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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(2): e20210837, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384562

Resumo

ABSTRACT: Soft tissue mineralization and epithelial ulceration are common findings in dogs with uremia, being commonly reported in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and pleura. This report described a case of nasal mucosal mineralization and ulceration contributing to recurrent epistaxis in a dog with chronic renal failure and uremia. A dog with recurrent epistaxis accompanied by elevated urea and creatinine was hospitalized. Platelet count and coagulation tests were within normal limits. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed, and the dog was euthanized. On necropsy, the kidneys were small, with an irregular capsular surface. The nasal conchae were slightly reddish. Histopathology revealed chronic glomerulonephritis, with gastric mineralization and bilateral parathyroid hyperplasia. Vascular and basal lamina mineralization, epithelial ulceration and hemorrhage were seen in the nasal conchae. The observed findings indicated that nasal mineralization and ulceration were caused by uremia. The severity of histopathological findings suggested that nasal mineralization/ulceration may have caused or at least contributed to epistaxis in this dog. We hope to stimulate further investigations into possible association between uremia, nasal mucosa mineralization/ulceration and epistaxis in dogs.


RESUMO: Mineralização dos tecidos moles e ulceração epitelial são achados comuns em cães com uremia, sendo geralmente observados no trato gastrointestinal, pulmões e pleura. O objetivo desse relato é reportar um caso de mineralização e ulceração da mucosa nasal contribuindo para epistaxe recorrente em um cão com insuficiência renal crônica e uremia. Um cão com epistaxe recorrente e aumento da ureia e creatinina foi hospitalizado. A contagem plaquetária e os testes de coagulação não tinham alterações. Foi diagnosticado insuficiência renal crônica, e o cão foi submetido a eutanásia. Na necropsia, o cão tinha os rins diminuídos, com superfície irregular. As conchas nasais estavam levemente avermelhadas. Histologicamente, foi diagnosticada uma glomerulonefrite crônica com mineralização gástrica e hiperplasia das paratireoides. As conchas nasais tinham mineralização da parede de vasos e membrana basal, úlceras e hemorragia. Os achados histopatológicos indicam que a mineralização e ulceração nasal foram causadas pela uremia. A severidade das lesões histológicas sugere que a mineralização/ulceração nasal pode ter causado, ou pelo menos contribuído, para a epistaxe deste cão. Espera-se, com esse relato, estimular futuros estudos que investiguem uma possível associação entre uremia, mineralização/ulceração nasal e epistaxe em cães.

2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(2): e20210837, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1412054

Resumo

Soft tissue mineralization and epithelial ulceration are common findings in dogs with uremia, being commonly reported in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and pleura. This report described a case of nasal mucosal mineralization and ulceration contributing to recurrent epistaxis in a dog with chronic renal failure and uremia. A dog with recurrent epistaxis accompanied by elevated urea and creatinine was hospitalized. Platelet count and coagulation tests were within normal limits. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed, and the dog was euthanized. On necropsy, the kidneys were small, with an irregular capsular surface. The nasal conchae were slightly reddish. Histopathology revealed chronic glomerulonephritis, with gastric mineralization and bilateral parathyroid hyperplasia. Vascular and basal lamina mineralization, epithelial ulceration and hemorrhage were seen in the nasal conchae. The observed findings indicated that nasal mineralization and ulceration were caused by uremia. The severity of histopathological findings suggested that nasal mineralization/ulceration may have caused or at least contributed to epistaxis in this dog. We hope to stimulate further investigations into possible association between uremia, nasal mucosa mineralization/ulceration and epistaxis in dogs.


Mineralização dos tecidos moles e ulceração epitelial são achados comuns em cães com uremia, sendo geralmente observados no trato gastrointestinal, pulmões e pleura. O objetivo desse relato é reportar um caso de mineralização e ulceração da mucosa nasal contribuindo para epistaxe recorrente em um cão com insuficiência renal crônica e uremia. Um cão com epistaxe recorrente e aumento da ureia e creatinina foi hospitalizado. A contagem plaquetária e os testes de coagulação não tinham alterações. Foi diagnosticado insuficiência renal crônica, e o cão foi submetido a eutanásia. Na necropsia, o cão tinha os rins diminuídos, com superfície irregular. As conchas nasais estavam levemente avermelhadas. Histologicamente, foi diagnosticada uma glomerulonefrite crônica com mineralização gástrica e hiperplasia das paratireoides. As conchas nasais tinham mineralização da parede de vasos e membrana basal, úlceras e hemorragia. Os achados histopatológicos indicam que a mineralização e ulceração nasal foram causadas pela uremia. A severidade das lesões histológicas sugere que a mineralização/ulceração nasal pode ter causado, ou pelo menos contribuído, para a epistaxe deste cão. Espera-se, com esse relato, estimular futuros estudos que investiguem uma possível associação entre uremia, mineralização/ulceração nasal e epistaxe em cães.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Uremia/veterinária , Epistaxe/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(9): e20210441, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360352

