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1.
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 46(1): 43-51, Janeiro-Março 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1378031

Resumo

A análise da expressão das diversas proteínas relacionadas a foliculogênese e oogênese in vivo e in vitro, através da proteômica, tem demonstrado possíveis biomarcadores celulares. A descoberta desses biomarcadores pode ajudar na elucidação de mecanismos complexos como a foliculogênese (entendimento sobre o crescimento folicular e maturação oocitária), no tratamento de doenças relacionadas a infertilidade feminina, bem como, no aprimoramento de biotécnicas reprodutivas como a manipulação de oócitos inclusos em folículos pré-antrais. Desta forma, a presente revisão abordou as principais proteínas relatadas nos mais novos trabalhos referentes aos estudos proteômicos visando melhores esclarecimentos referentes ao desenvolvimento folicular e oocitário in vivo e in vitro. A escolha dos artigos foi realizada com base nas descobertas mais atuais e do impacto que determinadas proteínas poderiam trazer para melhorar o entendimento da foliculogênese e oogênese nas diferentes espécies de animais mamíferos.(AU)


The analysis of the expression of several proteins related to folliculogenesis and oogenesis in vivo and in vitro, through proteomics, has demonstrated possible cellular biomarkers. The discovery of these biomarkers may help in the elucidation of complex mechanisms such as folliculogenesis (understanding of follicular growth and oocyte maturation), in the treatment of diseases related to female infertility, as well as in the improvement of reproductive biotechniques such as the manipulation of oocytes enclosed in preantral follicles. Thus, the present review addressed the main proteins reported in the newest works related to proteomic studies aiming at better clarifications regarding follicular and oocyte development in vivo and in vitro. The choice of articles was based on the most current discoveries and the impact that certain proteins could bring to improve the understanding of folliculogenesis and oogenesis in different species of mammalian animals.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Biomarcadores , Proteômica/tendências , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Oogênese/fisiologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/tendências , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia
2.
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 17(2): e20190100, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1461513

Resumo

This study investigated the effect of Folliculinum 6 cH on the oocyte meiosis resumption and viability rates, progesterone production and mitochondrial activity after in vitro maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in sheep. Sheep ovaries were collected at a local slaughterhouse and COCs were recovered by slicing technique. The selected COCs were maturated in TCM199 (Control treatment), or control medium supplemented with 0.05% ethanol (v/v) (the vehicle of the homeopathic preparation – Ethanol treatment) or with Folliculinum 6 cH. After 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), oocytes were mechanically denuded and incubated with Hoechst 33342 and MitoTracker (0.5 μM) Orange CMTMRos for analysis of viability and chromatin configuration, and mitochondrial activity, respectively. The results showed that Folliculinum 6 cH addition increased oocyte degeneration and reduced meiotic resumption compared to the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the percentages meiotic resumption and oocyte maturation were lower in the Folliculinum 6 cH treatment compared to its vehicle (Ethanol treatment) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, when the treatments were compared, higher mitochondrial activity was observed in the Ethanol treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, contrary to its vehicle, the addition of Folliculinum 6 cH to the IVM medium promoted oocyte degeneration and affected negatively the mitochondrial distribution, impairing meiosis resumption.


Assuntos
Animais , Homeopatia , Ovinos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos
3.
Anim. Reprod. ; 17(2): e20190100, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29208

Resumo

This study investigated the effect of Folliculinum 6 cH on the oocyte meiosis resumption and viability rates, progesterone production and mitochondrial activity after in vitro maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in sheep. Sheep ovaries were collected at a local slaughterhouse and COCs were recovered by slicing technique. The selected COCs were maturated in TCM199 (Control treatment), or control medium supplemented with 0.05% ethanol (v/v) (the vehicle of the homeopathic preparation Ethanol treatment) or with Folliculinum 6 cH. After 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), oocytes were mechanically denuded and incubated with Hoechst 33342 and MitoTracker (0.5 μM) Orange CMTMRos for analysis of viability and chromatin configuration, and mitochondrial activity, respectively. The results showed that Folliculinum 6 cH addition increased oocyte degeneration and reduced meiotic resumption compared to the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the percentages meiotic resumption and oocyte maturation were lower in the Folliculinum 6 cH treatment compared to its vehicle (Ethanol treatment) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, when the treatments were compared, higher mitochondrial activity was observed in the Ethanol treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, contrary to its vehicle, the addition of Folliculinum 6 cH to the IVM medium promoted oocyte degeneration and affected negatively the mitochondrial distribution, impairing meiosis resumption.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Homeopatia
4.
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 16(1): 52-65, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1461425

