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1.
Sci. agric ; 77(2): e20180005, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497843

Resumo

The slow rate of multiplication is one of the main constraints on the production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). This work aimed to evaluate the use of leaf buds for rapid propagation of cassava varieties. Leaf buds were excised from three cassava varieties (BRS Kiriris, 98150-06 and 9624-09) for plantlet generation. The experiment was completely randomized with a 5 (age of mother plant) × 3 (position of the leaf buds on the stems) × 2 (agrochemical treatments) factorial design. Data were collected on leaf sprouting percentage (Spro.Per), plantlet height (Plant.Hei) and total dry mass of plantlets (Dry.Mass.Plant). There was a difference between the three traits for most of the varieties, demonstrating significant effects on the agronomic attributes evaluated. Better agronomic performance (higher sprouting percentage, plantlet height and total dry mass) in plantlets was observed in leaf buds of: i) maturing plants up to six months old; ii) more herbaceous (upper) parts; and iii) plants treated with agrochemicals (fungicides and insecticides). Considering four-month-old plants, three annual cycles, and an 81 % average sprouting, it would be possible to reach an annual multiplication rate of 1:72, which is much higher than that achieved by traditional methods using mature stem cuttings from 12-month-old plants (around 1:5). These results are important because they demonstrate the possibility of using cassava leaf buds to produce high-quality plantlets rapidly for greater multiplication and diffusion of new varieties and cultivation on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Sci. agric. ; 77(2): e20180005, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24594

Resumo

The slow rate of multiplication is one of the main constraints on the production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). This work aimed to evaluate the use of leaf buds for rapid propagation of cassava varieties. Leaf buds were excised from three cassava varieties (BRS Kiriris, 98150-06 and 9624-09) for plantlet generation. The experiment was completely randomized with a 5 (age of mother plant) × 3 (position of the leaf buds on the stems) × 2 (agrochemical treatments) factorial design. Data were collected on leaf sprouting percentage (Spro.Per), plantlet height (Plant.Hei) and total dry mass of plantlets (Dry.Mass.Plant). There was a difference between the three traits for most of the varieties, demonstrating significant effects on the agronomic attributes evaluated. Better agronomic performance (higher sprouting percentage, plantlet height and total dry mass) in plantlets was observed in leaf buds of: i) maturing plants up to six months old; ii) more herbaceous (upper) parts; and iii) plants treated with agrochemicals (fungicides and insecticides). Considering four-month-old plants, three annual cycles, and an 81 % average sprouting, it would be possible to reach an annual multiplication rate of 1:72, which is much higher than that achieved by traditional methods using mature stem cuttings from 12-month-old plants (around 1:5). These results are important because they demonstrate the possibility of using cassava leaf buds to produce high-quality plantlets rapidly for greater multiplication and diffusion of new varieties and cultivation on a larger scale.(AU)


Assuntos
Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agroquímicos
3.
Sci. agric ; 76(5): 368-375, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497807

Resumo

Genome-wide selection (GWS) is currently a technique of great importance in plant breeding, since it improves efficiency of genetic evaluations by increasing genetic gains. The process is based on genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) obtained through phenotypic and dense marker genomic information. In this context, GEBVs of N individuals are calculated through appropriate models, which estimate the effect of each marker on phenotypes, allowing the early identification of genetically superior individuals. However, GWS leads to statistical challenges, due to high dimensionality and multicollinearity problems. These challenges require the use of statistical methods to approach the regularization of the estimation process. Therefore, we aimed to propose a method denominated as triple categorical regression (TCR) and compare it with the genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP) and Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BLASSO) methods that have been widely applied to GWS. The methods were evaluated in simulated populations considering four different scenarios. Additionally, a modification of the G-BLUP method was proposed based on the TCR-estimated (TCR/G-BLUP) results. All methods were applied to real data of cassava (Manihot esculenta) with to increase efficiency of a current breeding program. The methods were compared through independent validation and efficiency measures, such as prediction accuracy, bias, and recovered genomic heritability. The TCR method was suitable to estimate variance components and heritability, and the TCR/G-BLUP method provided efficient GEBV predictions. Thus, the proposed methods provide new insights for GWS.