Resumo

Klossiella equi is an unusual protozoan of equids. In most cases, it does not cause renal injury. A case of K. equi-associated granulomatous nephritis leading to uremia in a brazilian mare is described. The animal presented colic, and among the complementary exams, increased urea and creatinine was observed. The kidneys were unremarkable on gross exam; however, a multifocal granulomatous nephritis with tubular degeneration associated with intraepithelial and intraluminal protozoa was observed histologically. The large intestines were edematous and hemorrhagic. The importance of including K. equi infection among the differential diagnosis of horses with kidney disease in southern Brazil is highlighted.


Klossiella equi é um protozoário incomum de rim de equídeos, geralmente considerado de pouca importância clínica. Descreve-se um caso de klosselliose associada a lesão renal e uremia em uma égua. O animal foi atendido com quadro de cólica, e dentre os exames, foi constatado aumento de ureia e creatinina. Na necropsia, os rins não apresentavam lesões macroscópicas, no entanto, na histopatologia, observou-se nefrite granulomatosa com degeneração tubular associada a protozoários intraepiteliais e intraluminais. A parede do intestino grosso estava edemaciada e hemorrágica. Se destaca a importância da inclusão de infecção por K. equi nos diagnósticos diferenciais de equinos com doença renal no sul do Brasil.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Protozoários/diagnóstico , Equidae/urina , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Nefrite/veterinária
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 834, 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401701

Resumo

Background: Spinal epidural empyema (SEE) is a rare disease in cats that has been described as a cause of severe compressive myelopathy. It is characterized by accumulation of purulent exudate in the form of an abscess in the epidural space. Neurological signs range from spinal hyperesthesia to rapidly progressive paraplegia and may be associated with systemic signs. Spinal lymphoma is the most common neoplasm affecting the central nervous system of cats and can mimic different neoplasms and non-neoplastic diseases, such as SEE. The aim of this study is to report a case of SEE in a cat and highlight the similarities in neurological, laboratory, and imaging findings between this disease and spinal lymphoma. Case: A 8-month-old male neutered mixed-breed cat was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (HVU) of the UFSM with acute, non-progressive paraplegia. On neurological examination, the patient was paraplegic with no nociception, normal spinal reflexes, increased muscle tone in the pelvic limbs, absence of cutaneous trunci reflex, and spinal hyperesthesia between T13-L1, demonstrating injury in the T3-L3 spinal cord segment. The differential diagnoses included acute spinal cord trauma, neoplasm (lymphoma), and infectious diseases. Hemogram showed lymphocytosis (8062/µL); the biochemical examinations were unremarkable. Tests for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens were negative. Simple radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and cerebrospinal fluid findings were also normal. Myelography showed left dorsolateral extradural spinal cord compression from T12 to L1. Based on these findings, the presumptive diagnosis was spinal lymphoma and chemotherapy was initiated. After 2 days, the animal began to show hyporexia, adipsia, vomiting, and diarrhea, in addition to an increase in subcutaneous volume in the thoracolumbar region. Antibiotic therapy was initiated; however, the patient died. Necropsy revealed an abscess in the left dorsolateral extradural space at T12-T13 and T13-L1. Bacterial cultures revealed the presence of Neisseria spp. that was resistant to various antibiotics. On the basis of these findings, the animal was diagnosed with SEE. Discussion: This case report aims to inform veterinarians about the diagnosis of SEE. SEE is a rare condition in cats compared to spinal lymphoma; however, their presentation is similar. Even in imaging examinations, such as magnetic resonance imaging, it is not possible to differentiate between these 2 conditions. The evolution of clinical signs made the diagnosis of the present case difficult since it was acute and not progressive. All cases of SEE reported in the literature were progressive, acute, or chronic. Although testing for FeLV was negative, only 56% of cats with spinal lymphoma test positive for this virus. Clinical signs reported by the owner after the start of chemotherapy may be related to adverse effects, such as immunosuppression, which led to worsening of the condition, culminating in the appearance of a subcutaneous abscess. Subsequently, SEE was suspected; however, surgical decompression was not performed as the animal died soon after. The authors of this report reinforce the need for a definitive and non-presumptive diagnosis of spinal lymphoma to initiate chemotherapy because it mimics different neoplasms and non-neoplastic diseases, such as SEE. Surgical removal of the compressive mass in the spinal cord and histopathological analyses are necessary.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Gatos , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Empiema/veterinária , Espaço Epidural/patologia
5.
Ci. Rural ; 51(7)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31181

