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1.
R. bras. Reprod. Anim. ; 43(2): 72-78, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-21850

Resumo

O prolongamento do intervalo desmame-estro (IDE) tem impacto sobre os protocolos de inseminação artificial (IA) e sobre a eficiência reprodutiva, devido ao acúmulo de dias não produtivos. Além de fatores estacionais e de manejo, protocolos baseados em hormonioterapia podem ser usados no controle da ciclicidade das fêmeas. A administração das gonadotrofinas coriônicas equina (eCG) e humana (hCG) após o desmame pode reduzir o IDE. A inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) é baseada na sincronização da ovulação, para que uma única IA seja executada por fêmea. Protocolos para leitoas exigem sincronização prévia do estro com análogos de progesterona seguida de um indutor de ovulação, como o hormônio luteinizante suíno (pLH) ou um agonista do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (GnRH). Os protocolos para porcas desmamadas podem ser conduzidos apenas com análogos de GnRH, aplicados por via intramuscular ou intravaginal. O uso da IATF associado às técnicas de IA intrauterina e IA homospérmica poderá resultar em substancial benefício econômico e genético devido à redução no número de espermatozoides em cada IA.(AU)


A prolonged WEI has an impact on artificial insemination (AI) management and reproductive efficiency due to the accumulation of non-productive days. Besides seasonal and management factors, hormone-based protocols can be used on the control of female cyclicity. Administration of equine and human chorionic gonadotrophins (eCG and hCG, respectively) after weaning can shorten the WEI. Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) is based on synchronization of the ovulation, allowing a single AI to be conducted per female. Protocols of FTAI for gilts require previous estrous synchronization with progesterone analogs followed by an ovulation inductor, such as the porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) or a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Protocols of FTAI for weaned sows can be conducted only using a GnRH agonist, applied either intramuscularly or intravaginally. The use of FTAI combined with both intrauterine and homospermic AI may result in substantial financial and genetic benefits due to the reduction in the number of spermatozoa per AI.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Estro , Periodicidade
2.
Rev. bras. reprod. anim ; 43(2): 72-78, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1492551

Resumo

O prolongamento do intervalo desmame-estro (IDE) tem impacto sobre os protocolos de inseminação artificial (IA) e sobre a eficiência reprodutiva, devido ao acúmulo de dias não produtivos. Além de fatores estacionais e de manejo, protocolos baseados em hormonioterapia podem ser usados no controle da ciclicidade das fêmeas. A administração das gonadotrofinas coriônicas equina (eCG) e humana (hCG) após o desmame pode reduzir o IDE. A inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) é baseada na sincronização da ovulação, para que uma única IA seja executada por fêmea. Protocolos para leitoas exigem sincronização prévia do estro com análogos de progesterona seguida de um indutor de ovulação, como o hormônio luteinizante suíno (pLH) ou um agonista do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (GnRH). Os protocolos para porcas desmamadas podem ser conduzidos apenas com análogos de GnRH, aplicados por via intramuscular ou intravaginal. O uso da IATF associado às técnicas de IA intrauterina e IA homospérmica poderá resultar em substancial benefício econômico e genético devido à redução no número de espermatozoides em cada IA.


A prolonged WEI has an impact on artificial insemination (AI) management and reproductive efficiency due to the accumulation of non-productive days. Besides seasonal and management factors, hormone-based protocols can be used on the control of female cyclicity. Administration of equine and human chorionic gonadotrophins (eCG and hCG, respectively) after weaning can shorten the WEI. Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) is based on synchronization of the ovulation, allowing a single AI to be conducted per female. Protocols of FTAI for gilts require previous estrous synchronization with progesterone analogs followed by an ovulation inductor, such as the porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) or a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Protocols of FTAI for weaned sows can be conducted only using a GnRH agonist, applied either intramuscularly or intravaginally. The use of FTAI combined with both intrauterine and homospermic AI may result in substantial financial and genetic benefits due to the reduction in the number of spermatozoa per AI.


