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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(9): e20220133, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418774

Resumo

This study investigated the association between neurological signs as well as plausible risk factors and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in dogs of the Campo Grande region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In this study, the dogs were divided into two groups based on the presence and the absence of neurological signs (n=30 in each group). Serological diagnosis was performed using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. In the group with neurological disorders, 23.3% and 30% of the dogs had anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, respectively. Moreover, three dogs from this group showed co-infection with both protozoa. In the group without neurological signs, 16.7% and 13.3% of the dogs were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Although presence of neurological signs was not associated with T. gondii and N. caninum infections (P = 0.747 and P = 0.21, respectively), there was a statistical association between T. gondii seropositivity and peripheral neurological alteration (P = 0.016) among dogs with neurological signs. Raw meat ingestion was the only risk factor associated with the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies (P = 0.041). Results revealed evidence of exposure to N. caninum and T. gondii in dogs irrespective of the presence of neurological signs. Moreover, this study highlighted the need for serological investigation of T. gondii in dogs with disturbances in peripheral nervous systems and not offering raw meat to animals to avoid the risk of N. caninum infection.


Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a associação entre sinais neurológicos, assim como possíveis fatores de risco e soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum em cães de Campo Grande, região de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Nesse estudo, os cães foram divididos em dois grupos, baseado na presença ou ausência de sinais neurológicos (n = 30 em cada grupo). O diagnóstico sorológico foi realizado por meio do teste imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). No grupo com distúrbios neurológicos, 23.3% e 30% dos cães tinham anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum, respectivamente. Além disso, três cães deste grupo estavam coinfectados com ambos os protozoários. No grupo sem sinais neurológicos, 16.7% e 13.3% dos cães foram soropositivos para T. gondii e N. caninum, respectivamente. Apesar da presença de sinais neurológicos não ter sido associado a infecção por T. gondii ou N. caninum ( P = 0.747 e P = 0.21, respectivamente), houve associação estatística entre soropositividade para T. gondii e alteração neurológica periférica (P = 0.016) entre os cães com sinais neurológicos. A ingestão de carne crua foi o único fator de risco que apresentou associação com a presença de anticorpos para N. caninum (P = 0.041). Estes resultados mostraram evidência de que a exposição a N. caninum e T. gondii em cães independe da presença de sinais neurológicos. Além disso, este estudo destaca a necessidade de investigação sorológica para T. gondii em cães com distúrbios neurológicos periféricos, e o oferecimento de carne crua aos animais deve ser evitada devido ao risco de infecção por neosporose.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Sorologia , Toxoplasma , Neospora , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Manifestações Neurológicas
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 732, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366499

Resumo

Background: The treatment for urethral obstruction in cats consists of catheterization, and for this, the cat must be sedated or anesthetized. Sacococcygeal epidural block has the advantage of being close to receptors related to nociception located in the spinal cord and it is safer because it represents lower risk of spinal cord injury or inadvertent application in the subarachnoid space, when compared to the lumbosacral epidural. Nerve stimulation through the neurolocator to identify the epidural space increases the accuracy of this technique. Thus, the objective is to report a case of epidural anesthesia with a sacrococcygeal approach guided by neurostimulation in a cat with urethral obstruction. Case: A 4-year-old male Siamese cat, weighing 4 kg, was referred to the veterinary care with a history of apathy and anorexia for 2 days. From the physical exam, the clinical diagnosis of urethral obstruction was made, and to desobstruction, we chose to perform sacrococcygeal epidural block. Initially, the patient was anesthetized with propofol (4 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.3 mg/kg). To perform the anesthetic block, the cat was placed in sternal decubitus with the hind limbs extended cranially to perform sacrococcygeal epidural block. The positive pole (cathode) was connected to the skin of the right inguinal region at the caudal aspect of the thigh and the neurostimulator was turned on and adjusted to 0.7 mA of stimulating current intensity, 0.1 ms duration and 1 Hz frequency. The needle for electrical neurolocation was introduced in the dorsal midline, perpendicular to the skin surface, between the spinous processes of S3-Cd1 in the skin. The exact injection point was obtained observed by the muscular response of the middle and distal third of the animal's tail with the neurostimulator adjusted to 0.3 mA of intensity, in the same duration and frequency as before. The total volume of 0.9 mL (0.22 mL/kg) of solution containing the combination of 0.6 mL of 0.75% levobupivacaine and 0.3 mL of 2% lidocaine was injected. The success of the block was confirmed by the loss of reflexes of the pelvic limbs and anal sphincter 10 min after the administration of the anesthetic solution. Discussion: In this case, the use of the neurolocator helped to perform an effective sacrococcygeal block, allowing urethral catheterization without the addition of other analgesic agents. This technique desensitizes and relaxes muscles in the regions of the perineum, anus, distal colon and penis, being useful for performing urethral catheterization. The use of smaller anaesthetic volumes to perform sacrococcygeal block makes it possible to achieve a more localized anesthesia, without affecting the motor function of the pelvic limbs. However, in our report, using a combination of levobupivacaine and lidocaine, the pelvic limb block was also verified despite the low volume applied. A hypothesis that could justify the different responses in relation to the pelvic limb block compared to other studies would be due to the different physicalchemical properties of the drugs used. Lidocaine is known to be less fat-soluble than bupivacaine, so it tends to spread more through the epidural space, in order to result in more extensive blocks. The use of a neurostimulator using a fixed electric current of 0.7 mA, pulse 0.1 ms and a frequency of 1 Hz allowed the correct identification of the needle position for the application of the anesthetic.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Gatos , Obstrução Uretral/cirurgia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/veterinária , Anestesia Epidural/veterinária , Região Sacrococcígea , Levobupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem
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