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1.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: e-75400E, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1447904

Resumo

The aim of this study was to predict production indicators and to determine their potential economic impact on a poultry integration system using artificial neural networks (ANN) models. Forty zootechnical and production parameters from broiler breeder farms, one hatchery, broiler production flocks, and one slaughterhouse were selected as variables. The ANN models were established for four output variables: "saleable hatching", "weight at the end of week 5," "partial condemnation," and "total condemnation" and were analyzed in relation to the coefficient of multiple determination (R2), correlation coefficient (R), mean error (E), mean squared error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE). The production scenarios were simulated and the economic impacts were estimated. The ANN models were suitable for simulating production scenarios after validation. For "saleable hatching", incubator and egg storage period are likely to increase the financial gains. For "weight at the end of the week 5" the lineage (A) is important to increase revenues. However, broiler weight at the end of the first week may not have a significant influence. Flock sex (female) may influence the "partial condemnation" rates, while chick weight at first day may not. For "total condemnation", flock sex and type of chick may not influence condemnation rates, but mortality rates and broiler weight may have a significant impact.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi predizer os indicadores de produção e determinar o seu potencial impacto econômico em um sistema de integração utilizando as redes neurais artificiais (RNA). Quarenta parâmetros zootécnicos e de produção de granjas de matrizes e de frango de corte, um incubatório e um abatedouro foram selecionados como variáveis. Os modelos de RNA foram estabelecidos para quatro variáveis de saída ("eclosão vendável", "peso ao final da quinta semana", "condenações parciais" e "condenações totais") e foram analisados em relação ao coeficiente de determinação múltipla (R2), coeficiente de correlação (R), erro médio (E), erro quadrático médio (EQM) e raiz do erro quadrático médio (REQM). Os cenários produtivos foram simulados e os impactos foram estimados. Os modelos de RNA gerados foram adequados para simular diferentes cenários produtivos após o treinamento. Para "eclosão vendável", o modelo de incubadora e o período de incubação aumentaram os ganhos financeiros. Para "peso ao final da quinta semana", a linhagem também demonstrou influencia no retorno financeiro, o que não aconteceu com o peso ao final da primeira semana. O sexo do lote possui influência nas taxas de "condenação parcial", ao contrário do peso do frango no primeiro dia. As taxas de mortalidade e o peso do frango apresentaram influência na "condenação total", mas o sexo do lote e o tipo de pinto não tiverem influência.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas , Inteligência Artificial , Redes Neurais de Computação
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 852, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418139

Resumo

Background: A cutaneous or superficial myxoma is a benign neoplasm of dermal or subcutaneous fibroblast origin. Although rare, it has been previously described in several species, including poultry. It presents as a single node or soft mass with a gelatinous cut surface. Histopathological analysis is essential for diagnosis and to differentiate it from other mesenchymal neoplasms and inflammatory or degenerative processes. Microscopically, it consists of dermal or subcutaneous lobules of plump, stellate, or spindle-shaped, bland-looking cells embedded in a basophilic myxoid matrix. This report describes the pathological findings in a rare case of cutaneous myxoma in a 42-day-old broiler flock. Cases: During ante mortem inspection of a 42-day-old broiler flock at a slaughterhouse under the authority of the Federal Inspection Service (southern Brazil), nodular lesions or encrusted areas with yellow and black areas were observed in the head skin of less than 1% of animals. These lesions, approximately 0.5 cm in diameter, were observed on the comb, in the periocular skin region, and close to the animals' nostrils. During the breeding period, no health or epidemiological events were observed. Fragments of the lesions in the comb and periocular skin were collected and fixed in buffered 10% formalin. The samples were sent to the laboratory, routinely processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue. Microscopically, the lesions consisted of irregular multifocal proliferation of connective tissue showing spindle cells with poorly demarcated borders and scarce cytoplasm in a slightly basophilic myxoid aspect matrix. The adjacent epidermis is compressed due to neoplastic proliferation. No areas of epithelial hyperplasia or inclusion bodies were observed. According to the pathologic description and considering its descriptive epidemiology, our main clinical suspicion was cutaneous fowl pox, a pathology characterized by the appearance of nodules in regions devoid of feathers. However, the microscopic changes observed were compatible with those described for cutaneous myxomas. In addition, the extracellular matrix was positive for Alcian Blue staining, which is an indicator of myxoma. In the present case, the SIF did not report the same macroscopic lesions in other flocks of the same origin. Discussion: Connective tissue tumors, including myxomas, occur considerably less frequently under field conditions. In addition, these neoplasms are more frequent in mature birds and are not usually described in broilers, as observed in this report. The cutaneous myxoma described in broilers is usually a sporadic neoplasm that does not cause zootechnical losses, as observed in the case report. Its etiology is unknown and has been associated with various factors, such as local trauma and foreign bodies. Some fragments of plant material from the breeding environment were microscopically detected in the encrusted areas, which may indicate previous trauma or a foreign body. Myxoma has been associated with avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup A, but SIF did not report the same macroscopic lesions in other flocks of the same breeder hen's origin in the present case. Furthermore, sporadic connective tissue tumors associated with the virus occur in mature chickens but not in broilers. Myxoma lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other connective tissue tumors and infectious agents that cause lesions in the skin and subcutaneous tissue.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/lesões , Mixoma/veterinária , Abate de Animais , Neoplasias de Tecido Conjuntivo/veterinária
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 24(4): eRBCA-2021-1581, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1382066