Resumo

The in vitro follicle culture (IVFC) represents an outstanding tool to enhance our understanding of the control of folliculogenesis and to allow the future use of a large number of immature oocytes enclosed in preantral follicles (PFs) in assisted reproductive techniques in humans as well as in others mammalian species including the ruminants. So far, the best results of IVFC were reported from mice with the production of live offspring from primordial follicles cultured in vitro. Live birth has been obtained after the in vitro culture of bovine early antral follicles. However, in other ruminant species, these results have been limited to the production of a variable number of mature oocytes and low percentages of embryos after in vitro culture of goat, buffalo and sheep isolated secondary preantral follicles. The present review presents and discusses the main findings, limitations, and prospects of in vitro folliculogenesis in ruminants focusing on bovine, caprine, and ovine species.


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Ruminantes/embriologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária
5.
Anim. Reprod. ; 16(1): 52-65, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-20905

Resumo

The in vitro follicle culture (IVFC) represents an outstanding tool to enhance our understanding of the control of folliculogenesis and to allow the future use of a large number of immature oocytes enclosed in preantral follicles (PFs) in assisted reproductive techniques in humans as well as in others mammalian species including the ruminants. So far, the best results of IVFC were reported from mice with the production of live offspring from primordial follicles cultured in vitro. Live birth has been obtained after the in vitro culture of bovine early antral follicles. However, in other ruminant species, these results have been limited to the production of a variable number of mature oocytes and low percentages of embryos after in vitro culture of goat, buffalo and sheep isolated secondary preantral follicles. The present review presents and discusses the main findings, limitations, and prospects of in vitro folliculogenesis in ruminants focusing on bovine, caprine, and ovine species.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ruminantes/embriologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária
6.
Anim. Reprod. ; 15(supl. 1): 648-659, set. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19642

Resumo

The regulation of folliculogenesis involves a complex interaction among endocrine, paracrine and autocrine factors. The mechanisms involved in the initiation of the growth of the primordial follicle, i.e., follicular activation and the further growth of primary follicles up to the pre-ovulatory stage, are not well understood at this time. The present review focuses on the regulation and development of early stage (primordial, primary, and secondary) folliculogenesis highlighting the mechanisms of primordial follicle activation, growth of primary and secondary follicles and finally transition from secondary to tertiary follicles. We also discuss the importance of in vitro follicle culture for the understanding of folliculogenesis during the preantral phase. Studies suggest that follicular development from primordial to early antral stages is primarily controlled by intra-ovarian ligands but it can also be influenced by many extra-ovarian factors. The control of early folliculogenesis is, therefore, extremely complex because several ligands act through distinct signaling pathways that form sophisticated information networks responding to multiple, often opposing, stimuli. The balance among different stimuli determines follicular survival or death as well as quiescence or activation (growth). The distribution of the ligands and their corresponding receptors varies among follicular compartments and species, and significant changes in gene expression pattern among follicular categories have been reported. Knowing that follicular requirements during early folliculogenesis can be stage-specific and speciesspecific, in vitro culture studies offer an alternative to evaluate single and combined factors during a specific period of follicular development. Herewith we summarize the main findings obtained in vitro together with the mechanisms regulating folliculogenesis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/enzimologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia
7.
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 15(supl. 1): 648-659, set. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1461387

