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1.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: e-75400E, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1447904

Resumo

The aim of this study was to predict production indicators and to determine their potential economic impact on a poultry integration system using artificial neural networks (ANN) models. Forty zootechnical and production parameters from broiler breeder farms, one hatchery, broiler production flocks, and one slaughterhouse were selected as variables. The ANN models were established for four output variables: "saleable hatching", "weight at the end of week 5," "partial condemnation," and "total condemnation" and were analyzed in relation to the coefficient of multiple determination (R2), correlation coefficient (R), mean error (E), mean squared error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE). The production scenarios were simulated and the economic impacts were estimated. The ANN models were suitable for simulating production scenarios after validation. For "saleable hatching", incubator and egg storage period are likely to increase the financial gains. For "weight at the end of the week 5" the lineage (A) is important to increase revenues. However, broiler weight at the end of the first week may not have a significant influence. Flock sex (female) may influence the "partial condemnation" rates, while chick weight at first day may not. For "total condemnation", flock sex and type of chick may not influence condemnation rates, but mortality rates and broiler weight may have a significant impact.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi predizer os indicadores de produção e determinar o seu potencial impacto econômico em um sistema de integração utilizando as redes neurais artificiais (RNA). Quarenta parâmetros zootécnicos e de produção de granjas de matrizes e de frango de corte, um incubatório e um abatedouro foram selecionados como variáveis. Os modelos de RNA foram estabelecidos para quatro variáveis de saída ("eclosão vendável", "peso ao final da quinta semana", "condenações parciais" e "condenações totais") e foram analisados em relação ao coeficiente de determinação múltipla (R2), coeficiente de correlação (R), erro médio (E), erro quadrático médio (EQM) e raiz do erro quadrático médio (REQM). Os cenários produtivos foram simulados e os impactos foram estimados. Os modelos de RNA gerados foram adequados para simular diferentes cenários produtivos após o treinamento. Para "eclosão vendável", o modelo de incubadora e o período de incubação aumentaram os ganhos financeiros. Para "peso ao final da quinta semana", a linhagem também demonstrou influencia no retorno financeiro, o que não aconteceu com o peso ao final da primeira semana. O sexo do lote possui influência nas taxas de "condenação parcial", ao contrário do peso do frango no primeiro dia. As taxas de mortalidade e o peso do frango apresentaram influência na "condenação total", mas o sexo do lote e o tipo de pinto não tiverem influência.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas , Inteligência Artificial , Redes Neurais de Computação
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 852, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418139

Resumo

Background: A cutaneous or superficial myxoma is a benign neoplasm of dermal or subcutaneous fibroblast origin. Although rare, it has been previously described in several species, including poultry. It presents as a single node or soft mass with a gelatinous cut surface. Histopathological analysis is essential for diagnosis and to differentiate it from other mesenchymal neoplasms and inflammatory or degenerative processes. Microscopically, it consists of dermal or subcutaneous lobules of plump, stellate, or spindle-shaped, bland-looking cells embedded in a basophilic myxoid matrix. This report describes the pathological findings in a rare case of cutaneous myxoma in a 42-day-old broiler flock. Cases: During ante mortem inspection of a 42-day-old broiler flock at a slaughterhouse under the authority of the Federal Inspection Service (southern Brazil), nodular lesions or encrusted areas with yellow and black areas were observed in the head skin of less than 1% of animals. These lesions, approximately 0.5 cm in diameter, were observed on the comb, in the periocular skin region, and close to the animals' nostrils. During the breeding period, no health or epidemiological events were observed. Fragments of the lesions in the comb and periocular skin were collected and fixed in buffered 10% formalin. The samples were sent to the laboratory, routinely processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue. Microscopically, the lesions consisted of irregular multifocal proliferation of connective tissue showing spindle cells with poorly demarcated borders and scarce cytoplasm in a slightly basophilic myxoid aspect matrix. The adjacent epidermis is compressed due to neoplastic proliferation. No areas of epithelial hyperplasia or inclusion bodies were observed. According to the pathologic description and considering its descriptive epidemiology, our main clinical suspicion was cutaneous fowl pox, a pathology characterized by the appearance of nodules in regions devoid of feathers. However, the microscopic changes observed were compatible with those described for cutaneous myxomas. In addition, the extracellular matrix was positive for Alcian Blue staining, which is an indicator of myxoma. In the present case, the SIF did not report the same macroscopic lesions in other flocks of the same origin. Discussion: Connective tissue tumors, including myxomas, occur considerably less frequently under field conditions. In addition, these neoplasms are more frequent in mature birds and are not usually described in broilers, as observed in this report. The cutaneous myxoma described in broilers is usually a sporadic neoplasm that does not cause zootechnical losses, as observed in the case report. Its etiology is unknown and has been associated with various factors, such as local trauma and foreign bodies. Some fragments of plant material from the breeding environment were microscopically detected in the encrusted areas, which may indicate previous trauma or a foreign body. Myxoma has been associated with avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup A, but SIF did not report the same macroscopic lesions in other flocks of the same breeder hen's origin in the present case. Furthermore, sporadic connective tissue tumors associated with the virus occur in mature chickens but not in broilers. Myxoma lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other connective tissue tumors and infectious agents that cause lesions in the skin and subcutaneous tissue.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/lesões , Mixoma/veterinária , Abate de Animais , Neoplasias de Tecido Conjuntivo/veterinária
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 24(4): eRBCA-2021-1581, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1382066