Resumo

Due to the genetic similarity of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from birds and pathotypes of human origin, it is suggested that they have a common ancestor and may exchange virulence-associated genes. This study aimed to detect virulence-associated genes in E. coli strains isolated from the Red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) kept at a conservation institute in Brazil. High genetic variability in virulence was observed, since 12 virulence profiles were found among 14 strains. The number of virulence-associated genes of single strains ranged from 5 to 22 out of 33 genes tested, and only one strain did not present any virulence genes. Regarding adhesion genes, most strains presented from two to five genes, and crlA (85.7%) and fimC (85.7%) were the most frequent. Frequencies were similar for invasion and iron acquisition genes. Variations among genes were observed for serum resistance and toxin-related genes. Some of the E. coli strains isolated from parrots presented virulence genes that are commonly associated with pathotypes of human origin, including newborn meningitis E. coli, uropathogenic E. coli, and sepsis-associated E. coli. It is noteworthy that some of these genes were present in the majority of the analyzed strains. Our results indicate that these strains detected in clinically healthy parrots can be potential reservoirs of several virulence-associated genes. These genes can be transmitted to other E. coli strains, including those that affect humans. These E. coli strains present a high pathogenic potential of virulence-associated genes in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Papagaios/virologia , Biomarcadores , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/virologia
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48: Pub.1770-Jan. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458293

Resumo

Background: The dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms in hatcheries leads to a higher number of contaminated eggs, causing reduction in hatchability and increase of discarded chicks. Sanitation programs are crucial for maximum hatchability and chick quality. Efforts have been made to find alternative approaches to the conventional disinfectants, and surfaces with copper, which have antimicrobial properties, could assist in this process. However, the possible adverse effects of copper surfaces on chicks in hatcheries have not yet been evaluated. The present study aimed at developing hatch baskets composed of copper and evaluating the effect of these baskets on the productive indexes of a hatchery. Materials, Methods & Results: For this experiment, 3.15 kg hatch tray prototypes with 99.9% Cu (Cu11000) were developed to fit inside conventional polypropylene hatch baskets (580 × 755 × 83 mm). Six polypropylene hatch baskets (control group) and six polypropylene hatch baskets covered by 99.9% copper (Cu11000) hatch trays (test group) were evaluated during 5 hatchings. Hatched eggs and chicks remained in contact with the hatch basket surfaces for at least 72 h, corresponding to the entire period in which they were located in the hatcher. Cleaning and disinfection programs of the hatchery were not modified. The level of microbial contamination on the hatch baskets was evaluated at 6 different periods: 0 h (initial contamination after disinfection and egg transfer to the trays); 24 h, 30 h, 45 h and 60 h after the first sampling; and at the moment when chicks were removed from the hatching cabinet and transferred to the chick-holding room (> 60 h). Counting of total moulds and yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteria and Escherichia coli colonies was performed. The number of hatched chicks, non-hatched eggs, and chicks discarded were registered for each hatching. Microbiologic analyses showed no growth on hatch baskets neither of the..


