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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 18(2): 299-302, apr.-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490258

Resumo

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the water and protein contents and the water-to-protein ratio of chicken parts before and after the pre-chilling process, to compare these results with the values officially recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, and to evaluate the effect of genetic strain and sex on these parameters. Water (%) and protein (%) contents, and water-to-protein ratio (WPR) of boneless and skinless breast (FILLETS) and breast with bone and skin (BREAST) were determined before (BPC) and after (APC) carcass pre-chilling. A total of 585 samples were evaluated: 221 fillets/male, 216 breasts/male, 76 fillets/female, and 72 fillets/female of four different broilers strains were evaluated before (BPC) and after (APC) samples. Water and protein contents and water-to-protein ratio were determined according to the Brazilian legislation. Results showed that there were no significant differences between genetic strains (p 0.05) neither in samples collected before or after the chiller. There were no statistical differences in the parameters studied among genetic strains. However, a high percentage of male breast samples presented water level and water-to-protein ratio above the official limits already before pre-chilling.


Assuntos
Animais , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/instrumentação , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/veterinária , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia
2.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 18(2): 299-302, apr.-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-338216

Resumo

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the water and protein contents and the water-to-protein ratio of chicken parts before and after the pre-chilling process, to compare these results with the values officially recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, and to evaluate the effect of genetic strain and sex on these parameters. Water (%) and protein (%) contents, and water-to-protein ratio (WPR) of boneless and skinless breast (FILLETS) and breast with bone and skin (BREAST) were determined before (BPC) and after (APC) carcass pre-chilling. A total of 585 samples were evaluated: 221 fillets/male, 216 breasts/male, 76 fillets/female, and 72 fillets/female of four different broilers strains were evaluated before (BPC) and after (APC) samples. Water and protein contents and water-to-protein ratio were determined according to the Brazilian legislation. Results showed that there were no significant differences between genetic strains (p 0.05) neither in samples collected before or after the chiller. There were no statistical differences in the parameters studied among genetic strains. However, a high percentage of male breast samples presented water level and water-to-protein ratio above the official limits already before pre-chilling.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/instrumentação , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/veterinária , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 16(2): 63-72, Apr.-June 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490059

Resumo

The influence of supplementing the diet of broiler breeder hens with arginine (Arg) on their offspring's humoral and cell-mediated immune response was evaluated in two experiments. In experiments I and II, breeder hens were fed diets containing graded levels of Arg (0.943, 1.093, 1.243, 1.393 and 1.543% digestible Arg). In experiment I, the offspring was randomly grouped according to the treatment received by the breeder hens, with five levels of Arg in the maternal diet and six replicates, giving a total 30 experimental units. In experiment II, the offspring were grouped in accordance with the treatment received by the breeder hens; however, Arg was added to the starter diet (1.300, 1.450, 1.600, 1.750 and 1.900% digestible Arg) and also the growing diet (1.150, 1.300, 1.450, 1.600 and 1.750% digestible Arg). Supplementation of the broiler breeder hen diet did not influence (p > 0.05) the development of the lymphoid organs (cloacal bursa, thymus and spleen) of the offspring, whether their diet were supplemented or not. Nevertheless, greater weight and dimensions cloacal bursa were found in the supplemented offspring in comparison with the nonsupplemented offspring. Macrophage phagocytic activity was found to be unaffected (p > 0.05), independently of the Arg supplementation. The offspring fed with supplemented diets showed a linear reduction in the antibody titer against Newcastle Disease (p 0.05) by the breeder hen diet. This study concluded that supplementing the breeder hen diet with arginine is insufficient to improve the humoral and cellular immune response, requiring supplementation of the offspring diet.


