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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(01): 1-9, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1480294

Resumo

Performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs fed diets containing different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were evaluated through meta-analysis. The database was constructed using information from 24 papers, 113 treatments, and 2507 animals. Correlation and variance analyze were performed. The weight gain of the pigs showed a negative correlation (P 0.05) by the inclusion of ingredients with high NDF content. Likewise, the inclusion of ingredients with high ADF content did not alter (P > 0.05) feed intake and feed conversion ratio. However, the use of ingredients with a high ADF content reduced (P < 0.05) by 4% the weight gain of the pigs. The use of ingredients with high concentrations of NDF and ADF negatively affect the weight gain and feed conversion of finishing pigs; however, the ADF-related fraction has a positive relationship with the reduction of the backfat thickness.


O desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos em terminação alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) foram avaliados por meio de meta-análise. O banco de dados foi construído com informações de 24 artigos, 113 tratamentos e 2.507 animais. Análises de correlação e variância foram realizadas. O ganho de peso dos suínos apresentou correlação negativa (P 0,05) pela inclusão de ingredientes com alto teor de FDN. Da mesma forma, a inclusão de ingredientes com alto teor de FDA não alterou (P > 0,05) o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. Porém, o uso de ingredientes com alto teor de FDA reduziu (P < 0,05) em 4% o ganho de peso dos suínos. O uso de ingredientes com altas concentrações de FDN e FDA afetam negativamente o ganho de peso e conversão alimentar de suínos em terminação, porém fração relacionada a FDA tem relação positiva com a redução da espessura de toucinho.


Assuntos
Animais , Carne , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suínos
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(1): e20201024, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286041

Resumo

ABSTRACT: Performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs fed diets containing different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were evaluated through meta-analysis. The database was constructed using information from 24 papers, 113 treatments, and 2507 animals. Correlation and variance analyze were performed. The weight gain of the pigs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.01) with the dietary NDF content and with NDF consumption. The feed conversion ratio showed a positive correlation (P < 0.01) with the inclusion of ADF in the test ingredient and with the consumption of NDF and ADF. The backfat thickness showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with the NDF content in the diets. The analysis of variance showed that the performance of finishing pigs was not influenced (P > 0.05) by the inclusion of ingredients with high NDF content. Likewise, the inclusion of ingredients with high ADF content did not alter (P > 0.05) feed intake and feed conversion ratio. However, the use of ingredients with a high ADF content reduced (P < 0.05) by 4% the weight gain of the pigs. The use of ingredients with high concentrations of NDF and ADF negatively affect the weight gain and feed conversion of finishing pigs; however, the ADF-related fraction has a positive relationship with the reduction of the backfat thickness.


RESUMO: O desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos em terminação alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) foram avaliados por meio de meta-análise. O banco de dados foi construído com informações de 24 artigos, 113 tratamentos e 2.507 animais. Análises de correlação e variância foram realizadas. O ganho de peso dos suínos apresentou correlação negativa (P < 0,01) com o teor de FDN da dieta e com o consumo de FDN. A taxa de conversão alimentar apresentou correlação positiva (P < 0,01) com a inclusão de FDA presente nos ingredientes testados e com o consumo de FDN e FDA. A espessura do toucinho apresentou correlação negativa (P < 0,05) com o teor de FDN das dietas. A análise de variância mostrou que o desempenho dos suínos em terminação não foi influenciado (P > 0,05) pela inclusão de ingredientes com alto teor de FDN. Da mesma forma, a inclusão de ingredientes com alto teor de FDA não alterou (P > 0,05) o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. Porém, o uso de ingredientes com alto teor de FDA reduziu (P < 0,05) em 4% o ganho de peso dos suínos. O uso de ingredientes com altas concentrações de FDN e FDA afetam negativamente o ganho de peso e conversão alimentar de suínos em terminação, porém fração relacionada a FDA tem relação positiva com a redução da espessura de toucinho.

