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Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20210189, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436778


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milking hygiene practices, herd size, water hardness, and temperature-humidity index (THI) on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raw milk, and standard plate count (SPC) in milking machines of dairy farms in the central region of Mexico. Data were collected from fifty-three dairy farms during one year. The evaluated effects included milking hygiene conditions (good, medium, poor), herd size (1-50, 51-100, 101-150, ≥151 heads), water hardness (soft or moderately hard), and THI (comfortable or stressful). The increase in milking hygiene produced greater milk yield (MY) and energy corrected milk (ECM) but lower protein content, and decreased the individual bacterial count (IBC) and somatic cell count (SCC). The MY, ECM, protein content, IBC, and SCC were higher on bigger farms. The use of soft water reduced MY, IBC, and SCC, but improved fat, lactose, total solids (TS), and non-fat solids (NFS). Heat stress negatively affected fat, protein, TS, NFS, acidity, freezing point (FP), SCC, and methylene blue dye reduction test. Poor milking hygiene contributes to higher SPC in milking machine parts. Water hardness and THI did not affect SPC in all milking machine parts. Proper milking hygiene practices, larger herd size, softer water, lower THI, and adequate cleaning and disinfection of the milking machine parts benefits the physicochemical and microbiological quality of the milk.

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