Resumo

Due to the genetic similarity of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from birds and pathotypes of human origin, it is suggested that they have a common ancestor and may exchange virulence-associated genes. This study aimed to detect virulence-associated genes in E. coli strains isolated from the Red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) kept at a conservation institute in Brazil. High genetic variability in virulence was observed, since 12 virulence profiles were found among 14 strains. The number of virulence-associated genes of single strains ranged from 5 to 22 out of 33 genes tested, and only one strain did not present any virulence genes. Regarding adhesion genes, most strains presented from two to five genes, and crlA (85.7%) and fimC (85.7%) were the most frequent. Frequencies were similar for invasion and iron acquisition genes. Variations among genes were observed for serum resistance and toxin-related genes. Some of the E. coli strains isolated from parrots presented virulence genes that are commonly associated with pathotypes of human origin, including newborn meningitis E. coli, uropathogenic E. coli, and sepsis-associated E. coli. It is noteworthy that some of these genes were present in the majority of the analyzed strains. Our results indicate that these strains detected in clinically healthy parrots can be potential reservoirs of several virulence-associated genes. These genes can be transmitted to other E. coli strains, including those that affect humans. These E. coli strains present a high pathogenic potential of virulence-associated genes in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Papagaios/virologia , Biomarcadores , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/virologia
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48: Pub.1732-Jan. 30, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458255

Resumo

Background: Eggs have acquired a greater importance as an inexpensive and high-quality protein. The Brazilian eggindustry has been characterized by a constant production expansion in the last decade, increasing the number of housedanimals and facilitating the spread of many diseases. In order to reduce the sanitary and financial risks, decisions regarding the production and the health status of the flock must be made based on objective criteria. The use of Artificial NeuralNetworks (ANN) is a valuable tool to reduce the subjectivity of the analysis. In this context, the aim of this study was atvalidating the ANNs as viable tool to be employed in the prediction and management of commercial egg production flocks.Materials, Methods & Results: Data from 42 flocks of commercial layer hens from a poultry company were selected. Thedata refer to the period between 2010 and 2018 and it represents a total of 600,000 layers. Six parameters were selectedas “output” data (number of dead birds per week, feed consumption, number of eggs, weekly weight, weekly egg production and flock uniformity) and a total of 13 parameters were selected as “input” data (flock age, flock identification, totalhens in the flock, weekly weight, flock uniformity, lineage, weekly mortality, absolute number of dead birds, eggs/hen,weekly egg production, feed consumption, flock location, creation phase). ANNs were elaborated by software programsNeuroShell Predictor and NeuroShell Classifier. The programs identified input variables for the assembly of the networksseeking the prediction of the variables called outgoing that are subsequently validated. This validation goes through thecomparison between the predictions and the real data present in the database that was the basis for the work. Validation ofeach ANN is expressed by the specific statistical parameters multiple determination (R2) and Mean Squared Error...


Assuntos
Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Produção de Alimentos , Economia dos Alimentos , Galinhas , Ovos
5.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 48: Pub. 1732, May 27, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29460

Resumo

Background: Eggs have acquired a greater importance as an inexpensive and high-quality protein. The Brazilian eggindustry has been characterized by a constant production expansion in the last decade, increasing the number of housedanimals and facilitating the spread of many diseases. In order to reduce the sanitary and financial risks, decisions regarding the production and the health status of the flock must be made based on objective criteria. The use of Artificial NeuralNetworks (ANN) is a valuable tool to reduce the subjectivity of the analysis. In this context, the aim of this study was atvalidating the ANNs as viable tool to be employed in the prediction and management of commercial egg production flocks.Materials, Methods & Results: Data from 42 flocks of commercial layer hens from a poultry company were selected. Thedata refer to the period between 2010 and 2018 and it represents a total of 600,000 layers. Six parameters were selectedas “output” data (number of dead birds per week, feed consumption, number of eggs, weekly weight, weekly egg production and flock uniformity) and a total of 13 parameters were selected as “input” data (flock age, flock identification, totalhens in the flock, weekly weight, flock uniformity, lineage, weekly mortality, absolute number of dead birds, eggs/hen,weekly egg production, feed consumption, flock location, creation phase). ANNs were elaborated by software programsNeuroShell Predictor and NeuroShell Classifier. The programs identified input variables for the assembly of the networksseeking the prediction of the variables called outgoing that are subsequently validated. This validation goes through thecomparison between the predictions and the real data present in the database that was the basis for the work. Validation ofeach ANN is expressed by the specific statistical parameters multiple determination (R2) and Mean Squared Error...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Produção de Alimentos , Ovos , Economia dos Alimentos , Galinhas
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 46: Pub.1606-2018. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457898