3.
Ci. Rural ; 52(01): 1-9, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764654

Resumo

Performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs fed diets containing different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were evaluated through meta-analysis. The database was constructed using information from 24 papers, 113 treatments, and 2507 animals. Correlation and variance analyze were performed. The weight gain of the pigs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.01) with the dietary NDF content and with NDF consumption. The feed conversion ratio showed a positive correlation (P < 0.01) with the inclusion of ADF in the test ingredient and with the consumption of NDF and ADF. The backfat thickness showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with the NDF content in the diets. The analysis of variance showed that the performance of finishing pigs was not influenced (P > 0.05) by the inclusion of ingredients with high NDF content. Likewise, the inclusion of ingredients with high ADF content did not alter (P > 0.05) feed intake and feed conversion ratio. However, the use of ingredients with a high ADF content reduced (P < 0.05) by 4% the weight gain of the pigs. The use of ingredients with high concentrations of NDF and ADF negatively affect the weight gain and feed conversion of finishing pigs; however, the ADF-related fraction has a positive relationship with the reduction of the backfat thickness.(AU)


O desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos em terminação alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) foram avaliados por meio de meta-análise. O banco de dados foi construído com informações de 24 artigos, 113 tratamentos e 2.507 animais. Análises de correlação e variância foram realizadas. O ganho de peso dos suínos apresentou correlação negativa (P < 0,01) com o teor de FDN da dieta e com o consumo de FDN. A taxa de conversão alimentar apresentou correlação positiva (P < 0,01) com a inclusão de FDA presente nos ingredientes testados e com o consumo de FDN e FDA. A espessura do toucinho apresentou correlação negativa (P < 0,05) com o teor de FDN das dietas. A análise de variância mostrou que o desempenho dos suínos em terminação não foi influenciado (P > 0,05) pela inclusão de ingredientes com alto teor de FDN. Da mesma forma, a inclusão de ingredientes com alto teor de FDA não alterou (P > 0,05) o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. Porém, o uso de ingredientes com alto teor de FDA reduziu (P < 0,05) em 4% o ganho de peso dos suínos. O uso de ingredientes com altas concentrações de FDN e FDA afetam negativamente o ganho de peso e conversão alimentar de suínos em terminação, porém fração relacionada a FDA tem relação positiva com a redução da espessura de toucinho.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carne , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suínos
4.
Sci. agric ; 78(4): 1-8, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497957

Resumo

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily phase feeding (DP) and sequential feeding (SEQ) on the feeding behavior, performance, and body composition of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty barrows at 29.7 ± 2.8 kg body weight (BW) were assigned to one of four treatments: DP with a blended proportion of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density) was adjusted to match 100 % of daily amino acid (AA) diet recommendations (DP100); a negative treatment, which matched 70 % of daily AA diet recommendations (DP70); and two SEQ with a blend of feeds A and B, adjusted twice a day (at 00h00 and 12h00), to match 70 or 110 % of daily AA diet recommendations during two 12 h intervals: SEQ110-70 and SEQ70-110. DP70 and SEQ showed a lower feed consumption rate compared to DP100 (p 0.05). SEQ110-70 and SEQ70-110 showed similar ADFI, ADG, G:F and body lean mass (p > 0.05). However, fat gain was greater in SEQ110-70 than in SEQ70-110 (p < 0.05). Overall, the SEQ program does not improve performance and body composition. Furthermore, feeding pigs a diet with a higher AA level during the first 12 h of the day and a lower AA level during the remainder of the day increases fat deposition.


