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1.
Sci. agric ; 79(4): e20200281, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1290212

Resumo

Cachaça is a typical Brazilian spirit of significant economic and social relevance. The spirit may contain organic and inorganic contaminants that impair its quality, such as ethyl carbamate (EC), which is potentially carcinogenic. The study of factors that cause EC incidence is extremely important to produce cachaça with good physicochemical and sensory quality and for public health reasons. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze and quantify nitrogen (N) in sugarcane juice and correlate it with the EC levels, with copper (Cu) as precursor, in cachaça from stills, produced from the sugar of three different sugarcane varieties (RB857515, RB966928 and RB855453). We used the plantation systems without fertilization and with organic and conventional fertilization. The EC and Cu levels were below the legislation threshold and the N levels were correlated with EC formation in different planting systems.


Assuntos
Uretana/toxicidade , Cobre , Saccharum , Nitrogênio/análise
2.
Sci. agric ; 77(5): e20190027, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497880

Resumo

Ethyl carbamate (EC) (NH2COOCH2CH3) is found in cachaça, and its presence in the beverage is conspicuous for its toxicity. Copper, the metal of choice used in the construction of stills, is also considered a beverage contaminant and is often related to the presence of EC in beverages. The study aimed to monitor the quality of cachaça by measuring the presence of copper and EC, and comparing the influences of sugarcane cultivation systems on the concentration of these contaminants. The varieties, RB 867515, RB 962869 and RB 85553, were cultivated under the following management systems: planting without fertilization; organic planting; and conventional planting. For cultivation, a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme of 3 varieties × 3 managements was used as experimental planning, in 4 replications. The concentrations of copper and EC in beverages were evaluated and submitted to univariate analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05). The organic and conventional systems presented no significant variations in copper content, both of which are recommended for the planting of sugarcane as raw material for cachaça. From amongst the varieties evaluated, RB966928 presented the lowest concentrations of copper for the organic and conventional systems, and was the most recommended for the production of cachaça. To evaluate the EC concentration (μg L–1) in the cachaças produced, all beverages were considered in accordance with national legislation. Significant differences were observed between them, but the conventional and organic systems are favored for deployment in the cultivation of sugarcane as the raw material of cachaça. The same applies to the RB966928, RB867515 and RB855453 varieties.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Contaminantes Químicos em Alimentos , Saccharum , Uretana/isolamento & purificação , Controle e Fiscalização de Alimentos e Bebidas
3.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 21: e, 23 mar. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1473747

Resumo

Classical methods of analysis of nonlinear models are widely used in studies of ruminal degradation kinetics. As this type of study involves repeated measurements in the same experimental unit, the use of mixed nonlinear models (MNLM) is proposed, in order to solve problems of heterogeneity of variances of the responses, correlation among repeated measurements and consequent lack of sphericity in the covariance matrix. The aims of this work are to present an evaluation of the applicability of MNLM in the estimation of parameters to describe the in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of the dry matter of Tifton 85 hay and to compare the results with those obtained from the usual analysis in two-phases. The steers used in the trial were fed diets composed of three different combinations of roughage and concentrate and two hays with different nutritional qualities. The proposed approach was proven as effective as the traditional one for estimating model parameters. However, it adequately models the correlation among the longitudinal data, which can affect the estimates obtained, the standard error associated with them and potentially change the results of the inferences. It is quite attractive when the research seeks to understand the behavior of the process of food degradation throughout the incubation times.


Métodos clássicos de análise de modelos não lineares são amplamente utilizados em estudos da cinética de degradação ruminal. Como esse tipo de estudo envolve medidas repetidas na mesma unidade experimental, propõe-se o uso de modelos não lineares mistos (MNLM), buscando resolver os problemas de heterogeneidade de variâncias das respostas, de correlação entre as medidas repetida se a consequente falta de esfericidade da matriz de covariâncias. Os objetivos deste trabalho envolvem apresentar uma avaliação da aplicabilidade dos MNLM na estimação de parâmetros para descrever a cinética de degradação ruminal in situ da matéria seca de fenos de capim-Tifton 85 e comparar os seus resultados com os obtidos da análise usual realizada em duas fases. Os novilhos utilizados no ensaio foram alimentados com rações compostas por três diferentes combinações de volumoso e concentrado e dois fenos com diferentes qualidades nutricionais. A abordagem proposta mostrou-se tão efetiva quanto à tradicional para a estimação dos parâmetros do modelo. Contudo, ela modela de forma adequada a correlação entre os dados longitudinais, o que pode afetar as estimativas obtidas, o erro padrão associado a elas e, potencialmente, alterar os resultados das inferências. É bastante atraente quando a pesquisa busca entender o comportamento do processo da degradação dos alimentos ao longo dos tempos de incubação.