Assuntos
Animais , Arginina , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral
4.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 16(2): 63-72, Apr.-June 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-15381

Resumo

The influence of supplementing the diet of broiler breeder hens with arginine (Arg) on their offspring's humoral and cell-mediated immune response was evaluated in two experiments. In experiments I and II, breeder hens were fed diets containing graded levels of Arg (0.943, 1.093, 1.243, 1.393 and 1.543% digestible Arg). In experiment I, the offspring was randomly grouped according to the treatment received by the breeder hens, with five levels of Arg in the maternal diet and six replicates, giving a total 30 experimental units. In experiment II, the offspring were grouped in accordance with the treatment received by the breeder hens; however, Arg was added to the starter diet (1.300, 1.450, 1.600, 1.750 and 1.900% digestible Arg) and also the growing diet (1.150, 1.300, 1.450, 1.600 and 1.750% digestible Arg). Supplementation of the broiler breeder hen diet did not influence (p > 0.05) the development of the lymphoid organs (cloacal bursa, thymus and spleen) of the offspring, whether their diet were supplemented or not. Nevertheless, greater weight and dimensions cloacal bursa were found in the supplemented offspring in comparison with the nonsupplemented offspring. Macrophage phagocytic activity was found to be unaffected (p > 0.05), independently of the Arg supplementation. The offspring fed with supplemented diets showed a linear reduction in the antibody titer against Newcastle Disease (p < 0.05) at seven days of age, and a quadratic response (p < 0.05) at 28 days of age. The antibody titer in the non-supplemented offspring was not influenced (p > 0.05) by the breeder hen diet. This study concluded that supplementing the breeder hen diet with arginine is insufficient to improve the humoral and cellular immune response, requiring supplementation of the offspring diet.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arginina , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(4): 804-809, 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-4350

Resumo

Determinou-se o desenvolvimento testicular de caprinos pré-púberes alimentados com óleo de licuri (Syagrus coronata) na dieta. Foram utilizados 19 cabritos ¾ Boer, recém-desmamados, com média de idade de três meses. Os animais, submetidos a um período de 75 dias de confinamento, receberam alimentação composta por: farelo de milho, farelo de soja, feno picado de tifton 85 e de óleo de licuri com base na matéria seca. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: sem lipídio adicional (n= 5); com 1,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 5); com 3,0% de óleo de licuri (n= 5); e com 4,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 4). As avaliações de peso corporal e de biometria testicular foram realizadas quinzenalmente. Após o período de confinamento, os animais foram abatidos para determinação do peso dos testículos, peso dos epidídimos e índice gonadossomático. A adição de óleo de licuri em até 4,5% na dieta de caprinos pré-púberes não alterou o desenvolvimento testicular com base nas características da biometria e morfometria testicular, indicando que a inclusão de até 4,5% de óleo de licuri na dieta pode ser utilizada.(AU)


A trial was carried out to identify the best level of licury (Syagrus coronata) oil in the diet of goats. Nineteen ¾ Boer male goats at three months of age were kept in individual pens. These animals were submitted to 75 days of confinement. The rations were composed of corn and soybean meal, Tifton 85 chopped hay and levels of licury oil (dry matter base). The animals were arranged in four groups according to the addition of licury oil to the diet: 0.0 (no oil inclusion, n= 5); or addition of 1.5 (n= 5); 3.0 (n= 5); or 4.5% licury oil. The evaluations of mean body weight and testicular biometry were performed weekly. After confinement, animals were slaughtered and the weight of the left and right testicles, left and right epididymal weight; and gonadosomatic index were determined. The addition of licury oil up to 4.5% to the diet of prepuberal male goats has not change the testicular development based on its biometrical and morphometrical parameters. It is suggested that licury oil can be added up to 4.5% to the diet of male goats.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Testículo/metabolismo , Biometria/métodos , Epididimo , Peso Corporal
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(6): 1448-1454, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-6047

Resumo

Determinou-se o melhor teor de óleo de licuri na dieta por intermédio das características dos componentes corporais de caprinos jovens ¾ Boer. Foram utilizados 19 caprinos inteiros, com média de idade inicial de três meses e média de peso de 10,8kg. Os animais foram alimentados com feno de Tifton-85 e mistura concentrada com 0; 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5 por cento de óleo de licuri. O experimento durou 60 dias; no último dia, os animais foram abatidos para avaliação das características dos componentes do peso corporal. O peso corporal ao abate, o peso de carcaça fria, o rendimento comercial, o rendimento de frigorificação, a área de olho de lombo, a proporção músculo:osso, os índices de compacidade de medidas biométricas, o peso dos cortes comerciais e o rendimento das vísceras comestíveis não carcaça não foram influenciados pela adição do óleo de licuri à dieta. O peso das vísceras comestíveis não carcaça e o índice de musculosidade do pernil sofreram influência negativa da adição do óleo na dieta. O óleo de licuri pode ser adicionado na dieta de caprinos jovens ¾ Boer até 4,5 por cento, sem causar alterações significativas na carcaça.(AU)


