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1.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 16(4): 329-332, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1432540

Resumo

Pneumocephalus is a well described disease; it is commonly diagnosed in humans, but the condition is rarely encountered in veterinary medicine. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold-standard diagnostic method for identifying this disease, and other methods (such as necropsy) are rarely described. In this report, we describe necropsy findings of a 10-month-old, mixed-breed dog with intraventricular pneumocephalus. The dog was referred to Laboratory of Animal Pathology of the Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil, for necropsy after being diagnosed with pneumocephalus upon CT. In the examination, the brain had dilation of both lateral ventricles with empty spaces. Histopathology showed congestion and mineralization only near the lateral ventricles, leading to the diagnosis of pneumocephalus based on the macroscopic findings. The animal also showed sinusitis characterized by nasal discharge and neutrophilic infiltration of nasal sinuses. However, bacterial culture was not conclusive because of contamination of the sample. This is therefore an important report that shows necropsy findings of intraventricular pneumocephalus, which is a rare condition in dogs. By documenting the necropsy findings, we hope to help veterinary pathologists, including those with limited access to diagnostic imaging.


Pneumoencéfalo é uma condição bem descrita e comumente diagnosticada em humanos, mas raramente encontrada na medicina veterinária. A tomografia computadorizada (TC) é o método diagnóstico padrão-ouro para identificar tal alteração, e outros métodos (como a necropsia) raramente são descritos. Neste relato, são apresentados os achados de necropsia de um cão sem raça definida de 10 meses de idade com pneumoencéfalo intraventricular. O cão foi encaminhado ao Laboratório de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Brasil, para necropsia após ser diagnosticado com pneumoencéfalo na TC. No exame, o cérebro apresentava dilatação de ambos os ventrículos laterais com espaços vazios; à histopatologia, foram observadas congestão e mineralização próximas aos ventrículos laterais. Com isso foi estabelecido o diagnóstico de pneumoencéfalo, com base nos achados macroscópicos. O animal também apresentou sinusite caracterizada por secreção nasal e infiltração neutrofílica dos seios nasais. No entanto, a cultura bacteriana não foi conclusiva devido à contaminação da amostra. Este é, portanto, um importante relato que mostra achados de necropsia de pneumoencéfalo intraventricular, que é uma condição rara em cães. Ao documentar os achados da necropsia, esperamos ajudar os patologistas veterinários, incluindo aqueles com acesso limitado a técnicas de diagnóstico por imagem.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Pneumocefalia/veterinária , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
2.
Ciênc. Anim. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 29-36, out.-dez. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434826

Resumo

O estudo das lesões testiculares em felinos é essencial no diagnóstico das doenças reprodutivas, uma vez que as gônadas podem apresentar alterações importantes, mesmo quando macroscopicamente normais. Assim, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar as principais lesões testiculares em gatos adultos submetidos à orquiectomia eletiva, determinando as lesões de maior frequência. Para isso, foram utilizados 25 gatos machos, adultos, com idade entre um e dois anos. Todos os animais eram provenientes do Programa de Controle Populacional de Animais de Estimação Pelo Método de Esterilização Cirúrgica, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HOVET-UFU). Após a orquiectomia, os testículos foram coletados e enviados ao Setor de Patologia Animal do HOVET-UFU, onde foram separados dos seus respectivos epidídimos. Foram obtidas as dimensões de comprimento, altura, largura, peso e volume de cada testículo. Esses foram então fixados em formalina 10%, por 24 horas, e clivados nas regiões cranial, média e caudal. Os fragmentos foram submetidos ao processamento para inclusão em parafina e coloração em hematoxilina e eosina. Mesmo sem alterações macroscópicas significativas, a maioria dos gatos avaliados no estudo exibiu alguma lesão testicular, sendo a degeneração testicular e a fibrose intersticial as mais comuns. Desta forma, destaca-se a importância da histopatologia no diagnóstico de alterações testiculares em animais considerados saudáveis.


The study of testicular lesions in felines is essential in the diagnosis of reproductive diseases, since, the gonads can present important alterations, even when they are macroscopically normal. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the main testicular injuries in adult cats submitted to elective orchiectomy, determining the most frequent ones. For this, 25 adult male cats, aged between one and two years, were used. All animals came from the Pet Population Control Program through the Surgical Sterilization Method of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia (HOVET-UFU). After the orchiectomy, the testicles were collected and sent to the Animal Pathology Sector of HOVET-UFU, where they were separated from their respective epididymis. The dimensions of length, height, width, weight, and volume of each testicle were obtained. These were then fixed in 10% formalin for 24 hours, and cleaved in the cranial, middle, and caudal regions. The fragments were submitted to processing for inclusion in paraffin and staining by hematoxylin and eosin. Even without significant macroscopic changes, most cats evaluated in the present study showed some testicular damage, with testicular degeneration and interstitial fibrosis being the most common. Therefore, the importance of histopathology in the diagnosis of testicular alterations in animals considered healthy is highlighted.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Reprodução , Testículo/lesões , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Doenças do Gato
3.
Ciênc. Anim. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 151-159, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401983