Assuntos
Animais , Cobre , Incubadoras/microbiologia , Incubadoras/veterinária , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Galinhas
5.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 47: Pub.1654-2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458052

Resumo

Background: The genus Salmonella, associated with poultry products, is considered the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in humans in many countries. In Brazil, Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the serovar remains as one most frequentlyisolated from humans, and it is also a major serovar found in animals, food, animal feed, and environmental samples, despiteall the efforts to control this pathogen. Also, the bacterium is able to form biofilms on different surfaces, protecting cellsfrom both cleaning and sanitizing procedures in the food industries. This study aimed to verify the ability of SalmonellaEnteritidis isolates to form biofilm on polystyrene at different incubation temperatures.Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 171 SE samples were isolated from foodborne outbreaks (foods and stool cultures) and poultry products between 2003 and 2010. The biofilm-forming ability of samples was measured at four differenttemperatures (3°C, 9ºC, 25ºC, and 36ºC), for 24 h, simulating temperatures usually found in poultry slaughterhouses. Later,200 μL of each bacterial suspension was inoculated, in triplicate, onto 96-well, flat-bottomed sterile polystyrene microtiterplates, washed, after that, the biofilm was fixed with methanol. The plates were dried at ambient temperature, stained with2% Hucker’s crystal violet. Afterwards, absorbance was read using an ELISA plate reader and the optical density (OD)of each isolate was obtained by the arithmetic mean of the absorbance of three wells and this value was compared withthe mean absorbance of negative controls (ODnc). The following classification was used for the determination of biofilmformation: no biofilm production, weak biofilm production, moderate biofilm production and strong biofilm production.Results demonstrated all isolates from stool cultures and foods involved in foodborne outbreaks, at least one of the fourtemperatures tested, were able to form biofilm...


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Biofilmes , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Refrigeração/veterinária , Salmonella enteritidis , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 47: Pub. 1654, Apr. 22, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19104

Resumo

Background: The genus Salmonella, associated with poultry products, is considered the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in humans in many countries. In Brazil, Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the serovar remains as one most frequentlyisolated from humans, and it is also a major serovar found in animals, food, animal feed, and environmental samples, despiteall the efforts to control this pathogen. Also, the bacterium is able to form biofilms on different surfaces, protecting cellsfrom both cleaning and sanitizing procedures in the food industries. This study aimed to verify the ability of SalmonellaEnteritidis isolates to form biofilm on polystyrene at different incubation temperatures.Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 171 SE samples were isolated from foodborne outbreaks (foods and stool cultures) and poultry products between 2003 and 2010. The biofilm-forming ability of samples was measured at four differenttemperatures (3°C, 9ºC, 25ºC, and 36ºC), for 24 h, simulating temperatures usually found in poultry slaughterhouses. Later,200 μL of each bacterial suspension was inoculated, in triplicate, onto 96-well, flat-bottomed sterile polystyrene microtiterplates, washed, after that, the biofilm was fixed with methanol. The plates were dried at ambient temperature, stained with2% Huckers crystal violet. Afterwards, absorbance was read using an ELISA plate reader and the optical density (OD)of each isolate was obtained by the arithmetic mean of the absorbance of three wells and this value was compared withthe mean absorbance of negative controls (ODnc). The following classification was used for the determination of biofilmformation: no biofilm production, weak biofilm production, moderate biofilm production and strong biofilm production.Results demonstrated all isolates from stool cultures and foods involved in foodborne outbreaks, at least one of the fourtemperatures tested, were able to form biofilm...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Salmonella enteritidis , Biofilmes , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Refrigeração/veterinária , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas
7.
Ci. Rural ; 49(7): e20181022, 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-22759

Resumo

We evaluated the influence of temperature on the ability of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to form biofilms on stainless steel, polyethylene, and polyurethane surfaces under different hygiene procedures. These materials were placed on SE culture and incubated at 42±1 ºC, 36±1 ºC, 25±1 ºC, 9±1 ºC, and 3±1 ºC for 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Hot water at 45 ºC and 85 ºC, 0.5% peracetic acid solution, and 1% quaternary ammonia were used for hygienization. Biofilm formation occurred at all temperatures evaluated, highlighting at 3 ºC which has not been reported as an ideal temperature for the adhesion of SE to these materials. The SE adhered more often to polyethylene surfaces than to polyurethane and stainless steel surfaces (P<0.05). Peracetic acid and water at 85 ºC had similar hygienization efficiency (P<0.05) followed by quaternary ammonia whereas water at 45 ºC was not effective. SE adhered to these materials under low temperatures which to date have been deemed safe for food preservation.(AU)


Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura na capacidade de Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) formar biofilme em superfícies de aço inoxidável, polietileno e poliuretano e diferentes processos de higienização. Corpos de prova destes materiais foram postos frente a culturas de SE e incubados a 42±1 ºC, 36±1 ºC, 25±1 ºC, 9±1 ºC e 3±1 ºC por 4, 8, 12 e 24 horas. Para a higienização foram testados água aquecida a 45ºC e 85 ºC e soluções de ácido peracético 0,5% e amônia quaternária 1%. Verificou-se a formação de biofilmes em todas as temperaturas avaliadas, ressaltando-se a 3 ºC, ainda não citada como propícia para adesão de SE. Houve maior adesão ao polietileno do que ao poliuretano e ao aço inoxidável (P<0.05). Para higienização, o ácido peracético e a água a 85 ºC tiveram ação semelhante (P<0.05), seguidos por amônia quaternária, enquanto que a água a 45 ºC não foi eficaz. Todos os materiais avaliados propiciaram a aderência de SE, mesmo sob temperaturas baixas, consideradas até então seguras para a conservação dos alimentos.(AU)


Assuntos
Salmonella enteritidis , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Biofilmes , Fatores Bióticos/análise , Temperatura Baixa
8.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 46: 1-6, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457814

Resumo

Background: The hygiene procedures in poultry slaughterhouses consist in the use of hot water, detergent and sanitizing, configuring Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP). These actions control contamination in food processing environments, especially by pathogenic microorganisms, which cause diseases with impact on public health and economic losses. The microbiological control of aerobic mesophiles, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, are used as indicators of contamination. The hygienic-sanitary conditions on the surfaces of the poultry slaughterhouse cuttting room were evaluated, before and after cleaning and sanitizing procedures.Materials, Methods & Results: Conventional microbiology (Rodac plates and sponge for quantification of aerobic mesophiles, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and ATP-Bioluminescence were used to analyze the action of hot water and the active principles peracetic acid, quaternary ammonia and biguanide in the standard pre-operational hygiene procedure in the cutting room of the poultry slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection with slaughter capacity of more than 20.000 birds/h. The evaluations were performed on three lines of chicken thigh cuts at the same time and in a completely randomized manner on stainless steel surfaces, polyurethane belts and polyethylene boards. Samples were made in four replicates at the three surface totaling 108 assay for each microorganism. The samples were collected at the end of the cutting process, before and after washing the surfaces with hot water (between 45 and 50ºC) and after sanitization with 0.5% peracetic acid, 2% quaternary ammonia and 1% biguanide. The ATP-Bioluminescence method detected organic matter at all collected points and Rodac plates allowed a better recovery of microorganisms than sponges for quantification of aerobic mesophiles, E. coli and S. aureus.[...]


Assuntos
Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inspeção Sanitária , Matadouros , Saneamento/métodos , Escherichia coli , Galinhas , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 46: 1-6, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-13988

Resumo

Background: The hygiene procedures in poultry slaughterhouses consist in the use of hot water, detergent and sanitizing, configuring Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP). These actions control contamination in food processing environments, especially by pathogenic microorganisms, which cause diseases with impact on public health and economic losses. The microbiological control of aerobic mesophiles, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, are used as indicators of contamination. The hygienic-sanitary conditions on the surfaces of the poultry slaughterhouse cuttting room were evaluated, before and after cleaning and sanitizing procedures.Materials, Methods & Results: Conventional microbiology (Rodac plates and sponge for quantification of aerobic mesophiles, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and ATP-Bioluminescence were used to analyze the action of hot water and the active principles peracetic acid, quaternary ammonia and biguanide in the standard pre-operational hygiene procedure in the cutting room of the poultry slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection with slaughter capacity of more than 20.000 birds/h. The evaluations were performed on three lines of chicken thigh cuts at the same time and in a completely randomized manner on stainless steel surfaces, polyurethane belts and polyethylene boards. Samples were made in four replicates at the three surface totaling 108 assay for each microorganism. The samples were collected at the end of the cutting process, before and after washing the surfaces with hot water (between 45 and 50ºC) and after sanitization with 0.5% peracetic acid, 2% quaternary ammonia and 1% biguanide. The ATP-Bioluminescence method detected organic matter at all collected points and Rodac plates allowed a better recovery of microorganisms than sponges for quantification of aerobic mesophiles, E. coli and S. aureus.[...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Saneamento/métodos , Matadouros , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inspeção Sanitária , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 45: 1-8, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-16954