Resumo

Background: Bursa of Fabricius (BF) and the thymus are primary lymphoid organs of poultry and play a major role in avian immunity. Enteric system is also involved in immunity. Several pathologic conditions directly impact BF and thymus size, and also affect intestinal parameters. Besides, there are several immune system depressor agents which affect birds. The selection of glucocorticoid as inducer of immunosuppression is applied in many experiments; however there are few studies that are applied to the reality in the field. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone as an inducer of immunosuppression on lymphoid organs and microscopic structures of the jejunum.Materials, Methods & Results: One-day-old chicks were used as a control group (n = 8) and the treated group (n = 25) received intramuscular dexamethasone on 21, 23, 24 and 26 day-old. Control birds and treated birds were euthanized 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 h after inoculation; four control birds and six treated birds were euthanized on the eighth day after the last inoculation. Thymus, BF and jejunum were collected during the necropsy. The selected organs were processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and photographed. The BF and thymus cuts were evaluated by three histopathologists to determine the depletion score. Ten villi of each jejunum were evaluated for width and length of villi, depth crypt, microvillus length, enterocyte length of each villus, and wall thickness. Treated birds presented a mean weight lower than control group during all the experiment. The mean weight and the relative weight of the BF and thymus of control birds were significantly higher than treated ones. The lymphocyte depletion in BF and thymus scores differed significantly between groups, being higher in the group challenged with dexamethasone. There were no significant differences between groups for depth of crypt, height of core and height of microvilli.[...]


Assuntos
Animais , Depleção Linfocítica/veterinária , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Jejuno , Jejuno/ultraestrutura , Terapia de Imunossupressão/veterinária
7.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 46: Pub. 1606, 2018. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19981

Resumo

Background: Bursa of Fabricius (BF) and the thymus are primary lymphoid organs of poultry and play a major role in avian immunity. Enteric system is also involved in immunity. Several pathologic conditions directly impact BF and thymus size, and also affect intestinal parameters. Besides, there are several immune system depressor agents which affect birds. The selection of glucocorticoid as inducer of immunosuppression is applied in many experiments; however there are few studies that are applied to the reality in the field. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone as an inducer of immunosuppression on lymphoid organs and microscopic structures of the jejunum.Materials, Methods & Results: One-day-old chicks were used as a control group (n = 8) and the treated group (n = 25) received intramuscular dexamethasone on 21, 23, 24 and 26 day-old. Control birds and treated birds were euthanized 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 h after inoculation; four control birds and six treated birds were euthanized on the eighth day after the last inoculation. Thymus, BF and jejunum were collected during the necropsy. The selected organs were processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and photographed. The BF and thymus cuts were evaluated by three histopathologists to determine the depletion score. Ten villi of each jejunum were evaluated for width and length of villi, depth crypt, microvillus length, enterocyte length of each villus, and wall thickness. Treated birds presented a mean weight lower than control group during all the experiment. The mean weight and the relative weight of the BF and thymus of control birds were significantly higher than treated ones. The lymphocyte depletion in BF and thymus scores differed significantly between groups, being higher in the group challenged with dexamethasone. There were no significant differences between groups for depth of crypt, height of core and height of microvilli.[...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Terapia de Imunossupressão/veterinária , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Depleção Linfocítica/veterinária , Jejuno , Jejuno/ultraestrutura
8.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 45: 1-8, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-16954

Resumo

Background: Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are responsible, respectively, for avian colibacillosis and for 80% of urinary tract infections in humans. E. coli control is difficult due to the absence of a reliable method to differentiate pathogenic and commensal strains. Genetic similarity between APEC and UPEC suggests a common ancestral origin and the capability of potentially pathogenic strains to affect human health. The classification in phylogenetic groups facilitates the identification of pathogenic strains. The objective of this work was to classify APEC and UPEC E. coli strains into phylogenetic groups and to associate it with in vivo pathogenicity. Materials, Methods & Results: 460 APEC and 450 UPEC strains, stored in BHI with glycerol at -80°C, were selected. APEC strains were isolated from cellulitis, respiratory tract and poultry litter of broiler flocks from Southern Brazil. The UPEC strains from urinary tract infection were provided by a hospital in Porto Alegre. After DNA extraction, APEC and UPEC strains were classified into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) by a multiplex-PCR protocol for the detection of the chuA and yjaA genes and the TspE4.C2 DNA fragment. Phylogenetic groups were associated with pathogenicity indexes (PI), presented on a scale of 0 to 10, which were previously obtained through the inoculation of APEC strains in one-day-old chicks. Phylogenetic groups were also associated with the presence of 38 virulence-associated genes. The multiplex-PCR protocol was able to differentiate 100% of the APEC and UPEC strains in the four phylogenetic groups. The majority of APEC strains were classified into phylogenetic groups D (31.1%) and B2 (24.1%). On the other hand, the majority of UPEC strains were classified into B2 (53.6%). Among APEC strains, five genes (crl, mat, ompA, fimC and fimH) […](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Virulência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
9.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 45: 1-8, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457603

