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1.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-690373

Resumo

We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864), endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1504083

Resumo

We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864), endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-441365

Resumo

We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864), endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-690292

Resumo

The anurofauna inhabiting higher montane Atlantic forest areas in southeastern Brazil, which often attain heights of more than 2000 m, is still insufficiently known. In this study, we present data on anuran species composition and abundances in two high-altitude (i.e. > 1000 m) sites within the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Field surveys were done at altitudes between 1100 and 1900 m above sea level. We recorded 35 species during our study, adding 22 records to the set of anuran species previously known to occur within the PETP. The stability of the species accumulation curve, as well as the richness estimations, showed that the sampling methodology employed and the total sampling effort were appropriate to inventory the anuran assemblages of both sites. Direct-developing frogs such as Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) (at the 1100-1400 m altitude site), and Brachycephalus garbeanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (at the 1600-1900 m altitude site) were the most locally abundant species. None of the species recorded during the study is listed as threatened, though nine of them are currently considered endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, eight of the species recorded are likely restricted to high-altitude habitats. The relatively high diversity of anurans (some of them endemic to the state), the presence of species restricted to high-altitude habitats, and the occurrence of rare and presently undescribed species attest to the biological relevance of the studied areas within the PETP.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-690227

Resumo

The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm). In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%). Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5%) and Isoptera (21.5%). Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites) were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta) was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p 0.05). Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5%) and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%). Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1503927

Resumo

The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm). In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%). Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5%) and Isoptera (21.5%). Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites) were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta) was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p 0.05). Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5%) and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%). Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1503997

Resumo

The anurofauna inhabiting higher montane Atlantic forest areas in southeastern Brazil, which often attain heights of more than 2000 m, is still insufficiently known. In this study, we present data on anuran species composition and abundances in two high-altitude (i.e. > 1000 m) sites within the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Field surveys were done at altitudes between 1100 and 1900 m above sea level. We recorded 35 species during our study, adding 22 records to the set of anuran species previously known to occur within the PETP. The stability of the species accumulation curve, as well as the richness estimations, showed that the sampling methodology employed and the total sampling effort were appropriate to inventory the anuran assemblages of both sites. Direct-developing frogs such as Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) (at the 1100-1400 m altitude site), and Brachycephalus garbeanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (at the 1600-1900 m altitude site) were the most locally abundant species. None of the species recorded during the study is listed as threatened, though nine of them are currently considered endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, eight of the species recorded are likely restricted to high-altitude habitats. The relatively high diversity of anurans (some of them endemic to the state), the presence of species restricted to high-altitude habitats, and the occurrence of rare and presently undescribed species attest to the biological relevance of the studied areas within the PETP.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-441284

Resumo

The anurofauna inhabiting higher montane Atlantic forest areas in southeastern Brazil, which often attain heights of more than 2000 m, is still insufficiently known. In this study, we present data on anuran species composition and abundances in two high-altitude (i.e. > 1000 m) sites within the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Field surveys were done at altitudes between 1100 and 1900 m above sea level. We recorded 35 species during our study, adding 22 records to the set of anuran species previously known to occur within the PETP. The stability of the species accumulation curve, as well as the richness estimations, showed that the sampling methodology employed and the total sampling effort were appropriate to inventory the anuran assemblages of both sites. Direct-developing frogs such as Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) (at the 1100-1400 m altitude site), and Brachycephalus garbeanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (at the 1600-1900 m altitude site) were the most locally abundant species. None of the species recorded during the study is listed as threatened, though nine of them are currently considered endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, eight of the species recorded are likely restricted to high-altitude habitats. The relatively high diversity of anurans (some of them endemic to the state), the presence of species restricted to high-altitude habitats, and the occurrence of rare and presently undescribed species attest to the biological relevance of the studied areas within the PETP.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-441219

Resumo

The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm). In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%). Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5%) and Isoptera (21.5%). Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites) were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta) was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p 0.05). Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5%) and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%). Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-690039

Resumo

Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-690023

Resumo

We studied the ecology of ticks found in different species of a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, an area of Atlantic Rainforest located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Snakes were sampled monthly in the field during a period of 48 months. The specific identity of the hosts and their parasites, the number of parasites, and and snout-vent length and body mass of each host were recorded. A total of 25% of the species of snakes in the area were parasitized by ticks (larvae, nymphs and adult females) Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 was the predominant parasite species. The infestation parameters varied among the species of snakes sampled, with the highest prevalence of A. rotundatum being observed in the viperid Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824) (71.4%), followed by the colubrids Xenodon neuwiedii Günther, 1820 (33%), Chironius laevicollis (Wied, 1824) and Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (both with 22%). The latter three species also showed the highest rates of infestation by A. rotundatum. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of skin shedding, habitat of the host, type of scale and pattern of scale distribution on the body of the host can influence the degree to which a given species is parasitized by ticks