Resumo

Background: Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are responsible, respectively, for avian colibacillosis and for 80% of urinary tract infections in humans. E. coli control is difficult due to the absence of a reliable method to differentiate pathogenic and commensal strains. Genetic similarity between APEC and UPEC suggests a common ancestral origin and the capability of potentially pathogenic strains to affect human health. The classification in phylogenetic groups facilitates the identification of pathogenic strains. The objective of this work was to classify APEC and UPEC E. coli strains into phylogenetic groups and to associate it with in vivo pathogenicity. Materials, Methods & Results: 460 APEC and 450 UPEC strains, stored in BHI with glycerol at -80°C, were selected. APEC strains were isolated from cellulitis, respiratory tract and poultry litter of broiler flocks from Southern Brazil. The UPEC strains from urinary tract infection were provided by a hospital in Porto Alegre. After DNA extraction, APEC and UPEC strains were classified into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) by a multiplex-PCR protocol for the detection of the chuA and yjaA genes and the TspE4.C2 DNA fragment. Phylogenetic groups were associated with pathogenicity indexes (PI), presented on a scale of 0 to 10, which were previously obtained through the inoculation of APEC strains in one-day-old chicks. Phylogenetic groups were also associated with the presence of 38 virulence-associated genes. The multiplex-PCR protocol was able to differentiate 100% of the APEC and UPEC strains in the four phylogenetic groups. The majority of APEC strains were classified into phylogenetic groups D (31.1%) and B2 (24.1%). On the other hand, the majority of UPEC strains were classified into B2 (53.6%). Among APEC strains, five genes (crl, mat, ompA, fimC and fimH) […](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Virulência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
11.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 45: 1-8, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457603

Resumo

Background: Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are responsible, respectively, for avian colibacillosis and for 80% of urinary tract infections in humans. E. coli control is difficult due to the absence of a reliable method to differentiate pathogenic and commensal strains. Genetic similarity between APEC and UPEC suggests a common ancestral origin and the capability of potentially pathogenic strains to affect human health. The classification in phylogenetic groups facilitates the identification of pathogenic strains. The objective of this work was to classify APEC and UPEC E. coli strains into phylogenetic groups and to associate it with in vivo pathogenicity. Materials, Methods & Results: 460 APEC and 450 UPEC strains, stored in BHI with glycerol at -80°C, were selected. APEC strains were isolated from cellulitis, respiratory tract and poultry litter of broiler flocks from Southern Brazil. The UPEC strains from urinary tract infection were provided by a hospital in Porto Alegre. After DNA extraction, APEC and UPEC strains were classified into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) by a multiplex-PCR protocol for the detection of the chuA and yjaA genes and the TspE4.C2 DNA fragment. Phylogenetic groups were associated with pathogenicity indexes (PI), presented on a scale of 0 to 10, which were previously obtained through the inoculation of APEC strains in one-day-old chicks. Phylogenetic groups were also associated with the presence of 38 virulence-associated genes. The multiplex-PCR protocol was able to differentiate 100% of the APEC and UPEC strains in the four phylogenetic groups. The majority of APEC strains were classified into phylogenetic groups D (31.1%) and B2 (24.1%). On the other hand, the majority of UPEC strains were classified into B2 (53.6%). Among APEC strains, five genes (crl, mat, ompA, fimC and fimH) […]


Assuntos
Animais , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Virulência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
12.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 47(3): 764-769, Jul-Set. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23425

Resumo

Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.(AU)


Assuntos
Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Galinhas , Abate de Animais
13.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 47(1): 210-216, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-688340

Resumo

Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fatores de Virulência , Genes Virais , Anti-Infecciosos , Pasteurella multocida , Galinhas , Suínos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
14.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 43: 1-6, 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23795