Resumo

Background: Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are responsible, respectively, for avian colibacillosis and for 80% of urinary tract infections in humans. E. coli control is difficult due to the absence of a reliable method to differentiate pathogenic and commensal strains. Genetic similarity between APEC and UPEC suggests a common ancestral origin and the capability of potentially pathogenic strains to affect human health. The classification in phylogenetic groups facilitates the identification of pathogenic strains. The objective of this work was to classify APEC and UPEC E. coli strains into phylogenetic groups and to associate it with in vivo pathogenicity. Materials, Methods & Results: 460 APEC and 450 UPEC strains, stored in BHI with glycerol at -80°C, were selected. APEC strains were isolated from cellulitis, respiratory tract and poultry litter of broiler flocks from Southern Brazil. The UPEC strains from urinary tract infection were provided by a hospital in Porto Alegre. After DNA extraction, APEC and UPEC strains were classified into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) by a multiplex-PCR protocol for the detection of the chuA and yjaA genes and the TspE4.C2 DNA fragment. Phylogenetic groups were associated with pathogenicity indexes (PI), presented on a scale of 0 to 10, which were previously obtained through the inoculation of APEC strains in one-day-old chicks. Phylogenetic groups were also associated with the presence of 38 virulence-associated genes. The multiplex-PCR protocol was able to differentiate 100% of the APEC and UPEC strains in the four phylogenetic groups. The majority of APEC strains were classified into phylogenetic groups D (31.1%) and B2 (24.1%). On the other hand, the majority of UPEC strains were classified into B2 (53.6%). Among APEC strains, five genes (crl, mat, ompA, fimC and fimH) […]


Assuntos
Animais , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Virulência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
10.
R. bras. Saúde Prod. Anim. ; 18(1): 10-15, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-15333

Resumo

Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a eficácia dos desinfetantes cloreto de benzalcônio (QAC) e iodóforo (I) sobre 10 cepas APEC (Escherichia coli patogênica aviária), bem como verificar se a característica alta patogenicidade está associada a uma maior resistência a estes compostos. O método utilizado foi o de diluição através do teste qualitativo de suspensão. As variáveis estudadas foram: concentrações do QAC (300, 150, 75 e 50 ppm) e do I (100, 75, 50 e 25 ppm), tempos de contato (5, 10 e 20 minutos) e temperatura ±20°C. O QAC inativou todos os isolados nas concentrações de 300 e 150 ppm, em todos os tempos de contato, porém a 75 e 50 ppm no tempo de 5 minutos o desinfetante não foi eficaz para uma e quatro amostras, respectivamente. O I a 100 e 75 ppm inativou os isolados em todos os tempos avaliados, mas a 50 ppm um foi resistente e a 25 ppm oito foram resistentes em todos os tempos de exposição. A característica alta patogenicidade não pareceu promover resistência, quando comparado com a cepa padrão. Concluiu-se, nas condições do experimento, que os dois desinfetantes podem ser usados em procedimentos de higiene frente às cepas APEC, apenas levando-se em consideração a concentração de uso e o tempo de contato.(AU)


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (QAC) and iodophor (I) on 10 strains APEC (Escherichia coli pathogenic avian) and verify that the high feature pathogenicity provides protection factor against these compounds. The method used was the dilution by the qualitative suspension test. The variables studied were: the concentrations of QAC (300, 150, 75 and 50 ppm) and I (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm), contact times (5, 10 and 20 minutes) and room temperature (20°C). The QAC inactivated all strains at concentrations of 300 and 150 ppm at all contact times, but at 75 and 50 ppm in time of 5 minutes was not effective disinfectant for one and four APEC strains, respectively. The I 100 and 75 ppm inactivated isolates in all time periods, but 50 ppm one was tough and 25ppm eight were resistant in all exposure times. The highly pathogenic feature does not appear to promote resistance when compared with the standard strain. It was concluded, under the experimental conditions, the two disinfectants can be used in front of the hygiene procedures APEC strains, only taking into account the use concentration and contact time.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/anormalidades , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/análise , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Benzalcônio/análise , Iodóforos/análise
11.
Rev. bras. saúde prod. anim ; 18(1): 10-15, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1493710