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Sci. agric. ; 78(4): 1-8, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31516

Resumo

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily phase feeding (DP) and sequential feeding (SEQ) on the feeding behavior, performance, and body composition of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty barrows at 29.7 ± 2.8 kg body weight (BW) were assigned to one of four treatments: DP with a blended proportion of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density) was adjusted to match 100 % of daily amino acid (AA) diet recommendations (DP100); a negative treatment, which matched 70 % of daily AA diet recommendations (DP70); and two SEQ with a blend of feeds A and B, adjusted twice a day (at 00h00 and 12h00), to match 70 or 110 % of daily AA diet recommendations during two 12 h intervals: SEQ110-70 and SEQ70-110. DP70 and SEQ showed a lower feed consumption rate compared to DP100 (p < 0.05). Compare to DP100, pigs in both SEQ programs had a similar average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency ratio (G:F) and body fat and lean mass ( p > 0.05). SEQ110-70 and SEQ70-110 showed similar ADFI, ADG, G:F and body lean mass (p > 0.05). However, fat gain was greater in SEQ110-70 than in SEQ70-110 (p < 0.05). Overall, the SEQ program does not improve performance and body composition. Furthermore, feeding pigs a diet with a higher AA level during the first 12 h of the day and a lower AA level during the remainder of the day increases fat deposition.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Ci. Rural ; 50(11): e20190418, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29567

Resumo

A meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the recommended levels of digestible lysine and its influence on the productive performance of primiparous lactating sows. The database consisted of 26 publications, 138 diets and 3,820 sows was developed from articles on the association between, lysine, crude protein and lactating primiparous sows. The digestible lysine levels of the studies ranged from 0.22 to 1.43% with average values of 0.85% digestible lysine in the diet, with consumption of 41.25 g day-1. The digestible lysine intake of sows was positively correlated (P 0.05) with feed intake, essential amino acids, crude protein, metabolizable energy, body weight loss sows, milk production, number and weight of piglets at weaning. Digestible lysine intake showed negative correlation (P 0.05) with backfat thickness at weaning and weaning to oestrus interval. It was observed a quadratic effect (P 0.01) of body weight loss sow and daily weight gain of piglets and a quadratic effect (P 0.01) in the weight of piglets at weaning due to increased dietary lysine level. The level of 1.04% of digestible lysine indicates less weight loss sows. The greater weight of piglets at weaning and increased daily weight gain of piglets was verified with the addition of 1.30 and 1.07% digestible lysine in the diet, respectively.(AU)


Realizou-se a meta-análise com o objetivo de determinar o nível recomendado de lisina digestível e sua influência sobre o desempenho produtivo de porcas primíparas lactantes. A base de dados composta por 26 publicações, 138 dietas e 3.820 fêmeas foi desenvolvida a partir de artigos sobre a associação entre, lisina, proteína bruta e porcas primíparas lactantes. Os níveis de lisina digestível dos estudos variaram de 0,22 a 1,43% com valores médios de 0,85% de lisina digestível nas dietas, com consumo de 41,25 g dia-1. O consumo de lisina digestível das porcas apresentou correlação positiva (P 0,05) com o consumo de ração, aminoácidos essenciais, proteína bruta, energia metabolizável, perda de peso corporal da porca, produção de leite, número e peso de leitões ao desmame. O consumo de lisina indicou correlação negativa (P 0,05) para espessura de toucinho ao desmame e intervalo desmame-cio. Observou-se efeito quadrático (P 0,01) da perda de peso corporal da porca e ganho de peso diário dos leitões e efeito quadrático (P 0,01) do peso dos leitões ao desmame em função do aumento do nível de lisina da dieta. O nível de 1,04% de lisina digestível indica a menor perda de peso da porca. O maior peso dos leitões ao desmame e maior ganho de peso diário dos leitões é verificado com a inclusão de 1,30 e 1,07% de lisina digestível na dieta, respectivamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Suínos , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Aumento de Peso
7.
Sci. agric ; 75(4)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497718

Resumo

ABSTRACT Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.

8.
Sci. agric. ; 75(4)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-17980

Resumo

ABSTRACT Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.