Assuntos
Genômica , Manihot/genética
4.
Sci. agric. ; 76(5): 368-375, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24488

Resumo

Genome-wide selection (GWS) is currently a technique of great importance in plant breeding, since it improves efficiency of genetic evaluations by increasing genetic gains. The process is based on genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) obtained through phenotypic and dense marker genomic information. In this context, GEBVs of N individuals are calculated through appropriate models, which estimate the effect of each marker on phenotypes, allowing the early identification of genetically superior individuals. However, GWS leads to statistical challenges, due to high dimensionality and multicollinearity problems. These challenges require the use of statistical methods to approach the regularization of the estimation process. Therefore, we aimed to propose a method denominated as triple categorical regression (TCR) and compare it with the genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP) and Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BLASSO) methods that have been widely applied to GWS. The methods were evaluated in simulated populations considering four different scenarios. Additionally, a modification of the G-BLUP method was proposed based on the TCR-estimated (TCR/G-BLUP) results. All methods were applied to real data of cassava (Manihot esculenta) with to increase efficiency of a current breeding program. The methods were compared through independent validation and efficiency measures, such as prediction accuracy, bias, and recovered genomic heritability. The TCR method was suitable to estimate variance components and heritability, and the TCR/G-BLUP method provided efficient GEBV predictions. Thus, the proposed methods provide new insights for GWS.(AU)


Assuntos
Manihot/genética , Genômica
5.
Sci. agric ; 76(4): 328-336, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497795

Resumo

Genetic redundancy in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) presents a challenge to efficient management of genetic resources. This study aimed to identify and define the genetic structure of duplicates in cassava germplasm from various Embrapa research units, using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We evaluated 2,371 accessions with 20,712 SNPs. The identification of duplicates was performed based on multilocus genotypes (MLG), adopting a maximum genetic distance threshold of 0.05. The population structure was defined based on discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC). A total of 1,757 unique and 614 duplicate accessions were identified. The redundancy of the collections ranged from 17 % (Belém, PA – Brazil) to 39 % (Petrolina, PE – Brazil), with an average of 21 %. This redundancy between different research units is probably due to the historical sharing of accessions, as well as collections carried out in the same region, or even to the intense germplasm exchange between farmers with different genotype names. In terms of genetic structure, the 250 principal components explained 88 % of the genetic variation of the SNP markers and defined the hierarchical structure of the duplicate cassava germplasm in 12 groups. Since heterotic groups have not yet been identified for cassava, crosses between accessions of the 12 DAPC groups may be promising. All MLGs were allocated within the same DAPC group, corroborating duplicate analyses yet still revealing high variability between groups that were quite distinct based on the first two discriminant functions. Our results contribute to optimizing the conservation of genetic resources, together with understanding diversity and its use in crop improvement.

6.
Sci. agric. ; 76(4): 328-336, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-740887

Resumo

Genetic redundancy in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) presents a challenge to efficient management of genetic resources. This study aimed to identify and define the genetic structure of duplicates in cassava germplasm from various Embrapa research units, using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We evaluated 2,371 accessions with 20,712 SNPs. The identification of duplicates was performed based on multilocus genotypes (MLG), adopting a maximum genetic distance threshold of 0.05. The population structure was defined based on discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC). A total of 1,757 unique and 614 duplicate accessions were identified. The redundancy of the collections ranged from 17 % (Belém, PA Brazil) to 39 % (Petrolina, PE Brazil), with an average of 21 %. This redundancy between different research units is probably due to the historical sharing of accessions, as well as collections carried out in the same region, or even to the intense germplasm exchange between farmers with different genotype names. In terms of genetic structure, the 250 principal components explained 88 % of the genetic variation of the SNP markers and defined the hierarchical structure of the duplicate cassava germplasm in 12 groups. Since heterotic groups have not yet been identified for cassava, crosses between accessions of the 12 DAPC groups may be promising. All MLGs were allocated within the same DAPC group, corroborating duplicate analyses yet still revealing high variability between groups that were quite distinct based on the first two discriminant functions. Our results contribute to optimizing the conservation of genetic resources, together with understanding diversity and its use in crop improvement.(AU)