The best level of licury oil in the diet was evaluated by meat compounds of male young ¾ Boer goats. Nineteen goats were used, with initial weight of 10.8kg/LW. The animals were fed Tifton-85 hay and concentrated mix with 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 percent of licury oil. The experiment lasted 60 days and, on the last day, the animals were submitted to feed fasting and slaughtered, in order to evaluate the characteristics of the live weight components. The body weight at slaughter, carcass weight, commercial yield, freezing yield, loin eye area, muscle-bone ratio, compactness carcass index, biometric measurements, commercial cuts weights, and edible viscera yield were not influenced by the licury oil added to the diet. The edible viscera weight and ham muscularity index were negatively influenced by the oil. Then, it could be added to diet of young ¾ Boer goats up to 4.5 percent without causing significant changes in the carcass.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Cabras/classificação , Dieta/métodos , Biometria/métodos
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 76(4)2009.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1462076

Resumo

ABSTRACT Aiming to evaluate the effect of supplementation with megadoses of vitamin C on the diet of fingerlings from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), at the experimental infection by Edwardsiella tarda, two experiments were performed. Each experiment was composed by four distinct groups: those belonging to groups 1 and 4 received only commercial diet featuring about 300 mg of vitamin C per kilogram of feed, while the animals belonging to groups 2 and 3 received the same diet supplemented with 1,500 mg and 3,000 mg, respectively, of vitamin C (Lutavit® C Monophosphate BASF) per kilogram of feed. In the first experiment the animals received the diet for 14 consecutive days, being infected on the 15th day, while in the second experiment the animals were infected by the bacterial suspension after an interval of more 14 days after the same period of supplementation with vitamin C. The results showed that although there isnt a significant difference (p > 0,05) with respect to the concentrations of vitamin C, however the interval between the end of supplementation with megadoses of vitamin C in the diet (Nutripeixe AL55 PURINA) and bacterial exposure showed significant difference (p 0,05) on the experimental infection with E. tarda in fingerlings of Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus).


RESUMO Objetivando avaliar o efeito da suplementação com megadoses de vitamina C na dieta de alevinos de Tilápia do Nilo ( Oreochromis niloticus), frente à infecção experimental por Edwardsiella tarda, foram realizados dois experimentos. Cada experimento foi composto por quatro grupos distintos: aqueles pertencentes aos grupos 1 e 4 receberam apenas ração comercial apresentando cerca de 300 mg de vitamina C por quilo de ração, enquanto os animais pertencentes aos grupos 2 e 3 receberam a mesma ração suplementada com 1.500 mg e 3.000 mg, respectivamente, de vitamina C (Lutavit® C Monophosphate BASF) por quilo de ração. No primeiro experimento os animais receberam a dieta durante 14 dias consecutivos, sendo desafiados no 15º dia, enquanto no segundo experimento os animais só foram desafiados pela suspensão bacteriana após um intervalo de mais 14 dias findo o mesmo período de suplementação com vitamina C. Os resultados mostraram que, embora não haja diferença significativa (p > 0,05) com relação às concentrações de vitamina C, o intervalo entre o final do período de suplementação com megadoses de vitamina C na ração (Nutripeixe AL55 PURINA) e a exposição à suspensão bacteriana apresentou diferença significativa (p 0,05) sobre a infecção experimental com E. tarda em alevinos de Tilápia do Nilo (O. niloticus).