Resumo

A domestic cat was submitted to necropsy with a small abscess within the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscles dorsal to the left ear. It contained multiple 0.8 to 1.2 cm-long adult nematodes and was drained by two cutaneous fistulae. On histopathology, multiple cavitary areas within the skeletal muscles and subcutaneous tissue contained adult nematodes and were surrounded by thick fibrotic and chronic-active inflammatory reaction. The parasites were externally lined by a smooth cuticle and had two prominent lateral alae. They contained an intestinal tract and a pseudocoelom. A prominent polymyarian-coelomyarian musculature and two large lateral chords were identified, and some sections contained a uterus with multiple non-operculated eggs. Lagochilascariasis should be considered a differential diagnosis for cervical skin abscesses in domestic cats from Southern Brazil. This article brings important contributions to the clinical and anatomopathologic diagnosis of this rare zoonotic disease.(AU)


Um gato doméstico foi submetido à necropsia com um pequeno abscesso no tecido subcutâneo e musculatura esquelética dorsal ao ouvido esquerdo. Continha vários nematódeos adultos de 0,8 a 1,2 cm de comprimento e foi drenado por duas fístulas cutâneas. Na histopatologia, múltiplas áreas cavitárias coalescentes dentro dos músculos esqueléticos e tecido subcutâneo continham nematódeos adultos e eram circundadas por espessa reação inflamatória fibrótica e crônica ativa. Os parasitas eram revestidos externamente por uma cutícula lisa e tinham duas asas laterais proeminentes. Eles continham um trato intestinal e um pseudoceloma. Uma musculatura polimiariana proeminente e duas grandes cordas laterais foram identificadas, e algumas seções continham um útero com múltiplos óvulos não operculados. A lagoquilascaríase deve ser considerada um diagnóstico diferencial para abscessos cutâneos cervicais em gatos domésticos do Sul do Brasil. Esse artigo traz importantes contribuições para o diagnóstico clínico e anatomopatológico dessa rara doença zoonótica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Gatos/patologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nematoides/parasitologia
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 666, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1362844

Resumo

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common malignant skin tumors in domestic animals. Histologically, they are characterized by a proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes with varied keratin production. Some SCCs have peculiar histological characteristics that permit them to be classified into uncommon to rare histological subtypes, reported in animals and humans. However, according to the authors' knowledge, the mucin-producing subtype described in humans has not yet been reported in animals. In this study, we report the occurrence of two mucin-producing SCCs in dogs, a histological presentation similar to that seen in cutaneous SCCs with mucinous metaplasia in humans. Cases: Two dogs, a 5-year-old Yorkshire female and a 17-year-old Dachshund male, had a skin nodule near the tail and on the right eyelid. The nodules varied from 1 to 5 cm in diameter, were firm and covered with skin and hair. The cut surface was firm and white. Histological findings were compatible with squamous cell carcinoma, characterized by a neoplastic proliferation of keratinocytes originating in the epidermis and infiltrating the dermis. The keratinocytes were arranged in islands and occasional anastomosed cords, supported by a fibrous stroma. The formation of pearls varied from moderate to sparse. The nuclear and cellular pleomorphism was accentuated in case two and moderate in case one. Mitosis figures ranged from two to five in a high magnification field. Within the neoplasm, there were large vacuolated neoplastic cells with slightly fibrillar intracytoplasmic basophilic content. This content has been rarely observed in an extracellular medium. The presence of mucin was confirmed by positive Alcian Blue (AB) staining. In immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumor cells showed strong immunostaining for pancitokeratin, and in areas with marked mucin deposition, immunostaining was predominantly moderate to weak. No tumor cells were immunostained for CD34 and Bcl-2 antibodies. Compared to AB and Harris' hematoxylin, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of mucin in the cytoplasm of neoplastic keratinocytes using IHC. No vascular or lymphatic invasion by neoplastic cells was observed. The average cell proliferation index assessed by counting the nucleolar argyrophilic organizing regions (AgNOR) was 3.4 in case 1 and 4.5 in case 2. Discussion: Although the SCC routinely does not present a diagnostic challenge in veterinary practice, the histological presentation of the reported cases does not fit the current classification available in veterinary medicine. The histological presentation observed in these two dogs is similar to that described for cutaneous SCCs with mucinous metaplasia in humans, and so far not described in animals. The observation of intracytoplasmic mucin in humans is an essential finding for the diagnosis of SCC with mucin metaplasia. In the present cases, we observed a slightly basophilic amorphous substance in the cytoplasm of proliferated neoplastic keratinocytes, which stained strongly in blue when applied the Alcian Blue (AB) histochemical technique. This observation became more evident when using IHC counterstained with AB and Harris hematoxylin. In the histological analysis, the absence of an adenoid growth pattern or glandular formation amid neoplastic proliferation ruled out the possibility of a mucinous adenocarcinoma or a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In addition, we could rule out a follicular neoplasia, including keratinizing infundibular acanthoma due to the absence of a central pore and the absence of immunostaining for CD34 and Bcl-2. These immunohistochemical findings, together with histological findings, reinforce the diagnosis of SCC with mucinous metaplasia in our dogs.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Cães , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária
7.
R. bras. Parasitol. Vet. ; 30(3): e003621, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31556