Resumo

Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a eficácia dos desinfetantes cloreto de benzalcônio (QAC) e iodóforo (I) sobre 10 cepas APEC (Escherichia coli patogênica aviária), bem como verificar se a característica alta patogenicidade está associada a uma maior resistência a estes compostos. O método utilizado foi o de diluição através do teste qualitativo de suspensão. As variáveis estudadas foram: concentrações do QAC (300, 150, 75 e 50 ppm) e do I (100, 75, 50 e 25 ppm), tempos de contato (5, 10 e 20 minutos) e temperatura ±20°C. O QAC inativou todos os isolados nas concentrações de 300 e 150 ppm, em todos os tempos de contato, porém a 75 e 50 ppm no tempo de 5 minutos o desinfetante não foi eficaz para uma e quatro amostras, respectivamente. O I a 100 e 75 ppm inativou os isolados em todos os tempos avaliados, mas a 50 ppm um foi resistente e a 25 ppm oito foram resistentes em todos os tempos de exposição. A característica alta patogenicidade não pareceu promover resistência, quando comparado com a cepa padrão. Concluiu-se, nas condições do experimento, que os dois desinfetantes podem ser usados em procedimentos de higiene frente às cepas APEC, apenas levando-se em consideração a concentração de uso e o tempo de contato.


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (QAC) and iodophor (I) on 10 strains APEC (Escherichia coli pathogenic avian) and verify that the high feature pathogenicity provides protection factor against these compounds. The method used was the dilution by the qualitative suspension test. The variables studied were: the concentrations of QAC (300, 150, 75 and 50 ppm) and I (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm), contact times (5, 10 and 20 minutes) and room temperature (20°C). The QAC inactivated all strains at concentrations of 300 and 150 ppm at all contact times, but at 75 and 50 ppm in time of 5 minutes was not effective disinfectant for one and four APEC strains, respectively. The I 100 and 75 ppm inactivated isolates in all time periods, but 50 ppm one was tough and 25ppm eight were resistant in all exposure times. The highly pathogenic feature does not appear to promote resistance when compared with the standard strain. It was concluded, under the experimental conditions, the two disinfectants can be used in front of the hygiene procedures APEC strains, only taking into account the use concentration and contact time.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/anormalidades , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/análise , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Benzalcônio/análise , Iodóforos/análise
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 652-656, jul. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794775

Resumo

The thymus is a lymphoid organ and usually evaluated for the degree of lymphocyte loss with subjective histological techniques. This study aimed to adapt and to apply of the digital analysis of the lymphoid depletion system (ADDL) in the thymus in order to obtain a more accurate analysis. Glucocorticoid was used to induce immunosuppression in 55 broilers at 21 days of age; other 15 broilers were the control group. After euthanasia of the broilers, postmortem examination was made. Both thymic chains were collected and six lobes were selected for histological examination of the degree of lymphocyte depletion (scores 1 to 5) and for submission to all stages of processing by the ADDL system. The artificial constructed neural networks (ANN) obtained 94.03% of correct classifications. In conclusion, it was possible to adopt objective criteria to evaluate thymic lymphoid depletion with the ADDL system.(AU)


O timo é um órgão linfóide, que é normalmente avaliado para o grau de perda de linfócitos a partir de técnicas histológicas subjetivas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a adaptação e aplicação do sistema de análise digital de depleção linfóide (ADDL) para o timo, a fim de tornar sua análise mais acurada. Glicocorticóides foram utilizados a fim de induzir imunossupressão em 55 aves de 21 dias de idade. Outras 15 aves formaram o grupo controle. Posteriormente, para cada um dos aves, realizou-se a eutanásia e necropsia. Ambas as cadeias do timo foram coletadas e foram selecionadas seis lóbulos para processamento histológico, análise quanto ao grau de depleção linfocitária (escores de 1-5) e submissão a todas as fases do processamento pelo sistema ADDL. Observou-se que a rede neural artificial (RNA) construída obteve 94,03% de classificações corretas. Em conclusão, foi possível adotar critérios objetivos para avaliar a depleção linfóide tímica utilizando o sistema ADDL.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Depleção Linfocítica/veterinária , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Timo/fisiopatologia , Glucocorticoides/análise
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 652-656, July 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-14020

Resumo

The thymus is a lymphoid organ and usually evaluated for the degree of lymphocyte loss with subjective histological techniques. This study aimed to adapt and to apply of the digital analysis of the lymphoid depletion system (ADDL) in the thymus in order to obtain a more accurate analysis. Glucocorticoid was used to induce immunosuppression in 55 broilers at 21 days of age; other 15 broilers were the control group. After euthanasia of the broilers, postmortem examination was made. Both thymic chains were collected and six lobes were selected for histological examination of the degree of lymphocyte depletion (scores 1 to 5) and for submission to all stages of processing by the ADDL system. The artificial constructed neural networks (ANN) obtained 94.03% of correct classifications. In conclusion, it was possible to adopt objective criteria to evaluate thymic lymphoid depletion with the ADDL system.(AU)