Resumo

As intoxicações por picadas de abelhas possuem grande relevância na medicina humana e veterinária. Os componentes da toxina apresentam ações lesivas aos tecidos, principalmente aos rins, e podem culminar com a morte, mesmo quando a dose inoculada é pequena. A identificação precoce desse tipo de intoxicação permite a implementação de medidas terapêuticas adequadas e a melhoria do prognóstico. Desta forma, o presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de relatar os achados anatomopatológicos observados em dois cães, sem raça definida, os quais foram vítimas fatais de picadas de abelhas. Os animais eram irmãos de ninhada, um macho e uma fêmea, com três anos de idade e com cerca de 30kg. Os cães foram encontrados mortos no período da noite, já em rigor mortis, o que conduziu à suspeita de que a morte havia ocorrido há, no máximo, cinco horas. As principais lesões macroscópicas observadas foram: petéquias cutâneas, algumas associadas à presença de ferrões; congestão generalizada; hemorragia; necrose e edema; assim como insetos com morfologia compatível com Apis mellifera dispersos no trato gastrointestinal. Microscopicamente, degeneração, necrose e hemorragias renais constituíram os achados de maior importância, além de acentuado edema pulmonar, ao qual foi atribuída a causa mortis. Assim, as alterações mais importantes neste tipo de intoxicação são necrose, hemorragia, edema e congestão. Além disso, o óbito pode ocorrer de forma rápida, mesmo com baixas doses da toxina.


Bee sting poisonings have great relevance for both human and veterinary medicine. The toxin components present harmful actions on tissues, especially on kidneys, and can lead to death, even when the inoculated dose is small. The early identification of this type of intoxication allows the implementation of appropriate therapeutic measures and improvement of the prognosis. Thus, the present study aimed to report the anatomopathological findings of two mixed-breed dogs, which were fatal victims of bee stings. The animals were litter brothers, one male and one female, with three years old and weighing about 30kg. The dogs were found dead at night, already in rigor mortis, which led to the suspicion that the death had occurred no more than five hours ago. The main macroscopic lesions were: cutaneous petechiae, some of them associated with bee stingers, generalized congestion, haemorrhage, necrosis, and oedema, as well as insects with morphology compatible with Apis mellifera dispersed in the gastrointestinal tract. Microscopically, degeneration, necrosis, and renal haemorrhages were the most relevant findings, in addition to marked pulmonary oedema, which was considered the causa mortis. Thus, the most important alterations in this type of intoxication are necrosis, haemorrhage, oedema, and congestion. Moreover, death can occur quickly, even with low doses of the toxin.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Venenos de Abelha/toxicidade , Abelhas , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária
4.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 22: e, 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1473829

Resumo

Teve-se como objetivo, no presente trabalho, realizar a classificação morfológica macroscópica e microestrutural das fraturas em ossos longos de Cerdocyon thous. Foram utilizados 18 cadáveres da espécie, necropsiados e submetidos à avaliação radiográfica e microscópica quando detectadas fraturas em ossos longos. Dentre os 18 animais, oito (44%) possuíam fraturas igualmente distribuídas (33,33%) em fêmur, úmero ou tíbia. Mais frequentemente (61,54%) as fraturas eram simples e acometiam a diáfise, e em menores proporções (23,08%) atingiam a linha fisária. Nas fraturas em diáfise e metáfise, predominava o tecido ósseo cortical, com ósteons longitudinais que continham fibras colágenas longitudinais e intermediárias, e lamelas com aspecto de delaminação. Por outro lado, nas fraturas fisárias, o tecido ósseo trabecular foi mais frequentemente observado, constituído por trabéculas com fibras colágenas desorganizadas e ausência de ósteons. Em ambos os casos, notou-se baixa atividade de osteócitos e baixa cobertura de osteoblastos na superfície óssea. Conclui-se que, nas condições observadas, a frequência de fraturas em ossos longos de C. thous foi de 44%, sendo as fêmeas mais predispostas, além de os achados embasarem a hipótese da ocorrência de tais lesões estarem relacionadas a atropelamentos. O presente estudo contribui significativamente para alertar clínicos e cirurgiões em relação aos tipos de fraturas as quais C. thous está mais predisposto, seus locais de maior ocorrência e sua microestrutura. Dessa forma, surge a necessidade de implementação de ações conjuntas que visem reduzir o número de casos de atropelamento de animais silvestres.