Resumo

The regulation of folliculogenesis involves a complex interaction among endocrine, paracrine and autocrine factors. The mechanisms involved in the initiation of the growth of the primordial follicle, i.e., follicular activation and the further growth of primary follicles up to the pre-ovulatory stage, are not well understood at this time. The present review focuses on the regulation and development of early stage (primordial, primary, and secondary) folliculogenesis highlighting the mechanisms of primordial follicle activation, growth of primary and secondary follicles and finally transition from secondary to tertiary follicles. We also discuss the importance of in vitro follicle culture for the understanding of folliculogenesis during the preantral phase. Studies suggest that follicular development from primordial to early antral stages is primarily controlled by intra-ovarian ligands but it can also be influenced by many extra-ovarian factors. The control of early folliculogenesis is, therefore, extremely complex because several ligands act through distinct signaling pathways that form sophisticated information networks responding to multiple, often opposing, stimuli. The balance among different stimuli determines follicular survival or death as well as quiescence or activation (growth). The distribution of the ligands and their corresponding receptors varies among follicular compartments and species, and significant changes in gene expression pattern among follicular categories have been reported. Knowing that follicular requirements during early folliculogenesis can be stage-specific and speciesspecific, in vitro culture studies offer an alternative to evaluate single and combined factors during a specific period of follicular development. Herewith we summarize the main findings obtained in vitro together with the mechanisms regulating folliculogenesis.


Assuntos
Animais , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/enzimologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia
8.
R. bras. Reprod. Anim. ; 42(3-4): 152-157, jul.-dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-20940

Resumo

A maioria dos oócitos imaturos nos ovários encontra-se armazenada nos folículos pré-antrais, sendo este a principal reserva ovariana. Entretanto, durante o desenvolvimento folicular uma pequena proporção (0,1%) destes folículos chega ao estágio pré-ovulatório sendo o restante eliminado por atresia. A tecnologia de cultivo folicular in vitro, denominada ovário artificial, representa uma excelente ferramenta para desvendar o controle da foliculogênese nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento, bem como poderá assegurar no futuro a utilização de um grande número de oócitos imaturos, previamente crescidos in vitro, em técnicas de reprodução assistida em humanos e em outras espécies, incluindo os ruminantes. Os melhores resultados da tecnologia do ovário artificial foram relatados em camundongos, com a produção de crias vivas a partir de folículos primordiais crescidos in vitro. Entretanto, em outras espécies, incluindo os ruminantes, os resultados têm sido restritos à produção de um pequeno e variável número de oócitos maturos e uma baixa taxa de produção de embriões após o cultivo in vitro de folículos secundários isolados. A presente revisão discute as aplicações, critérios para avaliação de eficiência, estado atual, limitações e perspectivas da tecnologia do ovário artificial em ruminantes, com ênfase nas espécies bovina, caprina e ovina.(AU)


Most immature oocytes in the ovaries are stored in the preantral follicles, which represent the main ovarian reserve. However, during follicular development, a small proportion (0.1%) of these follicles reaches the preovulatory stage, the rest being eliminated by atresia. The in vitro follicle culture technology, called artificial ovary, represents an excellent tool to understand the control of folliculogenesis in the early stages of development, as well as to ensure in the future the use of a large number of immature oocytes, previously grown in vitro, in assisted reproductive technologies in humans and other species, including ruminants. The best results from artificial ovary technology so far were reported in mice, with the production of live offspring from primordial follicles grown in vitro. However, in other species, including ruminants, the results have been limited to the production of a small and variable number of mature oocytes and a low rate of embryo production after in vitro culture of isolated secondary follicles. The present review discusses the applications, criteria for evaluating efficiency, current status, limitations and perspectives of artificial ovary technology in ruminants, with emphasis on bovine, caprine, and ovine species.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Oócitos , Técnicas Reprodutivas/veterinária , Ruminantes
9.
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 42(3-4): 152-157, jul.-dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1492530