9.
Sci. agric. ; 75(4): 296-303, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-728765

Resumo

Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Temperatura Alta , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Ração Animal , Suínos
10.
Sci. agric ; 73(4): 328-331, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497581

Resumo

Little is known about the toxicity of concomitantly occurring mycotoxins in pig diets. This study was conducted to evaluate, through meta-analysis, the individual and the combined effects of mycotoxins on pig performance. The meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses (graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance) based on a database composed of 85 published papers, 1,012 treatments and 13,196 animals. Contamination of diets with individual mycotoxins reduced (p<0.05) feed intake by 14 % and weight gain by 17 %, while combined mycotoxins reduced the same responses by 42 % and 45 %, respectively, in comparison with the non-challenged group. The correlation (p <0.05) between reduction in weight gain (G) and reduction in feed intake (FI) was 0.67 in individual challenges and 0.93 in combined challenges. The estimated G was 6 % in individual challenges and 7 % in combined challenges when FI was zero, suggesting an increase in the maintenance requirements of challenged animals. Most of G (58 % in individual challenges and 84 % in combined challenges) was attributed to the changes in feed efficiency. The association of mycotoxins enhances individual toxic effects and the FI is important in explaining the deleterious effects on the growth of challenged pigs.


Assuntos
Animais , Crescimento , Metanálise como Assunto , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal , Toxicologia
11.
Sci. agric. ; 73(4): 328-331, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-684182

Resumo

Little is known about the toxicity of concomitantly occurring mycotoxins in pig diets. This study was conducted to evaluate, through meta-analysis, the individual and the combined effects of mycotoxins on pig performance. The meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses (graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance) based on a database composed of 85 published papers, 1,012 treatments and 13,196 animals. Contamination of diets with individual mycotoxins reduced (p<0.05) feed intake by 14 % and weight gain by 17 %, while combined mycotoxins reduced the same responses by 42 % and 45 %, respectively, in comparison with the non-challenged group. The correlation (p <0.05) between reduction in weight gain (G) and reduction in feed intake (FI) was 0.67 in individual challenges and 0.93 in combined challenges. The estimated G was 6 % in individual challenges and 7 % in combined challenges when FI was zero, suggesting an increase in the maintenance requirements of challenged animals. Most of G (58 % in individual challenges and 84 % in combined challenges) was attributed to the changes in feed efficiency. The association of mycotoxins enhances individual toxic effects and the FI is important in explaining the deleterious effects on the growth of challenged pigs.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Crescimento , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Metanálise como Assunto , Ração Animal , Toxicologia , Análise de Variância
12.
Ci. Rural ; 45(3): 450-457, 03/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-45260

Resumo

The use of a linear-plateau procedure to describe the response of an individual in the population has theoretical support, since the maximum potential performance of each individual is genetically determined, and any increment in intake of the limiting nutrient above maintenance will result in a linear response in output until this genetic potential, and hence requirement, is reached. However, because of the distribution of body weights and maximum potential outputs in the population, the mean response of the population is curvilinear, which negates the possibility of defining a 'requirement' for the limiting nutrient, and instead leads to the possibility of defining an optimum economic intake of the nutrient.. The Reading model describes the response of a flock to a limiting nutrient by integrating the responses of the individuals making up the population. The response of the population is obtained by inverting a simple factorial model using parameters to describe the mean body weight and maximum output of the flock, their distributions (normal) and covariance. The average response of the population is represented by a linear plateau model with a sigmoidal shape. This model has been widely used to predict the optimum economic intake of amino acids for commercial laying flocks varying in body weight and potential egg output.(AU)