The aim of the present study was to perform the macroscopic and microstructural morphological classification of long bone fractures of Cerdocyon thous. Eighteen cadavers of the species were necropsied, and subjected to radiographic and microscopical evaluation when long bone fractures were detected. Among the 18 cadavers, eight (44%) had fractures equally distributed (33.33%) in the femur, humerus, or tibia. More frequently (61.54%), the fractures were simple and affected the diaphysis, and in smaller proportions (23.08%) reached the physeal line. In diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures, microscopical evaluation revealed cortical bone tissue, with longitudinal osteons that contained longitudinal and intermediate collagen fibres and lamellae with a delamination aspect. On the other hand, in epiphyseal fractures, trabecular bone tissue was more frequently observed, consisting of trabeculae with disorganised collagen fibres and absence of osteons. In both cases low activity, osteocytes, and low coverage of osteoblasts on the bone surface were noted. It was concluded that the frequency of fractures in the long bones of C. thous was 44%, with females being more predisposed. The findings support the hypothesis that fractures in such animals are caused by being run over by automobiles. The present study contributes significantly in alerting clinicians and surgeons to the types of fractures that C. thous is more predisposed to, its places of greatest occurrence, and its microstructure. Thus, there is a need for joint actions aimed at reducing the number of cases of wild animals being run over by automobiles.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Canidae/anatomia & histologia , Canidae/lesões , Fraturas da Tíbia/veterinária , Fraturas do Fêmur/veterinária , Fraturas do Úmero/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/mortalidade
5.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 22: e67749, 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285982

Resumo

The aim of the present study was to perform the macroscopic and microstructural morphological classification of long bone fractures of Cerdocyon thous. Eighteen cadavers of the species were necropsied, and subjected to radiographic and microscopical evaluation when long bone fractures were detected. Among the 18 cadavers, eight (44%) had fractures equally distributed (33.33%) in the femur, humerus, or tibia. More frequently (61.54%), the fractures were simple and affected the diaphysis, and in smaller proportions (23.08%) reached the physeal line. In diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures, microscopical evaluation revealed cortical bone tissue, with longitudinal osteons that contained longitudinal and intermediate collagen fibres and lamellae with a delamination aspect. On the other hand, in epiphyseal fractures, trabecular bone tissue was more frequently observed, consisting of trabeculae with disorganised collagen fibres and absence of osteons. In both cases low activity, osteocytes, and low coverage of osteoblasts on the bone surface were noted. It was concluded that the frequency of fractures in the long bones of C. thous was 44%, with females being more predisposed. The findings support the hypothesis that fractures in such animals are caused by being run over by automobiles. The present study contributes significantly in alerting clinicians and surgeons to the types of fractures that C. thous is more predisposed to, its places of greatest occurrence, and its microstructure. Thus, there is a need for joint actions aimed at reducing the number of cases of wild animals being run over by automobiles.


Teve-se como objetivo, no presente trabalho, realizar a classificação morfológica macroscópica e microestrutural das fraturas em ossos longos de Cerdocyon thous. Foram utilizados 18 cadáveres da espécie, necropsiados e submetidos à avaliação radiográfica e microscópica quando detectadas fraturas em ossos longos. Dentre os 18 animais, oito (44%) possuíam fraturas igualmente distribuídas (33,33%) em fêmur, úmero ou tíbia. Mais frequentemente (61,54%) as fraturas eram simples e acometiam a diáfise, e em menores proporções (23,08%) atingiam a linha fisária. Nas fraturas em diáfise e metáfise, predominava o tecido ósseo cortical, com ósteons longitudinais que continham fibras colágenas longitudinais e intermediárias, e lamelas com aspecto de delaminação. Por outro lado, nas fraturas fisárias, o tecido ósseo trabecular foi mais frequentemente observado, constituído por trabéculas com fibras colágenas desorganizadas e ausência de ósteons. Em ambos os casos, notou-se baixa atividade de osteócitos e baixa cobertura de osteoblastos na superfície óssea. Conclui-se que, nas condições observadas, a frequência de fraturas em ossos longos de C. thous foi de 44%, sendo as fêmeas mais predispostas, além de os achados embasarem a hipótese da ocorrência de tais lesões estarem relacionadas a atropelamentos. O presente estudo contribui significativamente para alertar clínicos e cirurgiões em relação aos tipos de fraturas as quais C. thous está mais predisposto, seus locais de maior ocorrência e sua microestrutura. Dessa forma, surge a necessidade de implementação de ações conjuntas que visem reduzir o número de casos de atropelamento de animais silvestres.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Raposas/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Acidentes de Transporte Terrestre
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 720, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366277