Resumo

A maioria dos oócitos imaturos nos ovários encontra-se armazenada nos folículos pré-antrais, sendo este a principal reserva ovariana. Entretanto, durante o desenvolvimento folicular uma pequena proporção (0,1%) destes folículos chega ao estágio pré-ovulatório sendo o restante eliminado por atresia. A tecnologia de cultivo folicular in vitro, denominada ovário artificial, representa uma excelente ferramenta para desvendar o controle da foliculogênese nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento, bem como poderá assegurar no futuro a utilização de um grande número de oócitos imaturos, previamente crescidos in vitro, em técnicas de reprodução assistida em humanos e em outras espécies, incluindo os ruminantes. Os melhores resultados da tecnologia do ovário artificial foram relatados em camundongos, com a produção de crias vivas a partir de folículos primordiais crescidos in vitro. Entretanto, em outras espécies, incluindo os ruminantes, os resultados têm sido restritos à produção de um pequeno e variável número de oócitos maturos e uma baixa taxa de produção de embriões após o cultivo in vitro de folículos secundários isolados. A presente revisão discute as aplicações, critérios para avaliação de eficiência, estado atual, limitações e perspectivas da tecnologia do ovário artificial em ruminantes, com ênfase nas espécies bovina, caprina e ovina.


Most immature oocytes in the ovaries are stored in the preantral follicles, which represent the main ovarian reserve. However, during follicular development, a small proportion (0.1%) of these follicles reaches the preovulatory stage, the rest being eliminated by atresia. The in vitro follicle culture technology, called artificial ovary, represents an excellent tool to understand the control of folliculogenesis in the early stages of development, as well as to ensure in the future the use of a large number of immature oocytes, previously grown in vitro, in assisted reproductive technologies in humans and other species, including ruminants. The best results from artificial ovary technology so far were reported in mice, with the production of live offspring from primordial follicles grown in vitro. However, in other species, including ruminants, the results have been limited to the production of a small and variable number of mature oocytes and a low rate of embryo production after in vitro culture of isolated secondary follicles. The present review discusses the applications, criteria for evaluating efficiency, current status, limitations and perspectives of artificial ovary technology in ruminants, with emphasis on bovine, caprine, and ovine species.


Assuntos
Animais , Oócitos , Ruminantes , Técnicas Reprodutivas/veterinária
10.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1473616

Resumo

Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos (Pulsatilla nigricans e hormônio folículo estimulante homeopático - FSH) e um complexo homeopático (Bos Stress Fertilis) na foliculogênese inicial, utilizando o cultivo in vitro de folículos pré-antrais suínos como modelo in vitro. Para tanto, fragmentos ovarianos foram cultivados por um ou sete dias em α-MEM+ na ausência (controle cultivado) ou presença de FSH homeopático (6 cH), Pulsatilla (6 CH), Bos Stress Fertilis (6 CH), álcool cereal (50% - v/v) ou FSH recombinante (50 ng/ml) adicionados diariamente. Os fragmentos ovarianos não cultivados (controle fresco) ou cultivados por um e sete dias foram processados para histologia clássica. Somente o composto homeopático Bos Stress Fertilis foi eficiente em manter o percentual de sobrevivência folicular após sete dias de cultivo semelhante ao controle não cultivado e α-MEM+. Em relação ao crescimento folicular, somente a adição de FSH homeopático aumentou o diâmetro folicular quando comparado ao controle não cultivado e α-MEM+ após um dia de cultivo. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que a adição dos medicamentos homeopáticos Bos Stress fertilis e FSH homeopático (6 CH) melhoraram, respectivamente, a sobrevivência e o crescimento in vitro de folículos pré-antrais suínos inclusos em fragmentos de tecido ovariano.


This study investigated the effect of homeopathic medicine (Pulsatilla nigricans and homeopathic follicle stimulating hormone - FSH) and the complex (Bos Stress Fertilis) on the initial folliculogenesis, using the in vitro culture of preantral follicles as in vitro model. For this, swine ovarian fragments were cultured for one or seven days in α-MEM+ in the absence (cultured control) or presence of homeopathic FSH (6 cH), Pulsatilla (6 CH), Bos Stress Fertilis (6 CH), grain alcohol (50% v / v) or recombinant FSH (50 ng / ml) added daily. Uncultured ovarian fragments (fresh control) or cultured for one and seven days were processed for classical histology. Only the homeopathic complex Bos Stress Fertilis maintained the percentage of follicular survival after seven days of culture in relation to the uncultured control and α-MEM+. Regarding follicular growth, only the addition of homeopathic FSH increased the follicular diameter when compared to the uncultured control and a-MEM+. Thus, it can be concluded that the addition of the homeopathic remedies Bos Stress fertilis and homeopathic FSH (6 CH) improved, respectively, survival and in vitro growth of swine preantral follicles included in ovarian tissue.