O timo é um órgão linfóide, que é normalmente avaliado para o grau de perda de linfócitos a partir de técnicas histológicas subjetivas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a adaptação e aplicação do sistema de análise digital de depleção linfóide (ADDL) para o timo, a fim de tornar sua análise mais acurada. Glicocorticóides foram utilizados a fim de induzir imunossupressão em 55 aves de 21 dias de idade. Outras 15 aves formaram o grupo controle. Posteriormente, para cada um dos aves, realizou-se a eutanásia e necropsia. Ambas as cadeias do timo foram coletadas e foram selecionadas seis lóbulos para processamento histológico, análise quanto ao grau de depleção linfocitária (escores de 1-5) e submissão a todas as fases do processamento pelo sistema ADDL. Observou-se que a rede neural artificial (RNA) construída obteve 94,03% de classificações corretas. Em conclusão, foi possível adotar critérios objetivos para avaliar a depleção linfóide tímica utilizando o sistema ADDL.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Depleção Linfocítica/veterinária , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Timo/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/análise
14.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 47(1): 210-216, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-688340

Resumo

Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fatores de Virulência , Genes Virais , Anti-Infecciosos , Pasteurella multocida , Galinhas , Suínos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
15.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 44: 01-06, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-722745

Resumo

Background: Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli is the main agent of colibacillosis, a systemic disease that causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. In vivo experiments are used to measure the ability of E. coli to be pathogenic. Generally, these experiments have proposed different criteria for results interpretation and did not take into account the death time. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology for the classification of E. coli pathogenicity by the establishment of a pathogenicity index based in the lethality, death time and the ability of the strain to cause colibacillosis lesions in challenged animals. Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 293 isolates of E. coli were randomly selected to this study. The strains were isolated from cellulitis lesions, broiler bedding material or respiratory diseases and were previously confirmed through biochemical profile. The bacterial isolates were kept frozen at -20C. The strains were retrieved from stocks and cultured in brain-heart infusion broth overnight at 37C to obtain a final concentration of 109 UFC/mL. A total of 2940 one-dayold chicks from commercial breeding hens were randomly assigned to groups containing 10 animals and each group was subcutaneously inoculated in the abdominal region with 0.1 mL of the standard inoculum solution containing each of the strains. A control group [...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Classificação/métodos , Virulência , Galinhas
16.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 44: 01-06, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457475

Resumo

Background: Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli is the main agent of colibacillosis, a systemic disease that causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. In vivo experiments are used to measure the ability of E. coli to be pathogenic. Generally, these experiments have proposed different criteria for results interpretation and did not take into account the death time. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology for the classification of E. coli pathogenicity by the establishment of a pathogenicity index based in the lethality, death time and the ability of the strain to cause colibacillosis lesions in challenged animals. Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 293 isolates of E. coli were randomly selected to this study. The strains were isolated from cellulitis lesions, broiler bedding material or respiratory diseases and were previously confirmed through biochemical profile. The bacterial isolates were kept frozen at -20C. The strains were retrieved from stocks and cultured in brain-heart infusion broth overnight at 37C to obtain a final concentration of 109 UFC/mL. A total of 2940 one-dayold chicks from commercial breeding hens were randomly assigned to groups containing 10 animals and each group was subcutaneously inoculated in the abdominal region with 0.1 mL of the standard inoculum solution containing each of the strains. A control group [...]


Assuntos
Animais , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Classificação/métodos , Galinhas , Virulência
17.
R. bras. Saúde Prod. Anim. ; 16(1): 66-72, jan.-mar. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-12277

Resumo

Para impedir a dispersão de microrganismos patogênicos ao longo da cadeia avícola medidas de biosseguridade são adotadas, sendo a desinfecção procedimento obrigatório e o composto químico cloreto de benzalcônio (quaternário de amônio) largamente usado para essa finalidade. Devido ao fato de que parte das criações brasileiras localizam-se em regiões com grande amplitude térmica, o mesmo ocorrendo entre as diferentes áreas e secções de matadouros-frigoríficos, executou-se este experimento para verificar a atividade desse desinfetante simulando condições de uso frente a 33 isolados de Salmonella Hadar. Pelo teste de suspensão observou-se a inativação bacteriana sob as variáveis concentração (100 e 200 ppm), temperatura (20 ± 2 ºC e 8 ± 2 ºC), carga de matéria orgânica (1 e 3 %) e tempos de contato (5, 10 e 20 minutos). Como resultados, a 20 ± 2 ºC todos os isolados foram inativados nas duas concentrações e cargas orgânicas após 5 minutos de contato. Sob temperatura de 8 ± 2 ºC o desinfetante teve sua atividade comprometida, tendo isolados bacterianos sobrevivido sob todas as variáveis de confronto (33,3% frente 100 ppm e 6,1% frente 200 ppm). Quanto menor a concentração do desinfetante e maior carga orgânica, maior o número de isolados viáveis. Conclui-se que, nas condições do experimento, o cloreto de benzalcônio foi capaz de inativar todos os isolados do sorovar de Salmonella confrontados, podendo ser empregado nos procedimentos de desinfecção. No entanto, a baixa temperatura ambiente é fator de limitação na indicação de seu uso.(AU)