8.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1472720

Resumo

Foram observados nesta revisão de literatura estudos que comprovam a influência da nutrição na concentração de ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI) em produtos como leite dos ruminantes. O principal alvo de estudo foi o aumento da concentração do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) na gordura nesses produtos, sendo um importante agente anticancerígeno e envolvido na prevenção de doenças como o infarto, diabetes, incluindo redução do acréscimo de gordura corporal em humanos. A suplementação com lipídeos é uma estratégia que possibilita alterar características relacionadas ao perfil dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura. A adição de sementes oleaginosas, como soja, amendoim, linhaça, milho, girassol e canola, é uma importante forma de manejo alimentar para o aumento da concentração de CLA. Porém, os melhores resultados observados são com o incremento de óleos na ração. Outras estratégias de manejo nutricional e o nível de pastejo também influenciam na resposta em termos de concentração de CLA e no perfil dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados de cadeia longa (AGPICL) nos produtos de origem animal, porém com menos eficiência que os suplementos. Atualmente, a grande atenção à saúde pede uma alimentação balanceada, na qual a grande ingestão de AGPICL requer um equilíbrio entre ômega-6 e ômega-3, visando a uma melhor qualidade de vida e diminuição dos riscos na ocorrência de hipertensão arterial e morte súbita.


Studies have proved the influence of the nutrition in the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in products such as milk of the ruminants. The main target of these studies was the increase of the concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the fat of these products, being this an important an-ticarcinogenic agent involved in the prevention of illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, including reduction of the addition of fat body in human beings. Lipid supplementation is a strategy that makes possible to modify characteristics related to the fatty acid profile present in the fat. The addition of oilseeds such as soy, peanut, linseed, maize, sunflower and canola, are an important form of alimentary handling for the increase of CLA concentration, however in general, the best ones resulted observed are with the oil increment in the ration. Other strategies of nutritional and grazing management also influence the CLA concentration and participation of lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however with less efficiency than the supplements. Currently, the great attention to the human health asks for a balanced feeding, in which the great ingestion of PUFA requires a balance between ω-6 and ω-3 aiming better quality of life and less risks of hypertension and sudden death.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite , Ruminantes/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/análise
9.
Ci. Tecnol. Prod. Orig. Anim. ; 1(1): 34-43, 2008.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-12018

Resumo

Foram observados nesta revisão de literatura estudos que comprovam a influência da nutrição na concentração de ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI) em produtos como leite dos ruminantes. O principal alvo de estudo foi o aumento da concentração do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) na gordura nesses produtos, sendo um importante agente anticancerígeno e envolvido na prevenção de doenças como o infarto, diabetes, incluindo redução do acréscimo de gordura corporal em humanos. A suplementação com lipídeos é uma estratégia que possibilita alterar características relacionadas ao perfil dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura. A adição de sementes oleaginosas, como soja, amendoim, linhaça, milho, girassol e canola, é uma importante forma de manejo alimentar para o aumento da concentração de CLA. Porém, os melhores resultados observados são com o incremento de óleos na ração. Outras estratégias de manejo nutricional e o nível de pastejo também influenciam na resposta em termos de concentração de CLA e no perfil dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados de cadeia longa (AGPICL) nos produtos de origem animal, porém com menos eficiência que os suplementos. Atualmente, a grande atenção à saúde pede uma alimentação balanceada, na qual a grande ingestão de AGPICL requer um equilíbrio entre ômega-6 e ômega-3, visando a uma melhor qualidade de vida e diminuição dos riscos na ocorrência de hipertensão arterial e morte súbita.(AU)


Studies have proved the influence of the nutrition in the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in products such as milk of the ruminants. The main target of these studies was the increase of the concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the fat of these products, being this an important an-ticarcinogenic agent involved in the prevention of illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, including reduction of the addition of fat body in human beings. Lipid supplementation is a strategy that makes possible to modify characteristics related to the fatty acid profile present in the fat. The addition of oilseeds such as soy, peanut, linseed, maize, sunflower and canola, are an important form of alimentary handling for the increase of CLA concentration, however in general, the best ones resulted observed are with the oil increment in the ration. Other strategies of nutritional and grazing management also influence the CLA concentration and participation of lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however with less efficiency than the supplements. Currently, the great attention to the human health asks for a balanced feeding, in which the great ingestion of PUFA requires a balance between ω-6 and ω-3 aiming better quality of life and less risks of hypertension and sudden death.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite , Ruminantes/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente
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