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Medicamento Homeopático , Pulsatilla nigricans/análise , Suínos , Ovário
11.
Ci. Anim. bras. ; 19: e-48658, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-735342

Resumo

Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos medicamentos homeopáticos (Pulsatilla nigricans e hormônio folículo estimulante homeopático - FSH) e um complexo homeopático (Bos Stress Fertilis) na foliculogênese inicial, utilizando o cultivo in vitro de folículos pré-antrais suínos como modelo in vitro. Para tanto, fragmentos ovarianos foram cultivados por um ou sete dias em α-MEM+ na ausência (controle cultivado) ou presença de FSH homeopático (6 cH), Pulsatilla (6 CH), Bos Stress Fertilis (6 CH), álcool cereal (50% - v/v) ou FSH recombinante (50 ng/ml) adicionados diariamente. Os fragmentos ovarianos não cultivados (controle fresco) ou cultivados por um e sete dias foram processados para histologia clássica. Somente o composto homeopático Bos Stress Fertilis foi eficiente em manter o percentual de sobrevivência folicular após sete dias de cultivo semelhante ao controle não cultivado e α-MEM+. Em relação ao crescimento folicular, somente a adição de FSH homeopático aumentou o diâmetro folicular quando comparado ao controle não cultivado e α-MEM+ após um dia de cultivo. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que a adição dos medicamentos homeopáticos Bos Stress fertilis e FSH homeopático (6 CH) melhoraram, respectivamente, a sobrevivência e o crescimento in vitro de folículos pré-antrais suínos inclusos em fragmentos de tecido ovariano.(AU)


This study investigated the effect of homeopathic medicine (Pulsatilla nigricans and homeopathic follicle stimulating hormone - FSH) and the complex (Bos Stress Fertilis) on the initial folliculogenesis, using the in vitro culture of preantral follicles as in vitro model. For this, swine ovarian fragments were cultured for one or seven days in α-MEM+ in the absence (cultured control) or presence of homeopathic FSH (6 cH), Pulsatilla (6 CH), Bos Stress Fertilis (6 CH), grain alcohol (50% v / v) or recombinant FSH (50 ng / ml) added daily. Uncultured ovarian fragments (fresh control) or cultured for one and seven days were processed for classical histology. Only the homeopathic complex Bos Stress Fertilis maintained the percentage of follicular survival after seven days of culture in relation to the uncultured control and α-MEM+. Regarding follicular growth, only the addition of homeopathic FSH increased the follicular diameter when compared to the uncultured control and a-MEM+. Thus, it can be concluded that the addition of the homeopathic remedies Bos Stress fertilis and homeopathic FSH (6 CH) improved, respectively, survival and in vitro growth of swine preantral follicles included in ovarian tissue.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Medicamento Homeopático , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Suínos , Pulsatilla nigricans/análise , Ovário
12.
R. bras. Reprod. Anim. ; 41(1): 248-253, Jan-Mar. 2017.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-17160

Resumo

O ovário dos mamíferos contem de milhares a milhões de oócitos imaturos, sendo a maioria (cerca de90%) inclusa nos folículos pré-antrais. Entretanto, in vivo a quase totalidade destes folículos será eliminada porum processo fisiológico denominado de atresia. Portanto, os principais objetivos da tecnologia do ovárioartificial são: 1- Resgatar os folículos pré-antrais dos ovários antes que eles se tornem atrésicos e 2- cultivar invitro estes folículos até a maturação, com o propósito de produzir oócitos aptos a serem utilizados para aprodução in vitro de embriões. Este artigo de revisão descreve as aplicações e estado da arte da tecnologia doovário artificial, bem como discute os principais resultados, limitações e perspectivas do cultivo in vitro defolículos pré-antrais, com ênfase nos pequenos ruminantes.(AU)


