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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 855, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434506

Resumo

Background: We report the case of 3 cows, 1 ewe, and 1 doe, with chronic mastitis and which underwent a mastectomy. All animals had a history of mastitis, edema with purulent secretion in the udder region, areas of abscess formation, fibrosis, hypogalactia, and agalactia. The animals had already been treated with systemic antibiotic therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs without response. The objective of this work is to describe the surgical and clinicopathological aspects of performing a radical mastectomy in the field in 3 cows and 1 ewe, and a partial mastectomy in a doe, with both procedures performed successfully and considered efficient to maintain the survival of the affected animals, in addition to being economically viable. Cases: In all animals reported in the study, a general and a specific clinical examination were performed, where on palpation of the udder were observed an increase in the region of the mammary apparatus, fluid fluctuation, areas of fibrosis with increased stiffness, and loss of udder functionality. In the case of the doe, there was a functional teat, which was preserved during the surgical procedure. Radical mastectomy was performed in 3 cows and 1 ewe, and the doe underwent a partial mastectomy, with preservation of the functional teat. All animals have fasted for food and water for 48 h. In cows, the anesthetic protocol consisted of 2% xylazine hydrochloride [0.15 mg/kg, intramuscularly (IM)], followed by an epidural block in the lumbosacral region with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride [10 mL]. The midazolam hydrochloride [0.1 mg/kg, intravenously (IV)] and 2% xylazine hydrochloride [0.05 mg/kg, IM] were administered to the ewe and the doe, also associated with lumbosacral epidural anesthesia with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride [5 mL]. The animals were positioned in the right lateral decubitus position and the entire abdominal and udder region were shaved and sanitized for the surgical procedures of radical mastectomy and partial mastectomy, with the use of degerming and topical povidone-iodine. The postoperative period consisted of penicillin-based antibiotic therapy associated with streptomycin [24,000 IU/kg, IM, 10 consecutive days] and flunixin meglumine [2 mg/kg, IM, 3 consecutive days] in cows; enrofloxacin [2.5 mg/kg, IM, 7 consecutive days] and flunixin meglumine [0.5 mg/kg, IM, 5 consecutive days] in the ewe; oxytetracycline [10 mg/kg, IM, 5 applications on alternate days] and flunixin meglumine [0.5 mg/kg, IM, 3 consecutive days] in the doe. In all animals, the cleaning of the surgical wound was performed daily with 10% topical Povidone-iodine and Permethrin ointment, for 14 days, when the stitches were removed. Discussion: The choice of the surgical procedure resulted in improvement of the clinical conditions and increased survival of all animals, and in the case of the doe, partial mastectomy contributed to the preservation of the functional teat, preserving its productive capacity. All anesthetic protocols used and the anatomical positioning of the animals were satisfactory for performing the procedures. Although they are techniques described in the literature with great blood loss, especially in cows, blood transfusion was not required in any of the animals. The stitches were removed 14 days after the surgical procedures, and the surgical wound was completely healed.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Ovinos/cirurgia , Edema/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Mastectomia/veterinária , Mastite/veterinária
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 816, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401494

Resumo

Background: Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland or udder, regardless of its origin, severity, or evolution. Bilateral total mastectomy is indicated in cases of chronic suppurative mastitis, gangrenous mastitis, udder neoplasm or hyperplasia. For mastectomy, the supine position is recommended and, as it is a long-term procedure, general anesthesia was chosen together with the tumescence technique with the objective of transanesthetic and postoperative analgesia. The present report aims to report the general anesthesia protocol used for 2 goats submitted to bilateral total mastectomy associated with a locoregional block by tumescence, a technique not described in the goat species. Cases: Two female goats, mixed breed, approximately 3 years old, were admitted to the Hospital Veterinário de Grandes Animais (HVGA) of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), with a history of recurrent mastitis. There was an increase in udder volume and the presence of purulent secretion during milking. One of the animals had given birth about 20 days ago. Surgical treatment through bilateral total mastectomy was recommended for both animals, as they did not present a satisfactory response to antimicrobial therapy, excessive enlargement and functional loss of the mammary system. For the procedure, food fasting for 48 h and water fasting for 24 h was established. The anesthetic protocols used consisted of previous sedation with xylazine1 [Xilazin® - 0.05 mg/kg, IM] anesthetic induction with ketamine2 [Ketalex® - 10 mg/kg, IV] and midazolam3 [Dormire® - 0.1 mg/kg, IV]. Orotracheal intubation and connection to the anesthetic circuit were performed for maintenance through inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane4 (Forane®) and oxygen therapy. Then, in bottle of lactated ringer's solution5 [Linhamax® - 500 mL], lidocaine 2%6 without vasoconstrictor [Lidovet® - 40 mL] and adrenaline7 [Adren® - 25 mg/mL, 0.5 mL] were added, 10 mL/kg of the solution were injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the region of the mammary chains utilizing a Klein cannula after local antisepsis. After the administration of the tumescent solution, it was observed that the area involved is presented with the formation of a gel and there is minimal bleeding, compared to the conventional technique. The animals were monitored for the degree of analgesia, recording vital signs every 15 min at the end of the surgery, dipyrone9 [D-500® - 25 mg/kg, IV], morphine7 [Sulfato de Morfina® - 0.1 mg/kg, SC], and meloxicam10 [Maxican® 0.5 mg/kg, IM, 3 consecutive days] for postoperative analgesia. Additionally, tetanus serum1 [Vencosat® - 50,000 IU, single dose] and of oxytetracycline¹ [Oxitetraciclina LA® - 10 mg/kg, IM, 5 applications on alternate days)]. In the following 24 h, no signs of pain were observed on palpation of the surgical wound in the animals, but goat 1 was apathetic and inappetent, with improvement in the clinical picture only 48 h after surgery. Discussion: The choice of the surgical procedure resulted in an improvement in the clinical conditions of the animals and the anesthetic protocol using inhalation anesthesia and locoregional block (tumescence) proved to be efficient to perform in goats, contributing to transanesthetic and postoperative analgesia, being easily applied to ruminants that need surgical interventions in the region of mammary chains.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cabras/microbiologia , Mastectomia Simples/métodos , Mastectomia Simples/veterinária , Anestesia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/veterinária , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): Pub. 681, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363154