Resumo

The macroscopic, histological, and molecular aspects of Sarcocystis spp. were examined in the tissues of two cattle and four sheep, 16 and eight fragments analyzed respectively, condemned in the slaughterhouse. All 24 samples were collected and analyzed for detecting macrocysts and macroscopic lesions. Subsequently, subdivided for direct examination, polymerase chain reaction and histopathological examination. All sheep tissues samples had grossly white round to oval tissue cysts, ranging from 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter. In contrast, cattle tissues did not present grossly visible cysts but had randomly distributed white-yellow foci with irregular contours. All samples from cattle and sheep had microscopic cysts. In the histological examination of sheep tissues, circular to elongated, encapsulated, basophilic structures ranging from 30 to 3,000 µm in length and 20 to 1,000 µm in width were observed within the skeletal muscle fibers. In cattle tissues, all cardiac muscle four fragments analyzed contained circular to elongated basophilic structures inside cardiomyocytes and in some Purkinje fibers. PCR were performed using the primers: 2L and 3H. In conclusion, all 24 tissues were infected with Sarcocystis spp., and S. gigantea (in sheep) and S. cruzi (in cattle). were the identified species by sequencing.(AU)


Os aspectos macroscópicos, histológicos e moleculares de Sarcocystis spp. foram examinados nos tecidos de dois bovinos e quatro ovinos, 16 e oito fragmentos analisados, respectivamente, condenados no matadouro. Todas as 24 amostras foram coletadas e analisadas para detecção de macrocistos e lesões macroscópicas. Posteriormente, subdivididas para exame direto, reação em cadeia da polimerase e exame histopatológico. Todas as amostras de tecidos de ovelha apresentavam cistos grosseiramente visíveis, caracterizados como brancos, de redondos a ovais e estruturas variando de 0,3 a 1 cm de diâmetro. Em contraste, os tecidos de bovinos não apresentavam cistos grosseiramente visíveis, mas tinham focos branco-amarelos com contornos irregulares, distribuídos aleatoriamente. Todas as amostras de bovinos e ovinos apresentavam cistos microscópicos. No exame histológico de tecidos ovinos foram observadas estruturas basofílicas circulares a alongadas, encapsuladas, variando de 30 a 3.000 µm de comprimento e 20 a 1.000 µm de largura dentro das fibras do músculo esquelético. Nos tecidos de bovinos, todos os quatro fragmentos de músculo cardíaco analisados continham estruturas basofílicas circulares a alongadas, dentro dos cardiomiócitos e em algumas fibras de Purkinje. PCRs foram realizadas utilizando-se os "primers" 2L e 3H. Em conclusão, todos os 24 tecidos estavam infectados com Sarcocystis spp., sendo S. gigantea (em ovinos) e S. cruzi (em bovinos) as espécies identificadas por sequenciamento.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Sarcocystis/genética , Técnicas Histológicas , Biologia Molecular , Cistos/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
8.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48(suppl.1): Pub.570-4 jan. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458397