The mammalian ovary contains from thousands to millions of immature oocytes being most of them(approximately 90%) enclosed in preantral follicles. However, in vivo the vast majority of follicles will beeliminated by a physiological process named atresia. Therefore, the main goals of the artificial ovary technologyare: 1- to recover preantral follicles from the ovary before they become atretic and 2- in vitro culture thosefollicles up to maturation stages for the purpose of producing oocytes to be used for further in vitro embryoproduction. This review article describes the applications and state of art of the artificial ovary technology aswell as discusses the main results, limitations and prospects of in vitro follicle culture focus on small ruminants.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Biotecnologia/história , Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Ovário
13.
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 41(1): 248-253, Jan-Mar. 2017.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1492468

Resumo

O ovário dos mamíferos contem de milhares a milhões de oócitos imaturos, sendo a maioria (cerca de90%) inclusa nos folículos pré-antrais. Entretanto, in vivo a quase totalidade destes folículos será eliminada porum processo fisiológico denominado de atresia. Portanto, os principais objetivos da tecnologia do ovárioartificial são: 1- Resgatar os folículos pré-antrais dos ovários antes que eles se tornem atrésicos e 2- cultivar invitro estes folículos até a maturação, com o propósito de produzir oócitos aptos a serem utilizados para aprodução in vitro de embriões. Este artigo de revisão descreve as aplicações e estado da arte da tecnologia doovário artificial, bem como discute os principais resultados, limitações e perspectivas do cultivo in vitro defolículos pré-antrais, com ênfase nos pequenos ruminantes.


The mammalian ovary contains from thousands to millions of immature oocytes being most of them(approximately 90%) enclosed in preantral follicles. However, in vivo the vast majority of follicles will beeliminated by a physiological process named atresia. Therefore, the main goals of the artificial ovary technologyare: 1- to recover preantral follicles from the ovary before they become atretic and 2- in vitro culture thosefollicles up to maturation stages for the purpose of producing oocytes to be used for further in vitro embryoproduction. This review article describes the applications and state of art of the artificial ovary technology aswell as discusses the main results, limitations and prospects of in vitro follicle culture focus on small ruminants.


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Biotecnologia/história , Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Ovário
14.
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 14(4): 1095-1102, Oct.-Dec. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1461305

Resumo

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) on the survival, activation, levels of ROS, and growth of goat preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. For this, ovarian fragments were cultured for 7 days in Alpha Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM+ ) with or without PDGF-BB (0, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml). The results showed that both the 25 ng/ml PDGF and the 50 ng/ml PDGF treatments maintained the percentage of morphologically normal follicles from day 1 to day 7. In addition, the 25 ng/ml PDGF treatment showed a significantly higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles when compared to the other treatments. At day 7, greater (P < 0.05) follicular and oocyte diameters were observed in the 25 ng/ml PDGF and the 50 ng/ml PDGF treatments when compared to the cultured control treatment. On day 7 of culture, all the treatments tested had a significant increase in the percentage of developing follicles when compared to the non-cultured control. However, the percentage of follicle activation, as well as ROS production, were similar (P < 0.05) among the treatments, irrespective of culture time. In conclusion, PDGF-BB improved, in a concentration-dependent manner, follicular survival as well as oocyte and follicular diameter after in vitro culture of goat preantral follicle-enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments.


Assuntos
Animais , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Cabras/embriologia , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fertilização in vitro , Folículo Ovariano
15.
Anim. Reprod. ; 14(4): 1095-1102, Oct.-Dec. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-18213