Resumo

Background: Bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. are recognized as being one of the most common bacterial causes of foodborne disease. Its presence in chickens and hatching eggs is an important barrier to exports, besides posing a potential risk to human health. Companies producing broiler breeders aim at having excellent quality progeny for good hatching results and for providing healthy chicks. The use of inactivated, oily vaccines is one of the strategies to control Salmonella Enteritidis, by providing protection for broiler breeders. This protection can also benefit the progeny, so giving it some protection on the early period post-hatch. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the benefits on the progeny of the use of inactivated, oily vaccine for Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler breeders.Materials, Methods & Results: Inactivated, oily Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine was injected in eight, and 19 weeks old breeder birds. Monitoring for Salmonella was performed by the use of drag swabs, two per each house, and 10 cloacal swabs by each poultry house, where each swab represented a pool of three birds sampled. In the hatchery, monitoring for Salmonella was performed on each lot, where each sample consisted of 10 pipped eggs per lot (850 samples) and 10 stillbirth chicks (850 samples), totaling 1.700 samples altogether. From the 850 pipped eggs samples, 1.18% were positive in vaccinated batches while 33.88% were positive in non-vaccinated batches. Regarding the 850 samples of stillbirth chicks, 1.88% were positive in vaccinated batches and 24.70% were positive in non-vaccinated batches. The percentage of Salmonella positive flocks in drag swabs collected from houses with broilers descending from non-vaccinated mothers was 4.38% (502 swabs), while those originated from vaccinated mothers showed a positivity of 1.26% (475 swabs).[...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Salmonella enteritidis , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
15.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 43: 1-6, 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457324

Resumo

Background: Bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. are recognized as being one of the most common bacterial causes of foodborne disease. Its presence in chickens and hatching eggs is an important barrier to exports, besides posing a potential risk to human health. Companies producing broiler breeders aim at having excellent quality progeny for good hatching results and for providing healthy chicks. The use of inactivated, oily vaccines is one of the strategies to control Salmonella Enteritidis, by providing protection for broiler breeders. This protection can also benefit the progeny, so giving it some protection on the early period post-hatch. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the benefits on the progeny of the use of inactivated, oily vaccine for Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler breeders.Materials, Methods & Results: Inactivated, oily Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine was injected in eight, and 19 weeks old breeder birds. Monitoring for Salmonella was performed by the use of drag swabs, two per each house, and 10 cloacal swabs by each poultry house, where each swab represented a pool of three birds sampled. In the hatchery, monitoring for Salmonella was performed on each lot, where each sample consisted of 10 pipped eggs per lot (850 samples) and 10 stillbirth chicks (850 samples), totaling 1.700 samples altogether. From the 850 pipped eggs samples, 1.18% were positive in vaccinated batches while 33.88% were positive in non-vaccinated batches. Regarding the 850 samples of stillbirth chicks, 1.88% were positive in vaccinated batches and 24.70% were positive in non-vaccinated batches. The percentage of Salmonella positive flocks in drag swabs collected from houses with broilers descending from non-vaccinated mothers was 4.38% (502 swabs), while those originated from vaccinated mothers showed a positivity of 1.26% (475 swabs).[...]


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Salmonella enteritidis , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(7): 637-642, July 2015. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-858

Resumo

The study was carried out to screen and analyze the genetic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from poultry sources. A total of 141 strains of Campylobacter isolated from samples of broilers of slaughterhouses in southern Brazil was identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Campylobacter isolates were evaluated for its antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of resistance genes. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against two agents (ampicillin and tetracycline) by disk diffusion method. PCR assay was used to confirm the specie and the presence of ampicillin (blaOXA-61), tetracycline tet(O), and the energy-dependent multi-drug efflux pump (cmeB) genes. Campylobacter jejuni was the most ubiquitous; its presence was determined in 140 samples out of 141 (99.3%), whereas Campylobacter coli was found only in one of the contaminated samples (0.70%). The results obtained showed 65% and 35.5% of Campylobacter isolates resistant to β-lactams and tetracyclines, respectively. The cmeB gene responsible for multidrug resistance was detected in 26 isolates out 141 strains (18.5%). Moreover, 36 out of 141 Campylobacter strains (25.6%) were found to be resistant to at least two different antimicrobia resistance markers (β-lactams and tetracyclines).(AU)