7.
Sci. agric ; 74(1): 60-67, 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497615

Resumo

Although root rot is one of the major diseases affecting Brazilian cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.), little is known about the diversity of root rot pathogens. In this study, diseased plants exhibiting root rot symptoms were collected from cassava-producing regions in five Brazilian states: Bahia, Sergipe, Paraíba, Maranhão, Tocantins, and Paraná. Seventy isolates were obtained and assigned to species complexes based on rDNA's ITS (internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA) region (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S). A total of seven species complexes was found belonging to the genus Fusarium (56/74), followed by Lasiodiplodia (8/74), Neoscytalidium (6/74), and Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex (2/74), Phytophthora, and Corallomycetella (1/74 each). These species were distributed differently according to sample locations and states, but overall, the F. solani species complex (FSSC) was the most prevalent. A number of phylogenetic lineages had not been previously reported as being associated with cassava-root rot disease, such as: F. graminearum (FGSC), F. incarnatum-equiseti (FIESC) and F. chlamydosporum (FCSC) complexes, and a phylogenetic lineage most closely related to P. phaseolorum. Results suggest the need to improve knowledge of the species associated with cassava, including multilocus phylogeny for a more specific characterization, and differences in the resistance background associated with these species, as a strategy to incorporate resistance to multiple pathogens in cassava breeding programs.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Doenças das Plantas , Manihot , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/parasitologia , Pragas da Agricultura , Raízes de Plantas , 24444 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Noxas
8.
Sci. agric. ; 74(1): 60-67, 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-684143

Resumo

Although root rot is one of the major diseases affecting Brazilian cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.), little is known about the diversity of root rot pathogens. In this study, diseased plants exhibiting root rot symptoms were collected from cassava-producing regions in five Brazilian states: Bahia, Sergipe, Paraíba, Maranhão, Tocantins, and Paraná. Seventy isolates were obtained and assigned to species complexes based on rDNA's ITS (internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA) region (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S). A total of seven species complexes was found belonging to the genus Fusarium (56/74), followed by Lasiodiplodia (8/74), Neoscytalidium (6/74), and Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex (2/74), Phytophthora, and Corallomycetella (1/74 each). These species were distributed differently according to sample locations and states, but overall, the F. solani species complex (FSSC) was the most prevalent. A number of phylogenetic lineages had not been previously reported as being associated with cassava-root rot disease, such as: F. graminearum (FGSC), F. incarnatum-equiseti (FIESC) and F. chlamydosporum (FCSC) complexes, and a phylogenetic lineage most closely related to P. phaseolorum. Results suggest the need to improve knowledge of the species associated with cassava, including multilocus phylogeny for a more specific characterization, and differences in the resistance background associated with these species, as a strategy to incorporate resistance to multiple pathogens in cassava breeding programs.(AU)


Assuntos
Manihot , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Pragas da Agricultura , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/parasitologia , Coleta de Dados , 24444 , Noxas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
9.
Sci. agric ; 73(6): 520-524, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497605

Resumo

Despite the widespread distribution of the Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV) in Brazil, little is known about the losses it causes in yield. The effect of CsCMV on different varieties was evaluated by reference to several agronomic traits. Four field trials were established in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 using six varieties of cassava. Following mechanical inoculation with CsCMV, the presence of the virus was confirmed using the ELISA assay. The evaluated traits were plant height (PH), dry matter content (DMC), harvest index (HI), aerial part yield (APY), root yield (RoY), and starch yield (StY) in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Overall, the presence of the virus contributed little to the reduction in PH, HI, and DMC across the varieties, with PH being significantly reduced by 9.2 and 7.0 % in the BGM0212 and BRS Kiriris varieties, respectively. In contrast, APY, RoY, and StY were reduced by 30.2, 29.3, and 30.0 %, in the virus-infected plants respectively. While the BRS Kiriris and BRS Jari varieties suffered the highest reductions overall and were considered highly susceptible to CsCMV, none of the traits suffered reductions in the inoculated BRS Formosa plants. Although RoY and StY were reduced in inoculated plants of BRS Tapioqueira, crop yield for this variety was the highest. Thus, BRS Formosa and BRS Tapioqueira exhibited tolerance against CsCMV, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Manihot/virologia , Noxas , Vírus do Mosaico , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas
10.
Sci. agric. ; 73(6): 520-524, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-684155

