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1.
Sci. agric ; 76(5): 362-367, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497808

Resumo

Climatic uncertainties have compromised water resources, which influences irrigated agriculture. Irrigation is an important alternative to mitigate the effects of water scarcity. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a rational use of irrigation water. This study aimed to evaluate PRD for irrigation management of banana crop, cv BRS Princesa, under semi-arid conditions in Brazil. A field experiment was carried out with five treatments: one control (full irrigation) and four with 50 % reduction of water irrigation depth (WID) and frequencies alternating the side to be irrigated of the plant row of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. Stomatal conductance, growth, yield and soil water status were evaluated. Results indicated that banana crop cv. BRS Princesa shows shoot physiological regulation for 50 % reduction of soil water and vapor pressure deficit between 1.92 and 2.25 kPa. Decrease in yields of treatments with WID reduction compared to full irrigation is due to the reduction of root uptake rate, which is related to vapor pressure deficit and soil water availability. Partial root-zone drying saves 50 % of irrigation water and increases water use efficiency of banana cv. BRS Princesa crop by 78 %.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Sci. agric. ; 76(5): 362-367, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24486

Resumo

Climatic uncertainties have compromised water resources, which influences irrigated agriculture. Irrigation is an important alternative to mitigate the effects of water scarcity. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a rational use of irrigation water. This study aimed to evaluate PRD for irrigation management of banana crop, cv BRS Princesa, under semi-arid conditions in Brazil. A field experiment was carried out with five treatments: one control (full irrigation) and four with 50 % reduction of water irrigation depth (WID) and frequencies alternating the side to be irrigated of the plant row of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. Stomatal conductance, growth, yield and soil water status were evaluated. Results indicated that banana crop cv. BRS Princesa shows shoot physiological regulation for 50 % reduction of soil water and vapor pressure deficit between 1.92 and 2.25 kPa. Decrease in yields of treatments with WID reduction compared to full irrigation is due to the reduction of root uptake rate, which is related to vapor pressure deficit and soil water availability. Partial root-zone drying saves 50 % of irrigation water and increases water use efficiency of banana cv. BRS Princesa crop by 78 %.(AU)


Assuntos
Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos
3.
Ci. Rural ; 48(11): e20180351, Nov. 1, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-20714

Resumo

The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of salinity on the absorption and utilization of nutrients by cassava. For the study, cassava was submitted to four saline concentrations: 0, 20, 40, and 60mM NaCl. Results showed that the absorption of all nutrients, except nitrogen (N), was reduced by salinity, with highest reduction for potassium (K). However, all nutrients were maintained at concentrations which did not indicate mineral deficiency problem. The abnormal concentration of calcium in the tuberous roots may have been one of the factors that contributed to the lower growth of this organ and of the plant as a whole. Transports of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulfur from root to the aerial part was higher under salinity treatment. Efficiency in the use of all the nutrients, mainly N, was reduced due to salinity. Given that: (i) the absorption of K was the most impaired, (ii) there was abnormal accumulation of Ca in tuberous roots, and (iii) the efficiency in the use of N was the most affected, it is suggested to prioritize studies on these three issues, as a way to better understand the aspects related to the tolerance/sensitivity of cassava plants to salinity.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a influência da salinidade sobre a absorção e utilização de nutrientes pela mandioca. Para o estudo, as plantas foram submetidas a quatro concentrações salinas: 0, 20, 40 e 60mM de NaCl. Os resultados mostraram que a absorção de todos os nutrientes, exceto o nitrogênio (N), foi reduzida pela salinidade, com maior redução para o potássio (K). No entanto, todos os nutrientes foram mantidos em concentrações que não indicaram problema de deficiência mineral. A concentração anormal de cálcio nas raízes tuberosas pode ter sido um dos fatores que contribuíram para o menor crescimento desse órgão e da planta como um todo. Os transportes de nitrogênio, potássio, fósforo e enxofre da raiz para a parte aérea foram maiores sob tratamento com salinidade. A eficiência no uso de todos os nutrientes, principalmente N, foi reduzida devido à salinidade. Considerando que: (i) a absorção de K foi a mais prejudicada, (ii) houve acúmulo anormal de Ca nas raízes tuberosas e (iii) a eficiência no uso de N foi a mais afetada, sugere-se priorizar estudos sobre estas três questões, como forma de melhor entender os aspectos relacionados à tolerância/sensibilidade das plantas de mandioca à salinidade.(AU)

4.
Ci. Rural ; 38(3): 643-649, maio-jun. 2008. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-4411

Resumo

Plantas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) apresentam redução no acúmulo de matéria seca quando cultivadas com altos níveis de amônio na solução do solo. A razão para esse efeito do amônio ainda permanece pouco estudada. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido visando avaliar a influência do NO3- e do NH4+ sobre alguns aspectos relacionados à fotossíntese e à concentração de alguns compostos nitrogenados em plantas de mandioca. Para esse estudo, utilizou-se a variedade Cigana Preta, que foi cultivada em solução nutritiva, tendo areia grossa lavada como substrato. Os tratamentos consistiram de três proporções entre NO3-:NH4+, em mM (12:0, 6:6, e 0:12). Plantas cultivadas apenas com NO3- ou com NO3- + NH4+ não apresentaram diferenças na taxa fotosssintética. No entanto, observou-se redução desse evento quando o NH4+ foi a única fonte nitrogenada. O valor da condutância estomática obtido para as plantas cultivadas apenas com NO3- foi de 0,49mol m-2s-1, enquanto que para as plantas cultivadas apenas com NH4+, o valor foi de apenas 0,16mol m-2s-1 (três vezes menor). Não houve diferenças significativas na concentração foliar de amônio livre, sugerindo não ter ocorrido efeito tóxico direto do NH4+ sobre a fotossíntese. A concentração de proteínas foi maior para as plantas cultivadas apenas com NH4+. Os resultados sugerem que o menor acúmulo de matéria seca das plantas de mandioca cultivadas exclusivamente com NH4+ é decorrente, dentre outros fatores, do efeito desse íon sobre a atividade fotosssintética, em virtude, principalmente, de sua ação negativa sobre a condutância estomática.(AU)


Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants present reduction in dry matter accumulation when grown at high levels of ammonium in the soil solution. The reason for that still remains to be determined. The present research was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of nitrate and ammonium on aspects related to photosynthesis and the concentration of nitrogen compounds of cassava plants. Cultivar Cigana Preta plants were grown in nutritive solution with sand as substrate. Treatments consisted of three ratios of NO3-:NH4+, in mM (12:0, 6:6, e 0:12). Plants grown only on NO3- or NO3- + NH4+ did not show differences in photosynthetic rates, but reduction of them were observed for NH4+ as the only nitrogen source. Stomatal conductance of plants grown on nitrate was 0.49mol m-2s-1 and three times less for plants grown only on ammonium (0.16mol m-2s-1). There were no significant differences in leaf concentration of free ammonium among treatments, suggesting no direct toxic effect of ammonium on photosynthesis. Protein concentration was higher for plants grown only on ammonium. The results strongly suggest that the lower dry matter accumulation of cassava plants grown just on ammonium is due, among other factors, to its effect on photosynthetic activity, mainly because of its negative influence on stomatal conductance.(AU)


Assuntos
Manihot , Água/análise
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