Resumo

Background: Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum, with higher occurrence in wetlands and hot climate regions. This microorganism develops its cycle in aquatic plants, and most cases happen because of the contact of animals or people with water containing the motile zoospores (infectious form). Horses are the principal species affected and develop principally cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, but the gastrointestinal tract is seldom affected. Humans develop various forms of pythiosis, such as a vascular form. The objectives of the current study are to describe an unusual case of intestinal pythiosis, its clinical signs, aspects of pathogenesis, and diagnosis. Case: A 13-year-old Crioula mare, from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, presented with reduced food and water intake, apathy, restlessness, rolling, nasal reflux, firm abdomen upon palpation, and tachypnea during 2 days. The horses of this farm were fed native pasture and horse feed, and they had access to a nearby pond. Two days following the start of the clinical signs, the horse died and was necropsied on the farm. During necropsy, there was around 400 mL of reddish effusion in the abdominal cavity (modified transudate). A 15 cm segment of jejunum was firm upon palpation and had a severe transmural thickening. The wall of the affected area was up to 3 cm in thickness and firm, with small yellowish and irregular masses that stood out and looked friable, interpreted as kunkers. Microscopically, the yellowish masses (kunkers) were characterized by dense accumulations of intact and degenerate eosinophils (eosinophilic necrosis). Within these kunkers, and also on their periphery, there were multiple negatively stained hyphal profiles. Hyphae were also seen on the wall of small arteries inside the kunkers. These hyphae had nearly parallel walls and were occasionally...


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Cavalos , Enterite/veterinária , Oomicetos , Pitiose/patologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Hifas , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária
9.
Ci. Rural ; 50(4): e20190719, Apr. 6, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25956

Resumo

The aim of this report was to describe a case of aortic thrombosis (AT) secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although, different types of neoplasms are described as possible causes of aortic thrombosis, CLL was not yet considered. The dog showed signs of lameness that worsened with exercise. The diagnosis of AT was made by ultrasound examination. The diagnosis of CLL was made by necropsy, which showed the presence of small lymphocytes with the appearance of mature lymphocytes in the bone marrow, spleen, liver and kidneys. The importance of including CLL in the possible causes of AT in dogs, in addition to the suspicion of AT in cases of neuromuscular disease, was highlighted.(AU)


O objetivo do presente relato é descrever um caso de trombose aórtica (AT) secundária a leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC). Embora diferentes tipos de neoplasmas sejam descritos como possíveis causas de trombose aórtica, a LLC ainda não foi considerada. O cão mostrou sinais de claudicação que pioravam com o exercício. O diagnóstico de AT foi realizado por exame ultrassonográfico. O diagnóstico de LLC foi feito por necropsia, que mostrou a presença de pequenos linfócitos com aparência de linfócitos maduros na medula óssea, baço, fígado e rins. Destaca-se a importância da inclusão da LLC nas possíveis causas de AT em cães, além da suspeita de AT em casos de doença neuromuscular.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Trombose/veterinária , Aorta , Leucemia Linfoide/complicações , Leucemia Linfoide/veterinária
10.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 48(suppl.1): Pub. 570, Nov. 29, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31859

Resumo

Background: Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum, with higher occurrence in wetlands and hot climate regions. This microorganism develops its cycle in aquatic plants, and most cases happen because of the contact of animals or people with water containing the motile zoospores (infectious form). Horses are the principal species affected and develop principally cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, but the gastrointestinal tract is seldom affected. Humans develop various forms of pythiosis, such as a vascular form. The objectives of the current study are to describe an unusual case of intestinal pythiosis, its clinical signs, aspects of pathogenesis, and diagnosis. Case: A 13-year-old Crioula mare, from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, presented with reduced food and water intake, apathy, restlessness, rolling, nasal reflux, firm abdomen upon palpation, and tachypnea during 2 days. The horses of this farm were fed native pasture and horse feed, and they had access to a nearby pond. Two days following the start of the clinical signs, the horse died and was necropsied on the farm. During necropsy, there was around 400 mL of reddish effusion in the abdominal cavity (modified transudate). A 15 cm segment of jejunum was firm upon palpation and had a severe transmural thickening. The wall of the affected area was up to 3 cm in thickness and firm, with small yellowish and irregular masses that stood out and looked friable, interpreted as kunkers. Microscopically, the yellowish masses (kunkers) were characterized by dense accumulations of intact and degenerate eosinophils (eosinophilic necrosis). Within these kunkers, and also on their periphery, there were multiple negatively stained hyphal profiles. Hyphae were also seen on the wall of small arteries inside the kunkers. These hyphae had nearly parallel walls and were occasionally...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Enterite/veterinária , Pitiose/patologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Cavalos , Oomicetos , Hifas , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária
11.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 47(suppl.1): Pub.353-2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458117

