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Sci. agric ; 79(4): e20200235, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1290211


Hydrogels have potential as soil conditioners due to their high capacity to retain water and mitigate soil salinity. However, investigations under saline conditions are necessary because there are losses in both water absorption and salinity mitigation depending on the composition of hydrogel and ions involved in salinity. In this work, we studied a commercial hydrogel in two experiments. The first experiment was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the absorption by the hydrogel of water with electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 dS m-1, promoted by NaCl. The second experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme (with and without hydrogel × EC of the first experiment). Although salinity reduced water absorption by hydrogel by 84 %, the polymer applied in a sandy soil under saline conditions reduced water losses by 58 %. However, hydrogel did not increase the final soil moisture (~ 0.10 g g-1). The polymer reduced Na+ concentration in leachate from 1,499 to 1,219 mg L-1 at the highest salinity level (4.5 dS m-1), but it increased Na+ soil availability by 0.1 mg kg-1 in comparison with polymer absence. Hydrogel application increased Na+ content in plants from 9 to 13 mg kg-1 at the highest salinity, while K+ content was 10 to 16 mg kg-1 lower than that observed without a polymer. Hydrogel 0.07 % (w/w) reduced maize biomass, indicating damage by monovalent ions, compromising the polymer potential under salinity.

Água , Solos Salitrosos/análise , Hidrogéis/análise , Salinidade , Acrilatos , Acrilamida/análise
Ci. Rural ; 50(6): e20190176, May 11, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28381


Dairy desserts containing Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed galactomannan were evaluated to determine their static and dynamic rheological behaviors. Variations in consistency index (k), flow behavior (n), yield stress and thixotropy of the desserts indicated that the galactomannan caused an increase in the shear stress and apparent viscosity of the system. All samples exhibited shear-thinning behavior with flow behavior index values (n) between 0.06 and 0.37. Dynamic rheological behavior was evaluated for MD (high solid levels) and MD/2 (half the amount of solids) groups, and both G and G moduli were depended on the frequency. The MD and MD/2 groups showed variations in the elastic modulus (G) throughout the temperature range (mainly at 50 °C), showing greater sensitivity at high temperatures. C. pulcherrima galactomannan was able to promote synergism with starch, milk protein and sucrose and to improve the development of stronger and more resistant gels.(AU)

Sobremesas lácteas contendo galactomanana de semente de Caesalpinia pulcherrima tiveram suas propriedades reológicas estáticas e dinâmicas avaliadas. As variações nos índices de consistência (K) e comportamento de fluxo (n), assim como na tensão inicial de fluxo e na tixotropia das sobremesas mostraram o efeito da galactomanana sobre a tensão de cisalhamento e viscosidade aparente dos sistemas lácteos. Todas as sobremesas exibiram comportamento pseudoplástico, com índices de comportamento de fluxo (n) variando entre 0,06 e 0,37. A reologia dinâmica dos grupos MD (alto teor de sólidos) e MD/2 (metade do teor de sólidos), mostrou G > G e módulos dependentes da frequência e da temperatura. Alterações químicas nos componentes das sobremesas foram observadas a 50° C em virtude da maior sensibilidade dos valores de G e G a partir dessa temperatura. A galactomanana de C. pulcherrima contribuiu para o desenvolvimento de géis mais fortes e resistentes nas sobremesas lácteas, bem como mostrou sinergismo com amido, proteína do leite e sacarose.(AU)

Caesalpinia , Reologia , Laticínios