Resumo

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) on the survival, activation, levels of ROS, and growth of goat preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. For this, ovarian fragments were cultured for 7 days in Alpha Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM+ ) with or without PDGF-BB (0, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml). The results showed that both the 25 ng/ml PDGF and the 50 ng/ml PDGF treatments maintained the percentage of morphologically normal follicles from day 1 to day 7. In addition, the 25 ng/ml PDGF treatment showed a significantly higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles when compared to the other treatments. At day 7, greater (P < 0.05) follicular and oocyte diameters were observed in the 25 ng/ml PDGF and the 50 ng/ml PDGF treatments when compared to the cultured control treatment. On day 7 of culture, all the treatments tested had a significant increase in the percentage of developing follicles when compared to the non-cultured control. However, the percentage of follicle activation, as well as ROS production, were similar (P < 0.05) among the treatments, irrespective of culture time. In conclusion, PDGF-BB improved, in a concentration-dependent manner, follicular survival as well as oocyte and follicular diameter after in vitro culture of goat preantral follicle-enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Cabras/embriologia , Fertilização in vitro , Folículo Ovariano
16.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 41: Pub. 1138, 2013. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1372117

Resumo

Background: The anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) superfamily, which exerts important functions on local regulation of folliculogenesis. Although in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that AMH affects the primordial follicle assembly and activation, as well as the responsiveness of growing follicles to folliclestimulating hormone (FSH), the physiological mechanisms involved in these actions remain to be fully elucidated. Given the relevance of AMH in the folliculogenesis, this review aimed to describe the structural features, expression and the main biological effects of AMH on the follicular development. Review: Originally identified as a testicular product, AMH is responsible for regression of the Müllerian ducts during sexual differentiation of male embryos. In females, AMH is produced almost exclusively by granulosa cells of ovarian growing follicles, whose serum levels are positively related to the number of ovarian follicles, making AMH an excellent clinic marker of ovarian reserve. Along this work, it was shown aspects related to the structural characterization of AMH and its specific type II receptor (AMHRII). AMH is a glycoprotein dimer linked by disulfide bonds. The mature protein comprises two unequal domains: a long N-terminal domain (110-kDa) and a short C-terminal domain (25-kDa), responsible for the biological activity of the molecule. The AMHRII is an 82-kDa protein. Like others members of TGF-ß family, AMH signals through two types of serine/threonine kinase receptors called type I and type II, and two types of Smad proteins, receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) and common Smad, Smad4. However, the identity of the AMH type I receptor is not clear; three type I receptors of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), Alk2, Alk3 and Alk6 may transduce AMH signals. AMH expression was detected in granulosa cells of growing follicles and it decreases once FSH-dependent follicular growth has been initiated. Follicles showing signs of atresia also have decreased or no AMH expression, and expression is completely lost in corpora lutea. AMH is not found in primordial follicles, theca cells, oocytes or the interstitium. This specific expression pattern of AMH suggests a role in the two regulatory steps of folliculogenesis: the recruitment of primordial follicles and the sensitivity of large preantral and small antral follicles to FSH. Evidences obtained from studies with AMH-knockout mice suggest that AMH inhibits activation of primordial follicles into the growing pool, while at cyclic recruitment AMH lowers the FSH-sensitivity of follicles. In addition, AMH was recently implicated in the primordial follicle assembly. AMH was found to inhibit primordial follicle assembly and decrease the initial primordial follicle pool size in a rat ovarian organ culture. Conclusion: From this review, we can conclude that AMH plays a key role on the modulation of ovarian function in mammals. This substance is an important player in two checkpoints that regulate the efficiency of primordial follicle pool usage and the choice of the dominant follicle: activation and selection, respectively. However, it is necessary to perform additional studies that may provide a better understanding about the importance of AMH during folicullogenesis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes de Função Ovariana , Transdução de Sinais , Hormônio Antimülleriano
17.
Ciênc. Anim. (Impr.) ; 22(2): 25-43, 20120000. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1472150

Resumo

O processo reprodutivo é composto de uma série complexa de eventos que ocorrem de uma forma ordenada e cronológica. Entretanto, diversos fatores podem interromper o ciclo reprodutivo causando infertilidade ou esterilidade. Neste contexto, o emprego da homeopatia poderia contribuir para a reversão do quadro patológico. Apesar da homeopatia ser uma ciência antiga, desperta ainda uma série de questões e dúvidas quanto à sua eficiência. Diante disso, esta revisão tem como objetivo relatar a importância dos medicamentos homeopáticos na reprodução humana e animal, enfatizando o papel desses medicamentos no tratamento de distúrbios reprodutivos.