Resumo

Background: Diaphragmatic eventration is characterized by weakness of the diaphragmatic muscle, which leads to cranialdislocation of the affected diaphragm and, ultimately, in dyspnea. This condition is rare in humans and even rarer in animals,and may be congenital or acquired. The acquired form is less commom and may be induced by trauma or inflammationand neoplastic invasion of the phrenic nerve. Here, we report a case of acquired diaphragmatic eventration in a dog, withthe aim of increasing the knowledge of this condition in animals and helping others to recognize and treat future cases.Case: A 12-year-old male dachshund presented with severe dyspnea, exercise intolerance and episodes of coughing. Basedon a physical examination and imaging, the main suspicion was a diaphragmatic hernia, and surgery was performed. Whenthe surgeon entered the thoracic cavity, an extremely thin - yet, intact - right hemidiaphragm was observed. The left sideof the diaphragm was normal. A polypropylene mesh was sutured to the affected diaphragm in an attempt to strengthenthe hemidiaphragmatic muscles and prevent further insinuations of viscera into the thoracic cavity. The dog developedbronchopneumonia, postoperatively, and was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics, analgesics and support medication.However, the dog died five days after surgery. A postmortem examination revealed that the right side of the diaphragmwas markedly thin and flaccid. Diaphragm samples were collected for histopathological examination. For comparison, asample of normal diaphragm was collected from a same age, matched dachshund that died due to an unrelated condition.This tissue was called “diaphragm control”, and it was collected in order to compare the histologic features of a normaldiaphragm muscle with the affected one. Histopathology revealed a marked reduction of muscle fibers...


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Cães , Apatia , Diafragma/patologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/veterinária , Eventração Diafragmática/veterinária , Atrofia Muscular/veterinária
12.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 47(suppl.1): Pub. 353, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-738852

Resumo

Background: Diaphragmatic eventration is characterized by weakness of the diaphragmatic muscle, which leads to cranialdislocation of the affected diaphragm and, ultimately, in dyspnea. This condition is rare in humans and even rarer in animals,and may be congenital or acquired. The acquired form is less commom and may be induced by trauma or inflammationand neoplastic invasion of the phrenic nerve. Here, we report a case of acquired diaphragmatic eventration in a dog, withthe aim of increasing the knowledge of this condition in animals and helping others to recognize and treat future cases.Case: A 12-year-old male dachshund presented with severe dyspnea, exercise intolerance and episodes of coughing. Basedon a physical examination and imaging, the main suspicion was a diaphragmatic hernia, and surgery was performed. Whenthe surgeon entered the thoracic cavity, an extremely thin - yet, intact - right hemidiaphragm was observed. The left sideof the diaphragm was normal. A polypropylene mesh was sutured to the affected diaphragm in an attempt to strengthenthe hemidiaphragmatic muscles and prevent further insinuations of viscera into the thoracic cavity. The dog developedbronchopneumonia, postoperatively, and was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics, analgesics and support medication.However, the dog died five days after surgery. A postmortem examination revealed that the right side of the diaphragmwas markedly thin and flaccid. Diaphragm samples were collected for histopathological examination. For comparison, asample of normal diaphragm was collected from a same age, matched dachshund that died due to an unrelated condition.This tissue was called “diaphragm control”, and it was collected in order to compare the histologic features of a normaldiaphragm muscle with the affected one. Histopathology revealed a marked reduction of muscle fibers...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Eventração Diafragmática/veterinária , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/veterinária , Apatia , Diafragma/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/veterinária
13.
Ci. Rural ; 49(7): e20180970, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-22686

Resumo

A 14-year-old female Dachshund was referred to a veterinary hospital with a history and signalment of head pressing, compulsive walking, and right circling. At ophthalmologic examination, a mature cataract and absence of photomotor reflex in the right eye were observed. The neurological exam revealed multifocal encephalic signs. At necropsy, a conical solid tan mass was observed involving the right optic nerve throughout its extension to the optic chiasm. Histopathological findings confirmed a retrobulbar papillary meningioma, considered rare and seldom included as differential diagnosis in patients with neurological signs.(AU)


Uma fêmea Dachshund de 14 anos de idade foi encaminhada para um hospital veterinário universitário com histórico e manifestação de head pressing, andar compulsivo e em círculos para o lado direito. No exame oftalmológico foi diagnosticado catarata matura bilateral e ausência de reflexo fotomotor pupilar no olho direito. O exame neurológico revelou sinais encefálicos multifocais. Na necropsia, uma massa sólida cônica, branco-amarelada, foi observada envolvendo o nervo óptico em toda a sua extensão até o quiasma óptico. O exame histopatológico confirmou diagnóstico de meningioma papilar retrobulbar, considerado raro e pouco incluído no diagnóstico diferencial de pacientes com sinais neurológicos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Meningioma/veterinária , Neoplasias Oculares/veterinária , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades
14.
Ci. Rural ; 48(2): e20170436, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-18722

