pH (5.98) compared to CO and CM (6.19 and 6.14, respectively). The longer aging time increased the cooking losses and intensity of yellow (b*). Under Brazilian conditions, feedlot Nellore cattle fed with high-grain diets do not require additional mineral supplements.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Bovinos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise
3.
Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 43: e50347, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1459934

Resumo

This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P) supplementation on the intake, digestibility, and quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls fed on high-grain diets finished in feedlot. Forty young bulls (30 months old) with an initial body weight (IBW) of 296 ± 25 kg were used. It was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The treatments were: without P supplementation (CO), commercial mineral supplement (CM), and supplementation with dicalcium phosphate (DP) with 2.4, 4.2, or 5.0 g of P per kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Diets were composed of sugarcane bagasse (200 g kg-1) plus concentrate (800 g kg-1) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The meat quality parameters analyzed were pH, color, cooking losses, shear force, and water-holding capacity. P supplementation did not affect the intake and digestibility of nutrients There was no interaction (p > 0.05%) between diets and the aging time for the meat quality parameters. However, bulls fed with DP exhibited lower pH (5.98) compared to CO and CM (6.19 and 6.14, respectively). The longer aging time increased the cooking losses and intensity of yellow (b*). Under Brazilian conditions, feedlot Nellore cattle fed with high-grain diets do not require additional mineral supplements.


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 48: Pub. 1726, Apr. 22, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26198

Resumo

Background: Intensification of livestock is a strategy that increases productivity, but the diets used to increase animal production efficiency are composed mainly of corn and soybean, thereby increasing competition between animals and humansfor the same food crops. This study evaluated nutrient intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, kinetics of gas production, and concentration of volatile fatty acids on diets with or without inclusion of biodiesel co-productsformulated for feedlot lambs. So, the hypothesis is that replace of traditional ingredients by biodiesel co-products changesrumen parameters and methane emissions.Materials, Methods & Results: The experiment was developed in São Paulo State University (Unesp), Jaboticabal, SP,Brazil, in Sheep Production Laboratory, which is owned to Animal Science Department. All trials developed in this studyused a feedlot system, where animals were kept in individual pen. Forty Ile de France lambs male non-castrated wereused in in vivo trial. To obtain rumen fluid, that was used in in vitro trial, four Santa Inês lambs with rumen cannula wereused. The treatments evaluated were four diets: Control diet: roughage + concentrate; PM20: roughage + concentrate withpeanut meal (PM) at 20% of DM; CG25: roughage + concentrate with crude glycerin (CG) at 25% of DM; and PMCG:roughage + concentrate with PM at 10% of DM and CG at 12.5% of DM. The roughage:concentrate ratio was 40:60 for allthese diets. The parameters of the in vitro and in vivo experiments used were completely randomized with four treatments.When significant, the means between treatments were compared using Tukey test (P < 0.05). There was no effect of coproduct inclusion on intake, except ether extract and neutral detergent fiber, which were higher for PM20 compared withCG25 diet. Apparent digestibility of dry matter (79.87%) and some nutrients (organic matter, crude protein, and neutraldetergent fiber)...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Ração Animal , Rúmen/química , Metano/análise , Técnicas In Vitro
5.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48: Pub.1726-Jan. 30, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458249

Resumo

Background: Intensification of livestock is a strategy that increases productivity, but the diets used to increase animal production efficiency are composed mainly of corn and soybean, thereby increasing competition between animals and humansfor the same food crops. This study evaluated nutrient intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, kinetics of gas production, and concentration of volatile fatty acids on diets with or without inclusion of biodiesel co-productsformulated for feedlot lambs. So, the hypothesis is that replace of traditional ingredients by biodiesel co-products changesrumen parameters and methane emissions.Materials, Methods & Results: The experiment was developed in São Paulo State University (Unesp), Jaboticabal, SP,Brazil, in Sheep Production Laboratory, which is owned to Animal Science Department. All trials developed in this studyused a feedlot system, where animals were kept in individual pen. Forty Ile de France lambs male non-castrated wereused in in vivo trial. To obtain rumen fluid, that was used in in vitro trial, four Santa Inês lambs with rumen cannula wereused. The treatments evaluated were four diets: Control diet: roughage + concentrate; PM20: roughage + concentrate withpeanut meal (PM) at 20% of DM; CG25: roughage + concentrate with crude glycerin (CG) at 25% of DM; and PMCG:roughage + concentrate with PM at 10% of DM and CG at 12.5% of DM. The roughage:concentrate ratio was 40:60 for allthese diets. The parameters of the in vitro and in vivo experiments used were completely randomized with four treatments.When significant, the means between treatments were compared using Tukey test (P < 0.05). There was no effect of coproduct inclusion on intake, except ether extract and neutral detergent fiber, which were higher for PM20 compared withCG25 diet. Apparent digestibility of dry matter (79.87%) and some nutrients (organic matter, crude protein, and neutraldetergent fiber)...


Assuntos
Animais , Biocombustíveis , Metano/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Rúmen/química , Técnicas In Vitro
6.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 11(1): 35-41, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1453081

Resumo

This study aimed at evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal characteristics of diets using copra meal with different fat contents. Three levels of copra meal inclusion (10, 20 and 30%) and two levels of fat (high-fat copra meal HFCM and low-fat copra meal LFCM) were used in replacement of soybean meal. The addition of copra meal increased EE and reduced CP and NFC of diets, especially when HFCM was included. Treatments with the inclusion of 30% copra meal had a higher colonization time (L), independently of fat content. The maximum gas production was reduced from 59.06 to 39.21 mL/g DM with the addition of HFCM, but was not affected when diets contained LFCM. Digestibility was also reduced with the addition of copra meal, the highest reduction being with the addition of 30% copra meal. Copra meal inclusion has reduced the ammonia concentration from 29.75 mg/100 mL (control diet) to 17.05 mg/100 mL (30% copra meal) but did not affect significantly methane production. Copra meal impacts the chemical composition and ruminal fermentation characteristics of diets, especially when containing high oil content.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Coco , Cocos/metabolismo , Gorduras Vegetais , Rúmen/fisiologia , Rúmen/química , Metano/análise
7.
Acta Vet. bras. ; 11(1): 35-41, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-687022

Resumo

This study aimed at evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal characteristics of diets using copra meal with different fat contents. Three levels of copra meal inclusion (10, 20 and 30%) and two levels of fat (high-fat copra meal HFCM and low-fat copra meal LFCM) were used in replacement of soybean meal. The addition of copra meal increased EE and reduced CP and NFC of diets, especially when HFCM was included. Treatments with the inclusion of 30% copra meal had a higher colonization time (L), independently of fat content. The maximum gas production was reduced from 59.06 to 39.21 mL/g DM with the addition of HFCM, but was not affected when diets contained LFCM. Digestibility was also reduced with the addition of copra meal, the highest reduction being with the addition of 30% copra meal. Copra meal inclusion has reduced the ammonia concentration from 29.75 mg/100 mL (control diet) to 17.05 mg/100 mL (30% copra meal) but did not affect significantly methane production. Copra meal impacts the chemical composition and ruminal fermentation characteristics of diets, especially when containing high oil content.(AU)


Assuntos
Cocos/metabolismo , Alimentos de Coco , Rúmen/fisiologia , Rúmen/química , Gorduras Vegetais , Metano/análise
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