Biosafety measures are adopted in order to avoid the spreading of pathogenic microorganisms along the poultry chain, with disinfection being a mandatory procedure and the chemical compound benzalkonium chloride (quaternary ammonium) widely used for this purpose. Due to the fact that part of the farming in Brazil is located in areas with a great thermal amplitude, which is also the case among the different areas and sections of slaughterhouses, we performed an experiment to verify the activity of this disinfectant, simulating conditions of use with 33 Salmonella Hadar isolates. Using the test suspension, the inactivation of the bacteria was monitored under different concentrations (100 and 200 ppm), temperatures (20 ± 2 ºC and 8 ± 2 ºC), organic matter loading (1 and 3 %) and contact times (5, 10 and 20 minutes). As a result, all isolates in the two concentrations and organic loading were inactivated at 20 ± 2 ºC after a contact time of 5 minutes. At a temperature of 8 ± 2 ºC, the disinfectants activity was affected, with bacterial isolates surviving under all adverse variables (33,3% in front of 100 ppm and 6,1% in front of 200 ppm). Under the conditions of the experiment, our conclusion is that benzalkonium chloride was able to inactivate all isolates of the Salmonella serovars found and, therefore, it can be used in disinfection procedures. However, a low room temperature is a factor that limits indicating its use.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/classificação , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise
18.
Rev. bras. saúde prod. anim ; 16(1): 66-72, jan.-mar. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1493385

Resumo

Para impedir a dispersão de microrganismos patogênicos ao longo da cadeia avícola medidas de biosseguridade são adotadas, sendo a desinfecção procedimento obrigatório e o composto químico cloreto de benzalcônio (quaternário de amônio) largamente usado para essa finalidade. Devido ao fato de que parte das criações brasileiras localizam-se em regiões com grande amplitude térmica, o mesmo ocorrendo entre as diferentes áreas e secções de matadouros-frigoríficos, executou-se este experimento para verificar a atividade desse desinfetante simulando condições de uso frente a 33 isolados de Salmonella Hadar. Pelo teste de suspensão observou-se a inativação bacteriana sob as variáveis concentração (100 e 200 ppm), temperatura (20 ± 2 ºC e 8 ± 2 ºC), carga de matéria orgânica (1 e 3 %) e tempos de contato (5, 10 e 20 minutos). Como resultados, a 20 ± 2 ºC todos os isolados foram inativados nas duas concentrações e cargas orgânicas após 5 minutos de contato. Sob temperatura de 8 ± 2 ºC o desinfetante teve sua atividade comprometida, tendo isolados bacterianos sobrevivido sob todas as variáveis de confronto (33,3% frente 100 ppm e 6,1% frente 200 ppm). Quanto menor a concentração do desinfetante e maior carga orgânica, maior o número de isolados viáveis. Conclui-se que, nas condições do experimento, o cloreto de benzalcônio foi capaz de inativar todos os isolados do sorovar de Salmonella confrontados, podendo ser empregado nos procedimentos de desinfecção. No entanto, a baixa temperatura ambiente é fator de limitação na indicação de seu uso.


Biosafety measures are adopted in order to avoid the spreading of pathogenic microorganisms along the poultry chain, with disinfection being a mandatory procedure and the chemical compound benzalkonium chloride (quaternary ammonium) widely used for this purpose. Due to the fact that part of the farming in Brazil is located in areas with a great thermal amplitude, which is also the case among the different areas and sections of slaughterhouses, we performed an experiment to verify the activity of this disinfectant, simulating conditions of use with 33 Salmonella Hadar isolates. Using the test suspension, the inactivation of the bacteria was monitored under different concentrations (100 and 200 ppm), temperatures (20 ± 2 ºC and 8 ± 2 ºC), organic matter loading (1 and 3 %) and contact times (5, 10 and 20 minutes). As a result, all isolates in the two concentrations and organic loading were inactivated at 20 ± 2 ºC after a contact time of 5 minutes. At a temperature of 8 ± 2 ºC, the disinfectant’s activity was affected, with bacterial isolates surviving under all adverse variables (33,3% in front of 100 ppm and 6,1% in front of 200 ppm). Under the conditions of the experiment, our conclusion is that benzalkonium chloride was able to inactivate all isolates of the Salmonella serovars found and, therefore, it can be used in disinfection procedures. However, a low room temperature is a factor that limits indicating its use.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/classificação , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Salmonella/química
19.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 38(1): 59-62, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456757