A utilização de procedimento linear-platô para descrever a resposta de um indivíduo a ingestão de um nutriente na população tem sustentação teórica, uma vez que cada indivíduo tem seu máximo potencial de produção determinado geneticamente, e qualquer aumento no consumo de nutriente limitante acima de manutenção resulta numa resposta linear na massa de ovo até atingir o potencial genético e, portanto, atendendo a exigência do indivíduo. No entanto, por causa da distribuição do peso corporal e da massa de ovos na população, a resposta média da população é curvilínea, a qual anula a possibilidade de definir uma "exigência" para o nutriente limitante, e, ao invés disso, leva à possibilidade de definir uma ingestão ótima econômica do nutriente. O Reading Model descreve a resposta da população à ingestão do nutriente limitante, integrando as respostas dos indivíduos que constituem a população. A resposta da população é obtida invertendo um modelo fatorial simples, usando parâmetros para descrever o peso corporal, máximo potencial de produção e as respectivas distribuições (normal) e covariância. Reading Model descreve a resposta da população à ingestão do nutriente limitante, integrando as respostas dos indivíduos que constituem a população. A resposta da população é obtida invertendo um modelo fatorial simples, usando parâmetros para descrever o peso corporal, máximo potencial de produção e as respectivas distribuições (normal) e covariância. A resposta média da população é representada por um modelo linear-platô com uma forma sigmoidal. O Reading Model tem sido amplamente utilizado para estimar a ingestão ótima econômica de aminoácidos para poedeiras comerciais, com diferenças no peso corporal e massa de ovo.(AU)


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal
13.
Sci. agric ; 72(3): 210-214, May-June 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497485

Resumo

Broilers are traditionally managed with feeding programs that often consist of three or four phases. In this study we investigated whether a multiphase feeding program (14 phases) of broilers based on the optimal mix of two feeds could replace a traditional four phase system while maintaining broiler performance. To evaluate this prposed program we measured variables of performance, carcass yield, and nitrogen excretion. In addition, we determined if the multiphase feeding program (14 phases) would be equally effective regardless of bird gender. A total of 480 day-old Cobb chicks were used, with an average weight of 44.74 ± 0.16 g (females) and 44.71 ± 0.11 g (males). The birds were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with 20 animals per experimental unit. Results were analyzed separately in two periods (121 and 2242 days) as determined by slaughter date, as well as for the entire growth period (142 days). The multiphase program led to improvements in final body weight and average daily weight gain, in addition to an increase in breast yield.


Assuntos
Animais , Aumento de Peso , Aves Domésticas , Dieta/veterinária
14.
Sci. agric. ; 72(3): 210-214, May-June 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30092

Resumo

Broilers are traditionally managed with feeding programs that often consist of three or four phases. In this study we investigated whether a multiphase feeding program (14 phases) of broilers based on the optimal mix of two feeds could replace a traditional four phase system while maintaining broiler performance. To evaluate this prposed program we measured variables of performance, carcass yield, and nitrogen excretion. In addition, we determined if the multiphase feeding program (14 phases) would be equally effective regardless of bird gender. A total of 480 day-old Cobb chicks were used, with an average weight of 44.74 ± 0.16 g (females) and 44.71 ± 0.11 g (males). The birds were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with 20 animals per experimental unit. Results were analyzed separately in two periods (121 and 2242 days) as determined by slaughter date, as well as for the entire growth period (142 days). The multiphase program led to improvements in final body weight and average daily weight gain, in addition to an increase in breast yield.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Aumento de Peso
15.
Sci. agric ; 71(3): 195-203, Mai-Jun. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497412