Resumo

Despite the widespread distribution of the Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV) in Brazil, little is known about the losses it causes in yield. The effect of CsCMV on different varieties was evaluated by reference to several agronomic traits. Four field trials were established in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 using six varieties of cassava. Following mechanical inoculation with CsCMV, the presence of the virus was confirmed using the ELISA assay. The evaluated traits were plant height (PH), dry matter content (DMC), harvest index (HI), aerial part yield (APY), root yield (RoY), and starch yield (StY) in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Overall, the presence of the virus contributed little to the reduction in PH, HI, and DMC across the varieties, with PH being significantly reduced by 9.2 and 7.0 % in the BGM0212 and BRS Kiriris varieties, respectively. In contrast, APY, RoY, and StY were reduced by 30.2, 29.3, and 30.0 %, in the virus-infected plants respectively. While the BRS Kiriris and BRS Jari varieties suffered the highest reductions overall and were considered highly susceptible to CsCMV, none of the traits suffered reductions in the inoculated BRS Formosa plants. Although RoY and StY were reduced in inoculated plants of BRS Tapioqueira, crop yield for this variety was the highest. Thus, BRS Formosa and BRS Tapioqueira exhibited tolerance against CsCMV, which warrants further investigation.(AU)


Assuntos
Vírus do Mosaico , Manihot/virologia , Noxas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura
11.
Sci. agric ; 72(1): 53-61, Jan.-Feb. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497465

Resumo

The conservation, sustainable evaluation and use of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genetic resources are essential to the development of new commercial varieties. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cassava roots and to estimate genetic variation and clustering in cassava germplasm using the Affinity Propagation algorithm (AP), which is based on the concept of "message passing" between data points. AP finds "exemplars" of each group and members of the input set representative of clusters. The genotypic data of 474 cassava accessions were evaluated over a period of two years for starch yield (StYi), root dry matter (DMC), amylose content (AML), and the level of cyanogenic compounds (CyC). The AP algorithm enabled the formation of nine diversity groups, whose number reflects the high genetic diversity of this germplasm. A high homogeneity of genetic distances was observed within all the groups, except for two groups in which there was a partial overlap caused mainly by a high variation of the CyC trait. In addition, no relationship between the genetic structure and CyC (sweet and bitter cassava) was observed. Analysis of variance of the nine clusters confirmed the presence of differences between the groups. Thus, the results of this study can be used in future breeding programs (hybridization or selection) to introduce new genetic variability into commercial cultivars to avoid problems related to low genetic variation and to improve the quality of cassava roots.


Assuntos
Manihot/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética
12.
Sci. agric ; 72(6): 520-527, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497523

Resumo

The geminivirus complex known as cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most devastating viruses for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The aim of this study was to use molecular-assisted selection (MAS) to identify CMD-resistant accessions and ascertain promising crosses with elite Brazilian varieties. One thousand two hundred twenty-four accessions were genotyped using five molecular markers (NS169, NS158, SSRY028, SSRY040 and RME1) that were associated with resistance to CMD, along with 402 SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphism). The promising crosses were identified using a discriminant analysis of main component (DAPC), and the matrix of genomic relationship was estimated with SNP markers. The CMD1 gene, previously described in M. glaziovii, was not found in M. esculenta. In contrast, the CMD2 gene was found in 5, 4 and 5 % of cassava accessions, with flanking markers NS169+RME1, NS158+RME1 and SSRY28+RME1, respectively. Only seven accessions presented all markers linked to the CMD resistance. The DAPC of the seven accessions along with 17 elite cassava varieties led to the formation of three divergent clusters. Potential sources of resistance to CMD were divided into two groups, while the elite varieties were distributed into three groups. The low estimates of the genomic relationship (ranging from -0.167 to 0.681 with an average of 0.076) contributed to the success in identifying contrasting genotypes. The use of MAS in countries where CMD is a quarantine disease constitutes a successful strategy not only for identifying the resistant accessions but also for determining the promising crosses.