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Estro , Inseminação Artificial/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Periodicidade
3.
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 15(2): 108-113, Apr.-June.2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1461346

Resumo

Bull Semen Collection and Processing Centers (SCPC) have satisfactory control of sperm quality, but commonly lack standardized quality control of hygiene procedures. This study assessed the impact of implementing a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system in a bull SCPC, comparing microbial counts on various steps of semen processing, semen quality and costs across two periods (before and after the HACCP implementation). After surveying all routine activities of the SCPC, control points were identified, preventive measures were designed and corrective actions were employed, whenever necessary. Six months after HACCP implementation, the system was audited and production data covering two similar periods of two consecutive years were compared. Counts of colony forming units in samples collected from artificial vaginas, flexible tubes from the straw filling machine and from fresh and frozen semen after HACCP implementation were lower than during the previous period (P < 0.05). Improved post-thawing sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity (P < 0.0001) and reduced rejection of semen batches and frozen doses were observed after HACCP implementation (P < 0.01), resulting in reduced opportunity costs. Thus, the implementation of a HACCP system in a bull SCPC allowed low-cost production of high-quality semen doses with reduced microbial contamination.


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Bovinos , Análise do Sêmen/efeitos adversos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Bovinos/genética , Controle de Qualidade
4.
Anim. Reprod. ; 15(2): 108-113, Apr.-June.2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-16525

Resumo

Bull Semen Collection and Processing Centers (SCPC) have satisfactory control of sperm quality, but commonly lack standardized quality control of hygiene procedures. This study assessed the impact of implementing a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system in a bull SCPC, comparing microbial counts on various steps of semen processing, semen quality and costs across two periods (before and after the HACCP implementation). After surveying all routine activities of the SCPC, control points were identified, preventive measures were designed and corrective actions were employed, whenever necessary. Six months after HACCP implementation, the system was audited and production data covering two similar periods of two consecutive years were compared. Counts of colony forming units in samples collected from artificial vaginas, flexible tubes from the straw filling machine and from fresh and frozen semen after HACCP implementation were lower than during the previous period (P < 0.05). Improved post-thawing sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity (P < 0.0001) and reduced rejection of semen batches and frozen doses were observed after HACCP implementation (P < 0.01), resulting in reduced opportunity costs. Thus, the implementation of a HACCP system in a bull SCPC allowed low-cost production of high-quality semen doses with reduced microbial contamination.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Bovinos , Bovinos/genética , Análise do Sêmen/efeitos adversos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Controle de Qualidade
5.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 10(1): 9-17, 2009.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1472725

Resumo

The main objective of this study was to evaluate two consecutive lots of swine production in floor of concrete and on bedding with two different depths. Environment parameters of the building had been evaluated, physical and chemistry of the bed, beyond the presence of Salmonella spp. in the systems of floor and the animals in the moment of slaughter. The treatments had been constituted of two different depths of bed of rind of rice, 0.5 m (T1) and 0.25 m (T2), and a system with compact floor of concrete (T3). Thirty animals had been used, being 15 animals for repetition. Was registered temperature in the surface of the floors and middle of the pens in the three treatments, to the half depth in the middle of the pens for T1 and T2. Was registered the ambient temperature and the relative humidity of air in the building. pH, dry matter, carbon and nitrogen Was determined in the beds. Salmonella spp. was analysed in: feces, blood, bed, swab of the floor and animals at the moment of slaughter. The use of bedding for swine in growth and finishing independent of the its height, is viable, because it did not influence the parameters of thermal comfort and the prevalency of Salmonella spp., beyond allowing the transformation of the waste in material stabilized for agricultural use.KEY WORDS: Alimentary security, environment, system of production, thermal comfort.


Este trabalho avaliou dois lotes consecutivos de suínos criados em piso de concreto e sobre cama com duas diferentes profundidades. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros ambientais da edificação, físico-químicos da cama, além da presença de Salmonella sp. nos sistemas de piso e nos animais no momento do abate. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas profundidades diferentes de cama de casca de arroz, 0,5 m (T1) e 0,25 m (T2), e um sistema com piso compacto de concreto (T3). Utilizaram-se trinta animais, sendo quinze animais por repetição. Registrou-se a temperatura na superfície dos pisos e centro das baias nos três tratamentos, à meia profundidade no centro das baias para T1 e T2. Mensuraram-se a temperatura ambiente e a umidade relativa do ar no interior das baias. Foram determinados pH, teor de matéria seca, carbono e nitrogênio das camas. A análise de Salmonella spp. foi feita em: fezes, sangue, cama, swab do piso e animais no momento do abate. A utilização de piso com cama para suínos nas fases de crescimento-terminação, independente da altura, é viável, pois não influenciou os parâmetros de conforto térmico e a prevalência de salmonela, além de permitir a transformação dos dejetos em material estabilizado para uso agrícola.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conforto térmico, meio ambiente, segurança alimentar, sistema de produção.