Resumo

A Escherichia coli é comumente encontrada na avicultura e muitas vezes sua presença no organismo dos animais e/ou contaminando as camas de aviários não causa estranheza. Por outro lado, a utilização de inteligência artificial, especificamente redes neurais artificiais, está sendo crescentemente empregada como ferramenta para medir relações não lineares entre variáveis. Neste trabalho foram usados os dados disponíveis referentes a 261 amostras da bactéria oriundas de camas de aviários, lesões de celulite e quadros respiratórios de frangos de corte. O diagnóstico laboratorial envolveu o isolamento do agente, a caracterização dos genes associados à virulência, as lesões provocadas pela inoculação em pintos, o Índice de Patogenicidade das amostras e a resistência antimicrobiana a 14 antibióticos que foram as entradas das redes neurais e sete provas bioquímicas as saídas. A principal conclusão deste artigo foi de que as redes neurais foram capazes de realizar a classificação correta do comportamento das amostras com amplitude de 87,80% a 98,37%. A sensibilidade e a especificidade das classificações obtidas variaram de 59,32% a 99,47% e de 80,00% a 98,54%, respectivamente.


The Escherichia coli is often found in the poultry industry and, many times, its presence in the organism of the animals and/or contaminating the litter of poultry houses don’t cause surprise. On the other hand, the use of artificial intelligence, specifically, artificial neural network, is being increasingly used as tool to measure not linear relations between variables. In this work we used available data from 261 samples of the bacterium isolated of poultry litter, lesions of cellulitis and respiratory problems of broilers. The laboratory diagnosis involved the isolation of the agent, the characterization of the genes associates with the virulence, the lesions provoked by the inoculation in day-old-chicks, the Pathogenicity Index of the samples and the antimicrobial resistance against 14 antibiotics. Those variables were the inputs of the neural network and the outputs were seven biochemical tests. The main conclusion of this paper was that the neural network were capable to make correct classification of the biochemical reactions of all the samples with amplitude from 87.80% to 98.37%. The sensitivity and the specificity of the classifications varied from 59.32% to 99.47% and from 80.00% to 98.54%, respectively.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Inteligência Artificial , Aves Domésticas/análise , Escherichia coli/imunologia
20.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 38(1): 59-62, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-4899

Resumo

A Escherichia coli é comumente encontrada na avicultura e muitas vezes sua presença no organismo dos animais e/ou contaminando as camas de aviários não causa estranheza. Por outro lado, a utilização de inteligência artificial, especificamente redes neurais artificiais, está sendo crescentemente empregada como ferramenta para medir relações não lineares entre variáveis. Neste trabalho foram usados os dados disponíveis referentes a 261 amostras da bactéria oriundas de camas de aviários, lesões de celulite e quadros respiratórios de frangos de corte. O diagnóstico laboratorial envolveu o isolamento do agente, a caracterização dos genes associados à virulência, as lesões provocadas pela inoculação em pintos, o Índice de Patogenicidade das amostras e a resistência antimicrobiana a 14 antibióticos que foram as entradas das redes neurais e sete provas bioquímicas as saídas. A principal conclusão deste artigo foi de que as redes neurais foram capazes de realizar a classificação correta do comportamento das amostras com amplitude de 87,80% a 98,37%. A sensibilidade e a especificidade das classificações obtidas variaram de 59,32% a 99,47% e de 80,00% a 98,54%, respectivamente.(AU)


The Escherichia coli is often found in the poultry industry and, many times, its presence in the organism of the animals and/or contaminating the litter of poultry houses dont cause surprise. On the other hand, the use of artificial intelligence, specifically, artificial neural network, is being increasingly used as tool to measure not linear relations between variables. In this work we used available data from 261 samples of the bacterium isolated of poultry litter, lesions of cellulitis and respiratory problems of broilers. The laboratory diagnosis involved the isolation of the agent, the characterization of the genes associates with the virulence, the lesions provoked by the inoculation in day-old-chicks, the Pathogenicity Index of the samples and the antimicrobial resistance against 14 antibiotics. Those variables were the inputs of the neural network and the outputs were seven biochemical tests. The main conclusion of this paper was that the neural network were capable to make correct classification of the biochemical reactions of all the samples with amplitude from 87.80% to 98.37%. The sensitivity and the specificity of the classifications varied from 59.32% to 99.47% and from 80.00% to 98.54%, respectively.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Aves Domésticas/análise
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