O presente estudo foi realizado para examinar e analisar as características genéticas de resistência antimicrobiana de Campylobacter spp. a partir de fontes avícolas. Um total de 141 amostras de Campylobacter isolados em matadouros-frigoríficos de aves do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi identificado por métodos fenotípicos e genotípicos. Foi analisada a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e a presença de genes de resistência. As cepas foram testadas para detectar sensibilidade frente a dois antimicrobianos (ampicilina e tetraciclina) pelo método de difusão em disco. A seguir, usando a reação em cadeia da polimerase foi confirmada a espécie e a presença dos genes de resistência à ampicilina (blaOXA-61) e tetraciclina tet(O), assim como a detecção da bomba de efluxo (cmeB). Campylobacter jejuni foi a espécie mais isolada, sua presença foi determinada em 140 amostras (99,3%), e Campylobacter coli foi encontrada em uma única amostra (0,70%). Os resultados obtidos mostraram 65% e 35,5% de Campylobacter isolados resistentes a β-lactâmicos e tetraciclinas, respectivamente. O gene cmeB responsável pela resistência a múltiplos antimicrobianos foi detectado em 26 amostras (18,5%). Neste contexto, 36 das 141 amostras (25,6%) foram consideradas resistentes a dois grupos diferentes de antimicrobianos (β-lactâmicos e tetraciclinas).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/administração & dosagem , beta-Lactamas/administração & dosagem , Galliformes/microbiologia , Matadouros , Resistência a Medicamentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária
17.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 36(1): 285-290, Jan.-Fev. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28352

Resumo

Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C) group and an inoculated (I) group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi). Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) in 2011 (B method) and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method). All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.(AU)


Campilobacteriose é uma zoonose, uma doença transmitida para humanos por animais ou produtos de origem animal. As fontes primárias de infecções por Campylobacter em humanos se acredita ser o manuseamento e / ou o consumo de carne contaminada, carne de frangos especialmente. Embora em humanos tais infecções são geralmente auto-limitantes, as complicações podem surgir e podem incluir bacteremia, síndrome de Guillain-Barré, artrite reativa e aborto. Para o presente estudo, 32 aves foram divididos em 2 grupos identificados como grupos controle (C) com 16 aves e grupo inoculado (I) com 16 aves. O grupo I foi inoculado por via oral com 108 UFC / mL de Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, enquanto o grupo C foi inoculado com solução salina. Quatro aves por grupo foram eutanaziados por deslocamento cervical nos dias 0, 7, 14 e 21 após a inoculação (pi) e as amostras de conteudo cecal foram coletadas para análises microbiológicas. As amostras foram processadas por duas metodologias de contagem em placa, uma desenvolvido pela USDA (método B) e outra, por diluição seriada com plaqueamento direto (método A). Todas as aves do grupo C permaneceram negativas até ao dia 21, e para o grupo I, as células recuperadas a partir de conteúdo cecal foram estatisticamente superior com o método B, quando comparados ao método A nos 7, 14 e 21 dias pi. A contagem microbiologica direta em placas é um método masi barato e rápido para determinar o nível de contaminação de frangos, servindo de auxilio nos programas de avaliação de risco a nível da indústria.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Zoonoses , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório/veterinária
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(3): 223-229, 03/2015. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-92427

Resumo

Os produtos de origem avícola podem ser importantes veículos de transmissão de Salmonella spp. para humanos e, dentre os vários parâmetros que determinam a qualidade de um alimento, destacam-se os que definem suas características microbiológicas. Objetivou-se detectar e quantificar Salmonella spp. na tecnologia de abate de frangos de corte por microbiologia convencional (MC) e número mais provável miniaturizado (mNMP). As coletas foram realizadas em duas visitas a três abatedouros sob Inspeção Federal e em seis pontos de coleta em triplicata, definidos como: recepção das aves (swabs de cloaca e esponjas de gaiolas de transporte antes e após a higienização) e carcaças (após pré resfriamento em chiller, após o gotejamento e antes da embalagem primária e congeladas a -12oC por 24 horas), totalizando 108 amostras. Identificou-se Salmonella spp. em três dos seis pontos do fluxograma de abate e em dois dos três estabelecimentos amostrados, independentemente do método utilizado, perfazendo 5,5% de positividade, onde destaca-se a contaminação nas gaiolas de transporte das aves após a higienização. Não foi possível correlacionar os resultados da microbiologia convencional e do mNMP ou mesmo quantificar a contaminação ao longo da tecnologia de abate, o que indica a necessidade de se utilizar um método qualitativo aliado ao método de quantificação quando Salmonella estiver presente em quantidades inferiores ao limite de detecção do mNMP proposto (0,13 NMP/mL). Os sorovares identificados foram Typhimurium, Panama, Lexington e Rissen, consideradas paratíficos e, portanto, potencialmente capazes de causar infecções em humanos, embora estes sorovares não tenham sido isolados em produtos finais e sim na chegada dos frangos aos abatedouros (swabs de cloaca e gaiolas de transporte). A identificação de Salmonella spp. nas gaiolas de transporte após a higienização é um indicativo da necessidade de revisão e adequação dos métodos automatizados de lavagem atualmente utilizados nos abatedouros.(AU)