6.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 3(3): 163-165, 2009.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1453378

Resumo

The terms hermaphrodite and intersex are used to refer to animals with ambiguous sexual traits. The diagnostic of pseudo-hermaphrodites must be based on survey of the gonads and in the phenotypic aspect of the reproductive trait. The male pseudo-hermaphrodites have only testicle. This report describes a case of a male pseudo-hermaphrodite in a pig, whose reproductive organs were collected in a slaughterhouse. The pig was 150 days old, weighed nearly 100 kg, and showed external genitalia compatible with a female. The organs were evaluated grossly and microscopically. Grossly, the vulva showed abnormal morphology, but the vagina and the uterus (cervix, body, and horns) showed normal topographic anatomy. The gonads were morphologically compatible with testes with epididymis and pampiniform plexuses present. Histological examination of the gonads confirmed the identification of testes showing degenerative changes. Based on the gross and microscopic findings, the animal was diagnosed as a male pseudo-hermaphrodite. Keywords: Pseudo-hermaphrodite, pig, reproductive system.


Os termos pseudo-hermafrodita e intersexo são utilizados para se referir a animais com traços sexuais ambíguos. O diagnostico de pseudo-hermafrodita é baseado nos vestígios de gônadas e aspecto fenotípico do trato reprodutivo. Os pseudo-hermafroditas masculinos são aqueles que possuem somente testículo. Este trabalho relata um caso de pseudo-hermafrodita masculino em um suíno, cujo aparelho reprodutor foi colhido na linha de abate de um frigorífico. O animal, com idade de 150 dias e peso aproximado de 100 kg, possuía órgãos genitais exteriores femininos. O material coletado foi analisado macro e microscopicamente. Na análise macroscópica, verificou-se a presença de uma vulva anormal, ainda que a vagina e o útero (cérvix, corpo e cornos) apresentassem anatomia topográfica normal. As gônadas eram morfologicamente compatíveis com testículos, havendo também a presença dos epidídimos e do plexo pampiniforme. No exame histopatológico, confirmou-se que as gônadas apresentavam morfologia compatível com a de testículos, apresentando alterações degenerativas. Com base nos achados macroscópicos e microscópicos, concluiu-se que o animal era um pseudo-hermafrodita masculino. Palavras-Chave: Pseudo-hermafrodita, sistema reprodutor, suíno.

7.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 10(4): 1161-1170, 2009.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1472890

Resumo

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three disaccharides (sucrose, threalose and lactose) used as nonpenetrating cryoprotectants in extender for mice semen. The parameters evaluated were sperm motility (MOT) and cleavage rate (CLV) after in vitro fertilization in the SWISS-ALBINA and BALB/c lines. The treatments were S1=sucrose; S2=threalose; S3=lactose, for SWISS-ALBINA; and B1=lactose; B2=threalose for BALB/c.  MOT was evaluated after: thawing (THA), centrifugation and re-suspension in P-1 medium (CEN) and after 10 minutes of incubation (10M). The MOT for the SWISS-ALBINA line was higher for S2 (P


O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos dos dissacarídeos sacarose, trealose e lactose, como crioprotetores impermeáveis à membrana plasmática em diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen de camundongos. Para avaliação do sêmen utilizaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: motilidade progressiva (MOT) das células espermáticas, e a taxa de clivagem embrionária (TXCL) obtida por meio de fertilização in vitro, nas linhagens SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: S1=sacarose; S2=trealose; S3=lactose, para SWISS-ALBINA e B1=lactose; B2=trealose para BALB/c. Avaliou-se a MOT durante as seguintes etapas: descongelação (DES), centrifugação e ressuspensão no meio P-1 (CEN) e após dez minutos de incubação (10M). A MOT no S2 para a linhagem SWISS-ALBINA nas três etapas (47% no DES; 66,5% na CEN e 67,2% no 10M) foi superior (P

8.
Ci. Anim. bras. ; 10(1): 9-17, 2009.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-712960

Resumo

The main objective of this study was to evaluate two consecutive lots of swine production in floor of concrete and on bedding with two different depths. Environment parameters of the building had been evaluated, physical and chemistry of the bed, beyond the presence of Salmonella spp. in the systems of floor and the animals in the moment of slaughter. The treatments had been constituted of two different depths of bed of rind of rice, 0.5 m (T1) and 0.25 m (T2), and a system with compact floor of concrete (T3). Thirty animals had been used, being 15 animals for repetition. Was registered temperature in the surface of the floors and middle of the pens in the three treatments, to the half depth in the middle of the pens for T1 and T2. Was registered the ambient temperature and the relative humidity of air in the building. pH, dry matter, carbon and nitrogen Was determined in the beds. Salmonella spp. was analysed in: feces, blood, bed, swab of the floor and animals at the moment of slaughter. The use of bedding for swine in growth and finishing independent of the its height, is viable, because it did not influence the parameters of thermal comfort and the prevalency of Salmonella spp., beyond allowing the transformation of the waste in material stabilized for agricultural use.KEY WORDS: Alimentary security, environment, system of production, thermal comfort.