Resumo

This report described clinical, epidemiological, and pathological aspects of ischemic myelopathy caused by fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) in a 10-year-old, mixed breed gelding. Clinically, the horse presented acute hind limbs paralysis, with a clinical course of approximately 24 hours. At necropsy, no gross lesions were observed. Cross-sections of the spinal cord revealed focally extensive areas of malacia from the T10 to L4 segments. Focally extensive areas of liquefactive necrosis involving the gray matter and adjacent white matter were observed on histologic sections. The lumen of multiple blood vessels in the periphery of the necrotic areas was occluded by fibrocartilaginous emboli that strongly stained with alcian blue. Clinical signs, gross necropsy, and histological findings observed in this case were identical to those described in the literature for ischemic myelopathy caused by FCE in the horse and other species.(AU)


Este relato descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um caso de mielopatia isquêmica por embolismo fibrocartilaginoso (FCE) em um equino, macho castrado, sem raça definida, com 10 anos de idade. Clinicamente, o equino apresentou paralisia aguda dos membros pélvicos com evolução de aproximadamente 24 horas. Na necropsia não foram observadas alterações. Após serem realizados vários cortes transversais na medula espinhal, observou-se área focalmente extensa de malacia entre o segmento T10 até L4. Histologicamente haviam áreas focalmente extensas de necrose de liquefação envolvendo a substância cinzenta e a substância branca adjacente. Múltiplos vasos sanguíneos da periferia das áreas de necrose estavam ocluídos por êmbolos fibrocartilaginosos, que reagiram fortemente pela técnica de azul alciano. Os sinais clínicos, as lesões macroscópicas e os achados histológicos observados neste caso, são idênticos aos descritos na literatura para FCE em equinos e nas demais espécies.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Embolia/veterinária , Fibrocartilagem/patologia , Cavalos , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/complicações , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/veterinária , Doenças da Medula Espinal/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária
15.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 45(suppl.1): Pub.213-2017. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457807

Resumo

Background: Hypothyroidism in dogs can cause lethargy, weight gain, dermatological signs and, uncommonly, neurological signs. These may involve the peripheral or central nervous system, leading to a decreased level of consciousness, central or peripheral vestibular disease, epileptic seizures, cognitive dysfunction, facial nerve paralysis, laryngeal paralysis, and polyneuropathy. There are few cases reported in the literature relating hypothyroidism and central vestibular disease. The aim of this study was to report a case of a stroke secondary to hypothyroidism that resulted in central vestibular syndrome in a dog. Case: A 13-year-old female Pitbull, weighting 37 kg, was referred to a Veterinary University Hospital with a two weeks history of dyspnea, coughing and walking difficulty. On neurological examination, the animal presented vertical nystagmus, somnolence, non-ambulatory tetraparesis, decreased postural reaction in all limbs and normal spinal reflexes. The laboratory exams revealed a mild leukocytosis and increased creatinine, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Due to historical, clinical, neurological and laboratory tests findings, the animal was diagnosed with central vestibular syndrome secondary to an intracranial neoplasm. Clinical treatment was instituted with corticosteroids, however the animal did not respond and died. On necropsy, the heart was enlarged and coronary arteries were thicker. No macroscopic changes were found in the brain. On histological analysis, the coronary arteries were congest by lipids that almost occluded the arterial lumen. The same alteration were found in splenic and renal arterioles, and in the brain’s leptomeninges. Also in the brain, it was observed perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells and focal gliosis. The thyroid was atrophied and fibrosed bilaterally. Therefore, those changes were compatible with atherosclerosis secondary to hypothyroidism...