12.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1503734

Resumo

We studied the ecology of ticks found in different species of a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, an area of Atlantic Rainforest located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Snakes were sampled monthly in the field during a period of 48 months. The specific identity of the hosts and their parasites, the number of parasites, and and snout-vent length and body mass of each host were recorded. A total of 25% of the species of snakes in the area were parasitized by ticks (larvae, nymphs and adult females) Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 was the predominant parasite species. The infestation parameters varied among the species of snakes sampled, with the highest prevalence of A. rotundatum being observed in the viperid Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824) (71.4%), followed by the colubrids Xenodon neuwiedii Günther, 1820 (33%), Chironius laevicollis (Wied, 1824) and Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (both with 22%). The latter three species also showed the highest rates of infestation by A. rotundatum. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of skin shedding, habitat of the host, type of scale and pattern of scale distribution on the body of the host can influence the degree to which a given species is parasitized by ticks

13.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1503750

Resumo

Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-441031

Resumo

Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-441015

Resumo

We studied the ecology of ticks found in different species of a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, an area of Atlantic Rainforest located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Snakes were sampled monthly in the field during a period of 48 months. The specific identity of the hosts and their parasites, the number of parasites, and and snout-vent length and body mass of each host were recorded. A total of 25% of the species of snakes in the area were parasitized by ticks (larvae, nymphs and adult females) Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 was the predominant parasite species. The infestation parameters varied among the species of snakes sampled, with the highest prevalence of A. rotundatum being observed in the viperid Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824) (71.4%), followed by the colubrids Xenodon neuwiedii Günther, 1820 (33%), Chironius laevicollis (Wied, 1824) and Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (both with 22%). The latter three species also showed the highest rates of infestation by A. rotundatum. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of skin shedding, habitat of the host, type of scale and pattern of scale distribution on the body of the host can influence the degree to which a given species is parasitized by ticks

16.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1503706

Resumo

Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), being the most abundant. The estimated density of the local leaf litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 17.1 ind/100 m² and the estimated overall leaf litter frog mass was 684.2 g/ha. The estimated density of leaf litter frogs at the present study is the highest currently reported for Atlantic Rainforest areas, which reinforces the idea of higher densities of leaf litter frogs in the Neotropical Region compared to the Old World tropics.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-440988

Resumo

Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), being the most abundant. The estimated density of the local leaf litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 17.1 ind/100 m² and the estimated overall leaf litter frog mass was 684.2 g/ha. The estimated density of leaf litter frogs at the present study is the highest currently reported for Atlantic Rainforest areas, which reinforces the idea of higher densities of leaf litter frogs in the Neotropical Region compared to the Old World tropics.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-437513

Resumo

We analyzed the diet and microhabitat use for two Hylodinae anurans (Cycloramphidae), Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 and Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, living in sympatry at an Atlantic Rainforest area of Ilha Grande, in southeastern Brazil. The two species live syntopically at some rocky streams. The two species differed strongly in microhabitat use. Hylodes phyllodes occurred mainly on rocks, whereas C. gaudichaudii was observed mostly on the water. Regarding diet, coleopterans, hymenopterans (ants), and larvae were the most important prey item consumed by both species. Data suggest that microhabitat use appears to be an important parameter differentiating these frogs with respect to general resource utilization.


Nós analisamos a dieta e o uso do microhabitat em duas espécies de anuros da subfamília Hylodinae (Cycloramphidae), Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 e Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, que vivem em simpatria em uma área de Mata Atlântica na Ilha Grande, na região sudeste do Brasil. As duas espécies vivem sintopicamente em alguns riachos pedregosos. As duas espécies diferiram fortemente no uso do microhabitat. Hylodes phyllodes ocorreu principalmente sobre pedras, enquanto C. gaudichaudii foi observado na maioria das vezes dentro d'água. Com relação à dieta, coleópteros, himenópteros (formigas), e larvas foram as presas mais consumidas por ambas as espécies. Os dados sugerem que o uso do microhabitat parece ser um importante parâmetro diferenciando esses anuros com respeito a utilização de recursos.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1483898

Resumo

We analyzed the diet and microhabitat use for two Hylodinae anurans (Cycloramphidae), Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 and Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, living in sympatry at an Atlantic Rainforest area of Ilha Grande, in southeastern Brazil. The two species live syntopically at some rocky streams. The two species differed strongly in microhabitat use. Hylodes phyllodes occurred mainly on rocks, whereas C. gaudichaudii was observed mostly on the water. Regarding diet, coleopterans, hymenopterans (ants), and larvae were the most important prey item consumed by both species. Data suggest that microhabitat use appears to be an important parameter differentiating these frogs with respect to general resource utilization.


Nós analisamos a dieta e o uso do microhabitat em duas espécies de anuros da subfamília Hylodinae (Cycloramphidae), Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 e Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, que vivem em simpatria em uma área de Mata Atlântica na Ilha Grande, na região sudeste do Brasil. As duas espécies vivem sintopicamente em alguns riachos pedregosos. As duas espécies diferiram fortemente no uso do microhabitat. Hylodes phyllodes ocorreu principalmente sobre pedras, enquanto C. gaudichaudii foi observado na maioria das vezes dentro d'água. Com relação à dieta, coleópteros, himenópteros (formigas), e larvas foram as presas mais consumidas por ambas as espécies. Os dados sugerem que o uso do microhabitat parece ser um importante parâmetro diferenciando esses anuros com respeito a utilização de recursos.

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