Resumo

Broiler strains available in the poultry industry present different requirements for dietary lysine due to their different growth potentials as a result of their genetic makeup. This study aimed to determine the model parameters for maximum nitrogen retention (NRmaxT), the nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR) and the efficiency of lysine utilization (bc-1) to reevaluate the lysine (Lys) requirements of male and female broilers. Nitrogen balance trials were performed during three periods (I: 6-21 days, II: 22-37 days, and III: 38-53 days). Seven treatments were used for males and females; the treatments consisted of seven diets with protein levels ranging from 61 to 364 g kg-1 dry matter, with Lys being limiting in the dietary nitrogen (4.91 g of Lys in 16 g of N). Nitrogen intake (NI), excretion (NEX), deposition (ND, ND=NI-NEX) and retention (NR, NR=ND+NMR) values were obtained. The NMR was represented by the exponential relationship between NEX and NI. The NRmax T and bc-1 were estimated by the exponential fit between ND and NI. The NRmax T, bc-1, and NMR values were combined in a model to estimate Lys intake by simulating different percentages of the NRmaxT. The Lys intake estimates were 581, 1,538, and 2,171 mg day-1 for males and 512, 1,340, and 1674 mg day-1 for females during periods I, II, and III, respectively. Due to the flexibility of the model, it is possible to calculate the Lys intake for percentages of NR in the range of practical performance data.


Assuntos
Animais , Aminoácidos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lisina
16.
Sci. Agric. ; 71(3): 195-203, Mai-Jun. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29304

Resumo

Broiler strains available in the poultry industry present different requirements for dietary lysine due to their different growth potentials as a result of their genetic makeup. This study aimed to determine the model parameters for maximum nitrogen retention (NRmaxT), the nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR) and the efficiency of lysine utilization (bc-1) to reevaluate the lysine (Lys) requirements of male and female broilers. Nitrogen balance trials were performed during three periods (I: 6-21 days, II: 22-37 days, and III: 38-53 days). Seven treatments were used for males and females; the treatments consisted of seven diets with protein levels ranging from 61 to 364 g kg-1 dry matter, with Lys being limiting in the dietary nitrogen (4.91 g of Lys in 16 g of N). Nitrogen intake (NI), excretion (NEX), deposition (ND, ND=NI-NEX) and retention (NR, NR=ND+NMR) values were obtained. The NMR was represented by the exponential relationship between NEX and NI. The NRmax T and bc-1 were estimated by the exponential fit between ND and NI. The NRmax T, bc-1, and NMR values were combined in a model to estimate Lys intake by simulating different percentages of the NRmaxT. The Lys intake estimates were 581, 1,538, and 2,171 mg day-1 for males and 512, 1,340, and 1674 mg day-1 for females during periods I, II, and III, respectively. Due to the flexibility of the model, it is possible to calculate the Lys intake for percentages of NR in the range of practical performance data.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Lisina , Aminoácidos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Ci. Rural ; 43(6)2013.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-708619

Resumo

This study aimed to evaluate the use of complexed trace minerals to amino acid in broiler breeder feeding evaluating performance, incubation variables and performance of progeny. The study was divided in three trials: exp. 1. broiler breeders performance, exp. 2. incubation and exp. 3. chickens performance. In the exp. 1 two hundred sixty broilers breeders of lineage Cobb Avian 48 (240 females and 20 males) were used. The variables evaluated were egg production and egg mass, feed conversion for egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg weight and specific gravity. In the exp. 2 it was determined rate of hatching, hatchability and fertility. In the exp. 3, it was evaluated the performance of chicks born from incubations. In the exp. 1, there was no interaction between treatment and period (P>0.05) for egg production, egg mass, feed conversion for egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg weight and specific gravity of eggs. However, there was effect (P 0.05) of the period for all variables mentioned above. In the exp. 2, hatching rate, fertility and hatchability did not show significant difference (P 0.05). Regarding the performance of broilers, in the exp. 3 there was no significant difference (P 0.05). Supplementation with complexed trace minerals to amino acids does not influence the performance of breeders, incubation variables and progeny performance.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o uso de microminerais complexados a aminoácidos na alimentação de matrizes de frango de corte sobre o desempenho, variáveis de incubação e desempenho da progênie. O estudo foi dividido em três experimentos: exp.1. desempenho das matrizes, exp.2. incubação e exp.3. desempenho da progênie. No exp. 1, foram utilizadas 260 aves da linhagem CobbAvian 48 (240 matrizes e 20 machos), avaliando-se produção e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, peso e gravidade específica. No exp. 2, determinou-se a taxa de eclosão, eclodibilidade e fertilidade. No exp. 3 avaliou-se o desempenho dos pintinhos nascidos das incubações. No exp. 1, não houve interação entre tratamento e período (P>0,05) para produção de ovos, massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, peso e gravidade específica dos ovos. Contudo, houve efeito (P 0,05) do período para todas as variáveis citadas anteriormente. No exp. 2, a taxa de eclosão, fertilidade e eclodibilidade não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P 0,05). Com relação ao exp. 3 também não houve diferença significativa (P 0,05) no desempenho da progênie. A suplementação com microminerais complexados a aminoácidos não influencia no desempenho das matrizes, variáveis de incubação e desempenho das progênies.