Resumo

Background: Osteosarcomas are malignant neoplasms of bone tissue, with a high prevalence in dogs, especially in large and giant breeds. More commonly, such alterations affect the appendicular skeleton and, to a lesser extent, the axial skeleton. In order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to combine cytological and histopathological findings with clinical parameters, imaging exams and macroscopic findings. In the present study, we report a rare case of combined-type pelvic osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis in a dog. Case: A 5-year-old intact large male dog of mixed breed, was submitted to clinical care because of an increase in volume of the left perineal region. The cytological evaluation, performed without imaging exams, indicated that it was an undifferentiated sarcoma. An incisional biopsy defined the diagnosis as telangiectatic osteosarcoma, and with progressive clinical worsening, the patient died. Necroscopic examination revealed multiple nodules in the lungs and an irregular mass with a hard to friable consistency. The mass was intensely vascularised and extended craniodorsally from the left ischial tuberosity to the base of the renal fossa. Microscopically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as combined osteosarcoma, consisting of the osteoblastic, chondroblastic, and telangiectatic subtypes. Metastases with a predominance of the chondroblastic subtype were observed in the lungs. Discussion: This is the first report of combined-type canine osteosarcoma in the ischium. The case reported here is unusual, as there are few reports of canine osteosarcoma in the pelvic bones, and there is no concrete information regarding its histological appearance. Osteosarcoma is the most common bone neoplasm in dogs, representing up to 80% of the tumours found in such organs. In the present case, the dog was a large young adult with a higher probability of neoplasm development. A cytopathological examination is a diagnostic method with good sensitivity and specificity that can confirm osteosarcomas. However, in this case, the cytological diagnosis, performed without the information from the imaging exam, indicated that it was an undifferentiated sarcoma, given the impossibility of the architectural assessment of the lesion. Biopsy samples sent for histology may not be representative of the entire tumour, leading to misclassification of the histological type. Therefore, the evaluation of fragments from various sites of the lesions is recommended. Regarding the morphology of osteosarcomas, such neoplasms have the osteoblastic, chondroblastic, fibroblastic, telangiectatic, large cell, and poorly differentiated subtypes. With regard to tumours located in the axial skeleton, no studies have assessed the predominance of a particular morphological type, as well as the incidence of combined-type masses in dogs in this particular location. Such neoplasms are locally aggressive and have a high metastatic potential, with the lungs being the main location for implantation of neoplastic cells. There is no proven evidence of the correlation between morphological presentations and the presence of metastases from osteosarcomas in dogs. The histological type is not a predictive factor for the behaviour of the neoplasm. However, the anatomical location is considered as one of the factors with the greatest influence on the prognosis and metastatic potential. Rib masses are associated with a higher rate of metastases compared to others. The definitive diagnosis of osteosarcomas and its correct subclassification are of great importance in the prognosis of affected patients. These require an approach that considers the clinical findings, imaging examinations, and macroscopic and microscopic alterations.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Neoplasias Pélvicas/veterinária , Pelve/patologia , Osteossarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Ósseas/veterinária , Metástase Neoplásica
7.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48: Pub.1742-Jan. 30, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458265

Resumo

Background: Differences of the size of the adrenal glands, in healthy dogs or in endocrinopathies, undermine correct diagnosis of endocrine disorders and evaluations of the adrenal cortex in relation to its size and possible correlation with endocrinopathies are rare. The aim of the present study was to perform measurements of the length, width, thickness and weight of the adrenal glands of young, adult and elderly mixed-breed dogs and correlate them with the age, sex and weight of animals. In addition, the areas occupied by the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex were measured in order to establish a microscopic biometric pattern. Material, Methods & Results: The right and left adrenal glands of 12 young (six females and six males), 12 adults (six females and six males), and 12 elderly (six females and six males), all mongrels, derived from routine and necropsied in the Animal Pathology Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (HOVET-UFES) were weighed and the length, width, and thickness were measured. For the microscopic measurement of the adrenal cortex, 10 randomly selected samples were submitted to routine histological processing and the microscope slides were observed under a light microscope at 5× and 10× objectives, photodocumented and measurements were obtained from a random portion of the adrenal cortex and the zones composing the cortex were measured in triplicate with the aid of the computerized image analysis software. The left adrenal showed a greater average length than the right adrenal in young, adult, and elderly dogs. The size of the glands in the young and adult dogs is not influenced by the sex of the animals, but in older dogs the females had a greater mean...


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Biometria , Córtex Suprarrenal/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/anatomia & histologia , Zona Glomerulosa/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária
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