Este trabalho avaliou dois lotes consecutivos de suínos criados em piso de concreto e sobre cama com duas diferentes profundidades. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros ambientais da edificação, físico-químicos da cama, além da presença de Salmonella sp. nos sistemas de piso e nos animais no momento do abate. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas profundidades diferentes de cama de casca de arroz, 0,5 m (T1) e 0,25 m (T2), e um sistema com piso compacto de concreto (T3). Utilizaram-se trinta animais, sendo quinze animais por repetição. Registrou-se a temperatura na superfície dos pisos e centro das baias nos três tratamentos, à meia profundidade no centro das baias para T1 e T2. Mensuraram-se a temperatura ambiente e a umidade relativa do ar no interior das baias. Foram determinados pH, teor de matéria seca, carbono e nitrogênio das camas. A análise de Salmonella spp. foi feita em: fezes, sangue, cama, swab do piso e animais no momento do abate. A utilização de piso com cama para suínos nas fases de crescimento-terminação, independente da altura, é viável, pois não influenciou os parâmetros de conforto térmico e a prevalência de salmonela, além de permitir a transformação dos dejetos em material estabilizado para uso agrícola.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conforto térmico, meio ambiente, segurança alimentar, sistema de produção.

9.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 31(3): 161-166, 2003.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-733455

Resumo

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous disease that affects both men and a variety of animals caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The aims of this study were to observe differences in virulence between inocula containing the yeast (Y) or mycelial (M) forms, to compare the reactions induced by the two inocula injected in different anatomical sites, and to verify the possibility of horizontal transmission of the disease by contact between infected and healthy animals. All animals were observed during a period of nine weeks. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the paw pads and in the regions of the hip and shoulder joints. Another group of non-inoculated healthy mice was kept in direct contact with mice developing the subcutaneous lesions. Animals of groups Y and M developed lesions due to infections and clinical symptoms very characteristic of sporothrichosis. Lesions were more prominent and with longer duration when occurring in the pads than in any other site of inoculation. Non-inoculated mice remained healthy as it occurred to animals in the control group. The development of typical clinical symptoms for sporothrichosis in all inoculated groups suggests that no difference exists in virulence between the yeast and mycelial forms of the same isolated of S. schenckii. Moreover, the paw pads appear to be the site of choice for the inoculation for experimental sporot

10.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 161-166, 2003.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456318

Resumo

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous disease that affects both men and a variety of animals caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The aims of this study were to observe differences in virulence between inocula containing the yeast (Y) or mycelial (M) forms, to compare the reactions induced by the two inocula injected in different anatomical sites, and to verify the possibility of horizontal transmission of the disease by contact between infected and healthy animals. All animals were observed during a period of nine weeks. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the paw pads and in the regions of the hip and shoulder joints. Another group of non-inoculated healthy mice was kept in direct contact with mice developing the subcutaneous lesions. Animals of groups Y and M developed lesions due to infections and clinical symptoms very characteristic of sporothrichosis. Lesions were more prominent and with longer duration when occurring in the pads than in any other site of inoculation. Non-inoculated mice remained healthy as it occurred to animals in the control group. The development of typical clinical symptoms for sporothrichosis in all inoculated groups suggests that no difference exists in virulence between the yeast and mycelial forms of the same isolated of S. schenckii. Moreover, the paw pads appear to be the site of choice for the inoculation for experimental sporot

11.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 31(3): 161-166, 2003.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-732152