Poultry products can be important modes of transmission of Salmonella spp. to humans and, among several parameters used to determine food quality, microbiological characteristics play an essential role. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify Salmonella spp. at broiler slaughtering facilities. This was done by conventional microbiology and by the miniaturized most probable number (mMPN) methods. Three federally-inspected slaughterhouses were visited, where samples were collected in triplicate from six sites: reception of live birds (cloacal swabs and sponge samples from transport cages before and after sanitation) and carcass processing (after pre-chiller, after dripping, and before primary packaging and refrigeration at -12oC for 24h), totaling 108 samples. Three of the six surveyed sites and two of the three slaughterhouses were contaminated with Salmonella spp., showing an infection rate of 5.5% independently of the method used, and revealing that transport cages were contaminated after sanitation. No correlation could be established between the results of conventional microbiology and mMPN methods, and contamination along the slaughtering line could not quantified. This indicates the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative methods for the enumeration of Salmonella when detection rates are lower than the proposed mMPN limit (0.13 MPN/mL). Typhimurium, Panama, Lexington and Rissen, which are paratyphoid organisms and are potentially infectious to humans, were identified. However, these serovars were isolated at the reception of live birds (from cloacal swabs and from transport cages) rather than from the end products. Given that Salmonella spp. was detected in transport cages after sanitation, it is paramount that automated washing procedures currently used in slaughterhouses be reassessed and adjusted.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Matadouros , Método de Tubulação Múltiplo
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(4): 349-352, 04/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-752473

Resumo

Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacter was isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.(AU)


Campylobacter jejuni e C. coli têm sido associados a problemas gastroentéricos em seres humanos principalmente devido ao consumo de carne de frango. Embora medidas de controle sejam realizadas para reduzir a contaminação por estas bactérias, a identificação de Campylobacter em carcaças após a refrigeração por imersão é alto. Foram analisadas 105 carcaças pelo método de detecção horizontal em cinco abatedouros sob Inspeção Federal no sul do Brasil em 2012 e nos três primeiros meses de 2013. Campylobacter foi isolada em 37,1% das carcaças analisadas, as quais 97,5% foram identificados como C. jejuni e 2,5% como C. coli. A ocorrência de carcaças positivas entre matadouros variou de zero a 71,4%. O conhecimento sobre a ocorrência de Campylobacter entre os lotes é fundamental para estimar a extensão da carga microbiana em pontos específicos do abate e consequentemente minimizar o risco de contaminação por Campylobacter em produtos finais de frangos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Galinhas/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Resfriados , Carne/microbiologia , Zoonoses
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(4): 349-352, abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-13569

Resumo

Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacterwas isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.(AU)


Campylobacter jejuni e C. coli têm sido associados a problemas gastroentéricos em seres humanos principalmente devido ao consumo de carne de frango. Embora medidas de controle sejam realizadas para reduzir a contaminação por estas bactérias, a identificação de Campylobacterem carcaças após a refrigeração por imersão é alto. Foram analisadas 105 carcaças pelo método de detecção horizontal em cinco abatedouros sob Inspeção Federal no sul do Brasil em 2012 e nos três primeiros meses de 2013. Campylobacter foi isolada em 37,1% das carcaças analisadas, as quais 97,5% foram identificados como C. jejuni e 2,5% como C. coli. A ocorrência de carcaças positivas entre matadouros variou de zero a 71,4%. O conhecimento sobre a ocorrência de Campylobacter entre os lotes é fundamental para estimar a extensão da carga microbiana em pontos específicos do abate e consequentemente minimizar o risco de contaminação por Campylobacter em produtos finais de frangos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carne/microbiologia , Carne/parasitologia , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter coli , Alimentos Resfriados
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