The reproduction is composed of several complex events that occur in an orderly and chronological way. However, many factors may disrupt the reproductive cycle, thus causing infertility or sterility. In this context, the use of homeopathy may contribute to reverse the pathological condition. In spite of homeopathy being an ancient science, it arises many questions and doubts about its efficiency. Therefore, this review paper aims to report the importance of homeopathic medicines in animal and human reproduction, emphasizing the role of these drugs in the treatment of reproductive disorders.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Fertilidade , Homeopatia/efeitos adversos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade/efeitos adversos
18.
Ciênc. Anim. (Impr.) ; 22(2): 25-43, 20120000. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-12569

Resumo

O processo reprodutivo é composto de uma série complexa de eventos que ocorrem de uma forma ordenada e cronológica. Entretanto, diversos fatores podem interromper o ciclo reprodutivo causando infertilidade ou esterilidade. Neste contexto, o emprego da homeopatia poderia contribuir para a reversão do quadro patológico. Apesar da homeopatia ser uma ciência antiga, desperta ainda uma série de questões e dúvidas quanto à sua eficiência. Diante disso, esta revisão tem como objetivo relatar a importância dos medicamentos homeopáticos na reprodução humana e animal, enfatizando o papel desses medicamentos no tratamento de distúrbios reprodutivos.(AU)


The reproduction is composed of several complex events that occur in an orderly and chronological way. However, many factors may disrupt the reproductive cycle, thus causing infertility or sterility. In this context, the use of homeopathy may contribute to reverse the pathological condition. In spite of homeopathy being an ancient science, it arises many questions and doubts about its efficiency. Therefore, this review paper aims to report the importance of homeopathic medicines in animal and human reproduction, emphasizing the role of these drugs in the treatment of reproductive disorders.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Homeopatia/efeitos adversos , Fertilidade , Fármacos para a Fertilidade/efeitos adversos
19.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 5(2): 147-157, 2011. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1413964

Resumo

A atividade reprodutiva das espécies mamíferas pode ser relacionada ao período do ano mais propício para o nascimento das crias. A duração do período de luz (fotoperíodo) está fortemente relacionada a esse mecanismo por intermédio da secreção de melatonina pela glândula pineal. A melatonina é o neurotransmissor responsável por mediar às informações diárias do ciclo de luz/escuridão, informando ao organismo a duração da noite e, conseqüentemente, o período do ano correspondente. A presença de seus receptores em células hipotalâmicas e células gonadotróficas da hipófise explicam os efeitos da melatonina na secreção de gonadotrofinas (Hormônio folículo estimulante-FSH e Hormônio luteinizante-LH) e na organização dos ritmos sazonais. Além da sua atuação sistêmica, estudos têm sugerido uma atuação deste hormônio na fisiologia ovariana, uma vez que foram detectadas altas concentrações de melatonina no fluido folicular e a presença de seus receptores em células foliculares. Além disso, a sua atuação como antioxidante pode estar associada a vários eventos como o desenvolvimento folicular, a maturação oocitária, a ovulação e a função luteal. Dessa forma, a presente revisão fará uma abordagem geral da influência da melatonina na reprodução animal, enfatizando suas ações sobre a fisiologia ovariana.


The reproductive activity of mammalian species can be related to the most propitious time of the year to the birth of offspring. The light period duration (photoperiod) is strongly related to this mechanism through the secretion of melatonin by pineal gland. Melatonin is the neurotransmitter responsible for mediate the daily information of light/dark cycle, informing the night duration to the body and, consequently the corresponding time of the year. The presence of melatonin receptor sites in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland explain its effects on the secretion of pituitary hormones (Follicle stimulating hormone-FSH and Luteinizing hormone-LH) and seasonal rhythm organization. In addition to its systemic action, reports have demonstrated an influence in the ovarian physiology, since high levels in follicular fluid were detected and the presence of melatonin receptors in the ovarian cells has been found. Also, its important function as an antioxidant can influence follicular growth, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteal function. The purpose of this article is to review the melatonin influence in the animal reproduction, especially in the ovarian physiology.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Melatonina/análise , Antioxidantes/fisiologia
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