Resumo

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous disease that affects both men and a variety of animals caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The aims of this study were to observe differences in virulence between inocula containing the yeast (Y) or mycelial (M) forms, to compare the reactions induced by the two inocula injected in different anatomical sites, and to verify the possibility of horizontal transmission of the disease by contact between infected and healthy animals. All animals were observed during a period of nine weeks. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the paw pads and in the regions of the hip and shoulder joints. Another group of non-inoculated healthy mice was kept in direct contact with mice developing the subcutaneous lesions. Animals of groups Y and M developed lesions due to infections and clinical symptoms very characteristic of sporothrichosis. Lesions were more prominent and with longer duration when occurring in the pads than in any other site of inoculation. Non-inoculated mice remained healthy as it occurred to animals in the control group. The development of typical clinical symptoms for sporothrichosis in all inoculated groups suggests that no difference exists in virulence between the yeast and mycelial forms of the same isolated of S. schenckii. Moreover, the paw pads appear to be the site of choice for the inoculation for experimental sporot

12.
Acta Vet. bras. ; 3(3): 163-165, 2009.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-722331

Resumo

The terms hermaphrodite and intersex are used to refer to animals with ambiguous sexual traits. The diagnostic of pseudo-hermaphrodites must be based on survey of the gonads and in the phenotypic aspect of the reproductive trait. The male pseudo-hermaphrodites have only testicle. This report describes a case of a male pseudo-hermaphrodite in a pig, whose reproductive organs were collected in a slaughterhouse. The pig was 150 days old, weighed nearly 100 kg, and showed external genitalia compatible with a female. The organs were evaluated grossly and microscopically. Grossly, the vulva showed abnormal morphology, but the vagina and the uterus (cervix, body, and horns) showed normal topographic anatomy. The gonads were morphologically compatible with testes with epididymis and pampiniform plexuses present. Histological examination of the gonads confirmed the identification of testes showing degenerative changes. Based on the gross and microscopic findings, the animal was diagnosed as a male pseudo-hermaphrodite. Keywords: Pseudo-hermaphrodite, pig, reproductive system.


Os termos pseudo-hermafrodita e intersexo são utilizados para se referir a animais com traços sexuais ambíguos. O diagnostico de pseudo-hermafrodita é baseado nos vestígios de gônadas e aspecto fenotípico do trato reprodutivo. Os pseudo-hermafroditas masculinos são aqueles que possuem somente testículo. Este trabalho relata um caso de pseudo-hermafrodita masculino em um suíno, cujo aparelho reprodutor foi colhido na linha de abate de um frigorífico. O animal, com idade de 150 dias e peso aproximado de 100 kg, possuía órgãos genitais exteriores femininos. O material coletado foi analisado macro e microscopicamente. Na análise macroscópica, verificou-se a presença de uma vulva anormal, ainda que a vagina e o útero (cérvix, corpo e cornos) apresentassem anatomia topográfica normal. As gônadas eram morfologicamente compatíveis com testículos, havendo também a presença dos epidídimos e do plexo pampiniforme. No exame histopatológico, confirmou-se que as gônadas apresentavam morfologia compatível com a de testículos, apresentando alterações degenerativas. Com base nos achados macroscópicos e microscópicos, concluiu-se que o animal era um pseudo-hermafrodita masculino. Palavras-Chave: Pseudo-hermafrodita, sistema reprodutor, suíno.

13.
Ci. Anim. bras. ; 10(4): 1161-1170, 2009.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-713887

Resumo

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three disaccharides (sucrose, threalose and lactose) used as nonpenetrating cryoprotectants in extender for mice semen. The parameters evaluated were sperm motility (MOT) and cleavage rate (CLV) after in vitro fertilization in the SWISS-ALBINA and BALB/c lines. The treatments were S1=sucrose; S2=threalose; S3=lactose, for SWISS-ALBINA; and B1=lactose; B2=threalose for BALB/c.  MOT was evaluated after: thawing (THA), centrifugation and re-suspension in P-1 medium (CEN) and after 10 minutes of incubation (10M). The MOT for the SWISS-ALBINA line was higher for S2 (P


O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos dos dissacarídeos sacarose, trealose e lactose, como crioprotetores impermeáveis à membrana plasmática em diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen de camundongos. Para avaliação do sêmen utilizaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: motilidade progressiva (MOT) das células espermáticas, e a taxa de clivagem embrionária (TXCL) obtida por meio de fertilização in vitro, nas linhagens SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: S1=sacarose; S2=trealose; S3=lactose, para SWISS-ALBINA e B1=lactose; B2=trealose para BALB/c. Avaliou-se a MOT durante as seguintes etapas: descongelação (DES), centrifugação e ressuspensão no meio P-1 (CEN) e após dez minutos de incubação (10M). A MOT no S2 para a linhagem SWISS-ALBINA nas três etapas (47% no DES; 66,5% na CEN e 67,2% no 10M) foi superior (P

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