Resumo

Background: Anal atresia is a congenital malformation, which often affects calves, and is related to the imperforation of the membrane that separates the endoderm of the posterior intestine from the ectodermal anal membrane. It is commonly associated with other congenital malformations and skeletal anomalies. The clinical signs generally appear in the first days of the animal's life, due to a retention of feces. The diagnosis is clinical and is based on observation, anamnesis and a physical examination of the animal. The only viable treatment is surgical. This paper aims to report 6 cases of anal atresia in bovine calves, 4 males and 2 females that were successfully treated surgically. Cases: This work reports 6 cases of anal atresia in 4 male calves and 2 female calves. Three presented total atresia (type II), one partial (type I) and in both female calves, anal atresia and rectovaginal fistula (type IV) were observed. The animals were all of undefined race. Five of the cases were from northern Tocantins, 4 males and 1 female (anal atresia with rectovaginal fistula), and 1 female (anal atresia with rectovaginal fistula) was from Valença, RJ. All animals were born active, by eutocic/natural birth, and assumed a quadrupedal position followed by the first feeding as normal. They were aged between 2 days and 6 months, and had a clinical history of abdominal distention and difficulty or inability defecating, and the females both also had a rectovaginal fistula, all cases compatible with anal atresia. Based on the patient's history and clinical examination, surgical treatment for anal reconstruction was decided upon. Postoperative treatment consisted of enrofloxacin [2.5 mg/kg - intramuscularly (IM), once daily (SID), for 5 days] and fluxinin meglumine [1.1 mg/kg - IM, SID, for 3 days] ; as well as a healing ointment which was applied to the area of the surgical wound, every 12 h, for 7 days. There were no trans-surgical complications. The animals showed progressive recovery after anal reconstruction and the stitches were removed in all cases on the 10th postoperative day, with no postoperative complications and no recurrence of any clinical signs from that moment on. Discussion: The study of congenital and hereditary changes enables the identification of their origins, can help prevent new cases and, some of them, are open to economically viable treatment and/or correction that can improve the well-being of the animal and prevent economic losses due to death or animal sacrifice, as reported in the present study. Anal atresia is the most common congenital defect of the lower gastrointestinal tract in calves, being an isolated abnormality, or associated with other malformations, especially of the distal spinal column such as the absence of a tail (perosomus acaudatus), as one of the animals in this study. The clinical signs and physical examination are sufficient to establish the diagnosis, as demonstrated in this report, which is usually made in newborn animals, due to the lack or difficulty in defecation associated with no anal orifice and/or swelling in the perineal region. The treatment of choice for anal atresia is surgical, in order to construct an anal neo-orifice and thus avoid endotoxemic shock as well as providing relief and well-being for the animals. As observed in this study, when anal atresia is diagnosed early, and surgical treatment is properly instituted, the prognosis is favorable. The surgery is considered of low complexity, quick and it can be carried out in the field. Thus, from a commercial point of view, considering the costs of the procedures and the value of the calf at the end of weaning, such treatments are beneficial to the owners. In addition, the surgical treatment is essential for animal health and welfare in cases of anal atresia.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Anus Imperfurado/cirurgia , Anus Imperfurado/veterinária , Cauda/cirurgia , Anormalidades Congênitas/veterinária
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