18.
Ci. Rural ; 43(11)2013.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-708514

Resumo

This study aimed to describe the maximum potential of nitrogen deposition and to estimate the intake of methionine+cystine by nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter. Assays were performed in the periodsof 14 to 28, 56 to 70 and 98 to 112 days of age, using 168 Dekalb White pullets, distributed in seven treatments and eight replications. Treatments consisted of protein levels in the diets ranging from 75 to 435 g kg-1 dry matter in which methionine+cystine was the first limiting amino acid. The variables collected by comparative slaughter were nitrogen intake and deposition and, in nitrogen balance trials were collected nitrogen intake and excretion. With the exponential relationship between nitrogen intake and deposition was determined the maximum nitrogen deposition. The techniques were compared by the test of maximum likelihood ratio. The techniques described differently the maximum potential for deposition by the bird, but were similar in the estimation of methionine+cystine. Based on 60% of the maximum potential the intakes of digestible methionine+cystine were estimated at 163, 243 and 343mg day-1 for the period of 14 to 28, 56 to70 and 98 to 112 days of age, respectively.


Objetivou-se descrever o máximo potencial de deposição de nitrogênio e estimar a ingestão de metionina+cistina pela técnica do balanço de nitrogênio e abate comparativo. Foram realizados ensaios no período de 14 a 28, 56 a 70 e 98 a 112 dias de idade, utilizando 168 frangas Dekalb White, distribuídas em sete tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de proteína na dieta, variando de 75 a 435 g kg-1 de matéria seca, em que a metionina+cistina foi o primeiro aminoácido limitante. As variáveis coletadas pelo abate comparativo foram nitrogênio ingerido e depositado e, nos ensaios de balanço de nitrogênio, coletaram-se ingestão e excreção de nitrogênio. Por meio da relação exponencial entre ingestão e deposição de nitrogênio, determinou-se a máxima deposição de nitrogênio. As técnicas foram comparadas pelo teste da razão de máxima verossimilhança. As técnicas descrevem de forma diferente o máximo potencial de deposição pela ave, mas são similares na estimativa da exigência de metionina+cistina. Com base em 60% do máximo potencial, as ingestões de metionina+cistina digestível foram estimadas em 163, 243 e 343 mg dia-1 para os período de 14 a 28, 56 a 70 e 98 a 112 dias de idade, respectivamente.