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Cães , Doenças Vestibulares/veterinária , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/veterinária , Infarto do Miocárdio/veterinária , Isquemia Miocárdica/veterinária , Aterosclerose/veterinária
16.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 45(suppl.1): Pub. 213, 2017. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-741010

Resumo

Background: Hypothyroidism in dogs can cause lethargy, weight gain, dermatological signs and, uncommonly, neurological signs. These may involve the peripheral or central nervous system, leading to a decreased level of consciousness, central or peripheral vestibular disease, epileptic seizures, cognitive dysfunction, facial nerve paralysis, laryngeal paralysis, and polyneuropathy. There are few cases reported in the literature relating hypothyroidism and central vestibular disease. The aim of this study was to report a case of a stroke secondary to hypothyroidism that resulted in central vestibular syndrome in a dog. Case: A 13-year-old female Pitbull, weighting 37 kg, was referred to a Veterinary University Hospital with a two weeks history of dyspnea, coughing and walking difficulty. On neurological examination, the animal presented vertical nystagmus, somnolence, non-ambulatory tetraparesis, decreased postural reaction in all limbs and normal spinal reflexes. The laboratory exams revealed a mild leukocytosis and increased creatinine, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Due to historical, clinical, neurological and laboratory tests findings, the animal was diagnosed with central vestibular syndrome secondary to an intracranial neoplasm. Clinical treatment was instituted with corticosteroids, however the animal did not respond and died. On necropsy, the heart was enlarged and coronary arteries were thicker. No macroscopic changes were found in the brain. On histological analysis, the coronary arteries were congest by lipids that almost occluded the arterial lumen. The same alteration were found in splenic and renal arterioles, and in the brains leptomeninges. Also in the brain, it was observed perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells and focal gliosis. The thyroid was atrophied and fibrosed bilaterally. Therefore, those changes were compatible with atherosclerosis secondary to hypothyroidism...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Doenças Vestibulares/veterinária , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/veterinária , Infarto do Miocárdio/veterinária , Isquemia Miocárdica/veterinária , Aterosclerose/veterinária
17.
Ci. Rural ; 46(10): 1804-1810, Oct. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29788

Resumo

The use of histologic classification by a 2-tier grading system only, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for KIT and Ki-67 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for internal tandem duplications (ITD) on exon 11 has improved the prognostication of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (CCMTs) particularly in the United States. However, these techniques are not commonly used in most Brazilian laboratories. Likewise, no studies, to date, have investigated the occurrence of ITD in CCMTs from the country. Thus, this study tested the 2-tier grading system, the immunohistochemistry for KIT and Ki-67 and the PCR for exon 11 in a group of Brazilian CCMTs with the goal of investigating the applicability of these tests in a Brazilian laboratory. Of the 39 CCMTs, 69.2% (27/39) were identified as low-grade and 30.8% (12/39) as high-grade by a 2-tier grading system. All tumors had a KIT expression pattern II, and 30.6% (11/36) had a high growth fraction (Ki-67). PCR amplification was successful in four of the 11 tumors examined. Two of these (50%) were positive for ITD. This study highlights the importance of using auxiliary techniques in the CCMT evaluation, identifies limitations and confirms the applicability of these methods on a routine diagnostic basis in Brazil. Our results will help to improve the prognostication of CCMTs in Brazilian diagnostic laboratories, encouraging the use of supplementary methods.(AU)


O uso de classificação histológica por um novo sistema de graduação que utiliza apenas duas categorias, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) para KIT e Ki-67 e reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR) para mutações (duplicações internas) no éxon 11 tem melhorado a avaliação do prognóstico de mastocitomas cutâneos caninos (MCCs), particularmente nos Estados Unidos. No entanto, essas técnicas são ainda pouco utilizadas em laboratórios brasileiros e, até então, nenhum estudo investigou a prevalência de duplicações internas (DIs) em MCCs do país. Este estudo testou o novo sistema de graduação histológica de duas categorias, a imuno-histoquímica para KIT e Ki-67 e o PCR para exon 11 em um grupo de MCCs brasileiros, com o objetivo de investigar a aplicabilidade desses métodos em um laboratório brasileiro. De 39 MCCs, 69,2% foram identificados como sendo de baixo grau e 30,8% como de alto grau. Todos tiveram um padrão II de expressão de KIT, e 30,6% (11/36) tiveram uma alta contagem para Ki-67. A amplificação foi bem-sucedida em quatro dos 11 tumores examinados. Dois destes (50%) foram positivos para DIs. Este estudo ressaltou a importância do uso de técnicas auxiliares na avaliação de MCCs, identificou limitações e confirmou a aplicabilidade desses métodos em uma rotina de diagnósticos no Brasil. Esses resultados irão auxiliar na melhor avaliação prognóstica dos MCCs em laboratórios brasileiros, encorajando o uso de métodos suplementares neste processo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Doenças do Cão , Mastocitoma Cutâneo/veterinária , Mastocitoma Cutâneo/diagnóstico , Mastocitoma Cutâneo/classificação , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos
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