Assuntos
Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manihot/efeitos adversos , Manihot/virologia , Seleção Genética
13.
Sci. Agric. ; 72(6): 520-527, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-16227

Resumo

The geminivirus complex known as cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most devastating viruses for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The aim of this study was to use molecular-assisted selection (MAS) to identify CMD-resistant accessions and ascertain promising crosses with elite Brazilian varieties. One thousand two hundred twenty-four accessions were genotyped using five molecular markers (NS169, NS158, SSRY028, SSRY040 and RME1) that were associated with resistance to CMD, along with 402 SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphism). The promising crosses were identified using a discriminant analysis of main component (DAPC), and the matrix of genomic relationship was estimated with SNP markers. The CMD1 gene, previously described in M. glaziovii, was not found in M. esculenta. In contrast, the CMD2 gene was found in 5, 4 and 5 % of cassava accessions, with flanking markers NS169+RME1, NS158+RME1 and SSRY28+RME1, respectively. Only seven accessions presented all markers linked to the CMD resistance. The DAPC of the seven accessions along with 17 elite cassava varieties led to the formation of three divergent clusters. Potential sources of resistance to CMD were divided into two groups, while the elite varieties were distributed into three groups. The low estimates of the genomic relationship (ranging from -0.167 to 0.681 with an average of 0.076) contributed to the success in identifying contrasting genotypes. The use of MAS in countries where CMD is a quarantine disease constitutes a successful strategy not only for identifying the resistant accessions but also for determining the promising crosses.(AU)


Assuntos
Manihot/efeitos adversos , Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética , Manihot/virologia
14.
Sci. agric. ; 72(1): 53-61, Jan.-Feb. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30058

Resumo

The conservation, sustainable evaluation and use of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genetic resources are essential to the development of new commercial varieties. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cassava roots and to estimate genetic variation and clustering in cassava germplasm using the Affinity Propagation algorithm (AP), which is based on the concept of "message passing" between data points. AP finds "exemplars" of each group and members of the input set representative of clusters. The genotypic data of 474 cassava accessions were evaluated over a period of two years for starch yield (StYi), root dry matter (DMC), amylose content (AML), and the level of cyanogenic compounds (CyC). The AP algorithm enabled the formation of nine diversity groups, whose number reflects the high genetic diversity of this germplasm. A high homogeneity of genetic distances was observed within all the groups, except for two groups in which there was a partial overlap caused mainly by a high variation of the CyC trait. In addition, no relationship between the genetic structure and CyC (sweet and bitter cassava) was observed. Analysis of variance of the nine clusters confirmed the presence of differences between the groups. Thus, the results of this study can be used in future breeding programs (hybridization or selection) to introduce new genetic variability into commercial cultivars to avoid problems related to low genetic variation and to improve the quality of cassava roots.(AU)


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Manihot/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/genética
15.
Sci. agric ; 71(2): 139-145, Mar-Abr. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497397

Resumo

High yield stability and adaptability of yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) are highly desirable attributes when exploring different environments. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and yield stability of yellow passion fruit varieties using AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and other ancillary statistics. Twelve varieties were evaluated in eight environments. Analysis of variance showed effects attributable to the varieties (G), environment (E) and their interaction (G × E). The first two multiplicative components of the interaction accounted for 69% of the sum of squares. The scores of the principal interaction components showed high variability for the environments relative to the variety effects. High varietal phenotypic stability was observed in three environments; which can be used in yellow passion fruit breeding programs for initial selection trials. A biplot-AMMI analysis and yield stability index incorporating the AMMI stability value and yield capacity in a single non-parametric index were useful for discriminating genotypes with superior and stable fruit yield. AMMI analysis also allowed for the identification of more productive varieties in specific environments, leading to significant increase in passion fruit productivity.


Assuntos
Adaptação a Desastres , Modelos Estatísticos , Passiflora/genética , Variação Genética
16.
Sci. Agric. ; 71(2): 139-145, Mar-Abr. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-27510

Resumo

High yield stability and adaptability of yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) are highly desirable attributes when exploring different environments. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and yield stability of yellow passion fruit varieties using AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and other ancillary statistics. Twelve varieties were evaluated in eight environments. Analysis of variance showed effects attributable to the varieties (G), environment (E) and their interaction (G × E). The first two multiplicative components of the interaction accounted for 69% of the sum of squares. The scores of the principal interaction components showed high variability for the environments relative to the variety effects. High varietal phenotypic stability was observed in three environments; which can be used in yellow passion fruit breeding programs for initial selection trials. A biplot-AMMI analysis and yield stability index incorporating the AMMI stability value and yield capacity in a single non-parametric index were useful for discriminating genotypes with superior and stable fruit yield. AMMI analysis also allowed for the identification of more productive varieties in specific environments, leading to significant increase in passion fruit productivity.(AU)


Assuntos
Passiflora/genética , Variação Genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Adaptação a Desastres
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