19.
Ci. Rural ; 43(6)2013.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-708355

Resumo

This study aimed to evaluate the use of complexed trace minerals to amino acid in broiler breeder feeding evaluating performance, incubation variables and performance of progeny. The study was divided in three trials: exp. 1. broiler breeders performance, exp. 2. incubation and exp. 3. chickens performance. In the exp. 1 two hundred sixty broilers breeders of lineage Cobb Avian 48 (240 females and 20 males) were used. The variables evaluated were egg production and egg mass, feed conversion for egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg weight and specific gravity. In the exp. 2 it was determined rate of hatching, hatchability and fertility. In the exp. 3, it was evaluated the performance of chicks born from incubations. In the exp. 1, there was no interaction between treatment and period (P>0.05) for egg production, egg mass, feed conversion for egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg weight and specific gravity of eggs. However, there was effect (P 0.05) of the period for all variables mentioned above. In the exp. 2, hatching rate, fertility and hatchability did not show significant difference (P 0.05). Regarding the performance of broilers, in the exp. 3 there was no significant difference (P 0.05). Supplementation with complexed trace minerals to amino acids does not influence the performance of breeders, incubation variables and progeny performance.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o uso de microminerais complexados a aminoácidos na alimentação de matrizes de frango de corte sobre o desempenho, variáveis de incubação e desempenho da progênie. O estudo foi dividido em três experimentos: exp.1. desempenho das matrizes, exp.2. incubação e exp.3. desempenho da progênie. No exp. 1, foram utilizadas 260 aves da linhagem CobbAvian 48 (240 matrizes e 20 machos), avaliando-se produção e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, peso e gravidade específica. No exp. 2, determinou-se a taxa de eclosão, eclodibilidade e fertilidade. No exp. 3 avaliou-se o desempenho dos pintinhos nascidos das incubações. No exp. 1, não houve interação entre tratamento e período (P>0,05) para produção de ovos, massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, peso e gravidade específica dos ovos. Contudo, houve efeito (P 0,05) do período para todas as variáveis citadas anteriormente. No exp. 2, a taxa de eclosão, fertilidade e eclodibilidade não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P 0,05). Com relação ao exp. 3 também não houve diferença significativa (P 0,05) no desempenho da progênie. A suplementação com microminerais complexados a aminoácidos não influencia no desempenho das matrizes, variáveis de incubação e desempenho das progênies.

20.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1479228

Resumo

This study aimed to describe the maximum potential of nitrogen deposition and to estimate the intake of methionine+cystine by nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter. Assays were performed in the periodsof 14 to 28, 56 to 70 and 98 to 112 days of age, using 168 Dekalb White pullets, distributed in seven treatments and eight replications. Treatments consisted of protein levels in the diets ranging from 75 to 435 g kg-1 dry matter in which methionine+cystine was the first limiting amino acid. The variables collected by comparative slaughter were nitrogen intake and deposition and, in nitrogen balance trials were collected nitrogen intake and excretion. With the exponential relationship between nitrogen intake and deposition was determined the maximum nitrogen deposition. The techniques were compared by the test of maximum likelihood ratio. The techniques described differently the maximum potential for deposition by the bird, but were similar in the estimation of methionine+cystine. Based on 60% of the maximum potential the intakes of digestible methionine+cystine were estimated at 163, 243 and 343mg day-1 for the period of 14 to 28, 56 to70 and 98 to 112 days of age, respectively.


Objetivou-se descrever o máximo potencial de deposição de nitrogênio e estimar a ingestão de metionina+cistina pela técnica do balanço de nitrogênio e abate comparativo. Foram realizados ensaios no período de 14 a 28, 56 a 70 e 98 a 112 dias de idade, utilizando 168 frangas Dekalb White, distribuídas em sete tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de proteína na dieta, variando de 75 a 435 g kg-1 de matéria seca, em que a metionina+cistina foi o primeiro aminoácido limitante. As variáveis coletadas pelo abate comparativo foram nitrogênio ingerido e depositado e, nos ensaios de balanço de nitrogênio, coletaram-se ingestão e excreção de nitrogênio. Por meio da relação exponencial entre ingestão e deposição de nitrogênio, determinou-se a máxima deposição de nitrogênio. As técnicas foram comparadas pelo teste da razão de máxima verossimilhança. As técnicas descrevem de forma diferente o máximo potencial de deposição pela ave, mas são similares na estimativa da exigência de metionina+cistina. Com base em 60% do máximo potencial, as ingestões de metionina+cistina digestível foram estimadas em 163, 243 e 343 mg dia-1 para os período de 14 a 28, 56 a 70 e 98 a 112 dias de idade, respectivamente.

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