Assuntos
Dinâmica não Linear , Rúmen/fisiologia , Rúmen/química , Análise de Variância , Bovinos/metabolismo , Cinética , Estudos Longitudinais
4.
Sci. agric. ; 77(5): e20190027, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24804

Resumo

Ethyl carbamate (EC) (NH2COOCH2CH3) is found in cachaça, and its presence in the beverage is conspicuous for its toxicity. Copper, the metal of choice used in the construction of stills, is also considered a beverage contaminant and is often related to the presence of EC in beverages. The study aimed to monitor the quality of cachaça by measuring the presence of copper and EC, and comparing the influences of sugarcane cultivation systems on the concentration of these contaminants. The varieties, RB 867515, RB 962869 and RB 85553, were cultivated under the following management systems: planting without fertilization; organic planting; and conventional planting. For cultivation, a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme of 3 varieties × 3 managements was used as experimental planning, in 4 replications. The concentrations of copper and EC in beverages were evaluated and submitted to univariate analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05). The organic and conventional systems presented no significant variations in copper content, both of which are recommended for the planting of sugarcane as raw material for cachaça. From amongst the varieties evaluated, RB966928 presented the lowest concentrations of copper for the organic and conventional systems, and was the most recommended for the production of cachaça. To evaluate the EC concentration (μg L–1) in the cachaças produced, all beverages were considered in accordance with national legislation. Significant differences were observed between them, but the conventional and organic systems are favored for deployment in the cultivation of sugarcane as the raw material of cachaça. The same applies to the RB966928, RB867515 and RB855453 varieties.(AU)


Assuntos
Saccharum , Contaminantes Químicos em Alimentos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Uretana/isolamento & purificação , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Controle e Fiscalização de Alimentos e Bebidas
5.
Ci. Anim. bras. ; 21: e-57596, June 16, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32025

Resumo

Classical methods of analysis of nonlinear models are widely used in studies of ruminal degradation kinetics. As this type of study involves repeated measurements in the same experimental unit, the use of mixed nonlinear models (MNLM) is proposed, in order to solve problems of heterogeneity of variances of the responses, correlation among repeated measurements and consequent lack of sphericity in the covariance matrix. The aims of this work are to present an evaluation of the applicability of MNLM in the estimation of parameters to describe the in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of the dry matter of Tifton 85 hay and to compare the results with those obtained from the usual analysis in two-phases. The steers used in the trial were fed diets composed of three different combinations of roughage and concentrate and two hays with different nutritional qualities. The proposed approach was proven as effective as the traditional one for estimating model parameters. However, it adequately models the correlation among the longitudinal data, which can affect the estimates obtained, the standard error associated with them and potentially change the results of the inferences. It is quite attractive when the research seeks to understand the behavior of the process of food degradation throughout the incubation times.(AU)


Métodos clássicos de análise de modelos não lineares são amplamente utilizados em estudos da cinética de degradação ruminal. Como esse tipo de estudo envolve medidas repetidas na mesma unidade experimental, propõe-se o uso de modelos não lineares mistos (MNLM), buscando resolver os problemas de heterogeneidade de variâncias das respostas, de correlação entre as medidas repetida se a consequente falta de esfericidade da matriz de covariâncias. Os objetivos deste trabalho envolvem apresentar uma avaliação da aplicabilidade dos MNLM na estimação de parâmetros para descrever a cinética de degradação ruminal in situ da matéria seca de fenos de capim-Tifton 85 e comparar os seus resultados com os obtidos da análise usual realizada em duas fases. Os novilhos utilizados no ensaio foram alimentados com rações compostas por três diferentes combinações de volumoso e concentrado e dois fenos com diferentes qualidades nutricionais. A abordagem proposta mostrou-se tão efetiva quanto à tradicional para a estimação dos parâmetros do modelo. Contudo, ela modela de forma adequada a correlação entre os dados longitudinais, o que pode afetar as estimativas obtidas, o erro padrão associado a elas e, potencialmente, alterar os resultados das inferências. É bastante atraente quando a pesquisa busca entender o comportamento do processo da degradação dos alimentos ao longo dos tempos de incubação.(AU)


Assuntos
Dinâmica não Linear , Rúmen/fisiologia , Rúmen/química , Cinética , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise de Variância , Bovinos/metabolismo
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