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Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 894, 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1444632


Background: The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid in South America and the only representative of its genus. The scientific literature presents studies referring to the management and anaesthesia of the species but is scarce in case of emergency procedures, and to date, there are no reports of anaesthesia for emergency procedures in a neonatal maned wolf. Thus, this study aimed to report xenotransfusion and emergency anaesthesia for thoracic limb amputation in an approximately 8-days-old maned wolf pup. Case: A maned wolf pup, approximately 8-day-old, with a history of an accident with an agricultural machine, was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná - Palotina Sector (HVP - UFPR) with a grade III open fracture of left radius and ulna. At the physical evaluation, bullous rales were observed in the right caudal lobe on pulmonary auscultation, hypoglycemia and severe dehydration, the latter being determined by the occurrence of enophthalmos, increased capillary refill time and skin turgor (3 s). The hemogram revealed regenerative hypochromic macrocytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and the chest radiograph showed alveolar pattern opacification, associated with the presence of air bronchograms in the caudal lobes, more evident on the right side, suggestive of pulmonary contusion. Considering the laboratory alterations and the need for amputation of the thoracic limb, xenotransfusion was chosen before the anaesthetic procedure. The animal was pre-medicated with methadone 0.2 mg/kg and anaesthetic induction was performed with propofol titrated to effect, requiring 10 mg/kg. This was followed by endotracheal intubation and anaesthetic maintenance using the partial intravenous technique with an infusion of 5 µg/kg/h of remifentanil and Isoflurane vaporised through a non-rebreathing system in oxygen at 0.6. Anaesthetic monitoring included heart rate and electrocardiogram tracing, respiratory rate, oxyhemoglobin saturation, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, systemic blood pressure by the oscillometric method, and oesophageal body temperature. Although the blood tests after the transfusion showed an increase in hematocrit, changes suggestive of a delayed hemolytic reaction because of the transfusion were also noticed. Discussion: Preanesthetic stabilisation is critical, as anaesthesia of unstable patients may result in a higher risk of anaesthetic complications. Critically ill patients may present systemic imbalances that can trigger pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of anaesthetics and analgesics. Neonates have several marked physiological differences, since some organs are still immature, have a high body volume of water, and present a reduced amount of total fat and concentrations of circulating proteins, making it necessary to adjust protocols and doses used for these patients. Blood transfusion between the same species is always the best option, though xenotransfusion becomes an option when there is no homologous donor available. However, it can present a great risk to life, as there is a lack of studies regarding the blood typing of the species and blood compatibility tests. We concluded that there was an increase in hematocrit after 24 h of xenotransfusion and, even with signs of delayed hemolytic reaction observed in the blood test, the patient did not show specific clinical signs of transfusion reaction. The pup was sensitive to methadone but required a high dose of propofol for anaesthetic induction. The use of methadone as a pre-anaesthetic agent and the infusion of remifentanil provided adequate analgesia based on the parameters evaluated.

Animais , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Canidae/fisiologia , Anestesia Intravenosa/veterinária , Amputação Cirúrgica/veterinária , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 159-163, out./dez. 2022. il.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1426889


O complexo de desordens hiperostóticas é uma condição rara e autolimitante, que tem as mesmas características histopatológicas, que cursa com proliferação óssea de caráter não neoplásico. Acomete cães jovens de raças distintas, com variabilidade quanto ao tipo de proliferação óssea e quanto aos ossos acometidos. O complexo é composto pela osteopatia craniomandibular, hiperostose da calota craniana e osteodistrofia hipertrófica. Podendo estar presente nos ossos da calota craniana, mandíbulas, coluna cervical e esqueleto apendicular. O presente relato, descreveu o quadro de uma cadela, da raça American Bully, não castrada, três meses de idade, que foi atendida com queixa de aumento de volume doloroso das mandíbulas, hiporexia e sialorreia há 15 dias, apresentando ao exame físico, amplitude de movimento diminuída e sensibilidade dolorosa da articulação temporomandibular, espessamento firme bilateral do crânio em região de fossa temporal, espessamento palpável de consistência firme das mandíbulas e crepitação respiratória. Após avaliação clínica e realização de exames complementares, chegou-se ao diagnóstico presuntivo, de complexo de desordens hiperostóticas. Foi instituído como conduta terapêutica o suporte analgésico, sendo eficaz para a manutenção das necessidades fisiológicas até a paciente alcançar a fase adulta. O prognóstico para esta paciente foi considerado bom, uma vez que não havia indícios de anquilose da articulação temporomandibular e/ou manifestações neurológicas.

The complex of hyperostotic disorders is a rare and self-limiting condition, which has the same histophatological characteristics, which courses with non-neoplastic bone proliferations. It affects young dogs of different breeds, with variability the bones affected. The complex is composed of craniomandibular osteopathy, calvarial hyperostotic syndrome and hypertrophic osteodystrophy. It may be present in the bones of the skullcap, jaws, cervical spine and appendicular skeleton. The present report describes the condition of a female dog, American Bully breed, entire, three months old, with a complaint of painful swelling of the jaws, hyporexia and drooling for 15 days, presenting on physical examination, reduced amplitude and pain of the temporomandibular joint, bilateral firm thickening of the skull in the temporal fossa region, palpable firm-consistent thickening of the mandibles and respiratory crackle. After clinical evaluation and complementary tests, a presumptive diagnosis of hyperostotic disorders complex was reached. It was instituted pain management as a treatment, being effective for the maintenance of physiological needs until the patient reaches the adulthood. The prognosis for this patient was considered good, since there was no evidence of temporomandibular joint ankylosis and/or neurological manifestations.

Animais , Cães , Articulação Temporomandibular/anormalidades , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Hiperostose/veterinária , Transtornos Craniomandibulares/veterinária , Cães/anormalidades , Ossos Faciais/patologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico