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1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111768, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339693

Resumo

Air pollution has been identified as one of the main environmental risks to health. Since exercise training seems to act as an anti-inflammatory modulator, our hypothesis is that exercise training prevents damage to respiratory and cardiovascular function caused by diesel exhaust particle (DEP) exposure. This study aimed to evaluate whether aerobic exercise training prior to DEP exposure prevents inflammatory processes in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Therefore, BALB/C male mice were or were not submitted to a 10-week exercise training protocol (5×/week, 1 h/d), and after four weeks, they were exposed to DEP in a chamber with 24 µg/m3 PM2.5 or filtered air. Heart rate variability, lung mechanics and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cytokines and polymorphonuclear cells in the lung parenchyma were evaluated. Exposure to DEPs reduced heart rate variability and the elastance of the respiratory system and increased the number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, the density of polymorphonuclear cells and the proportion of collagen fibres in the lung parenchyma. Additionally, DEP-exposed animals showed increased expression of IL-23 and IL-12p40 (proinflammatory cytokines) and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Exercise training avoided the increases in all these inflammatory parameters, except the elastance of the respiratory system, the amount of collagen fibres and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, trained animals showed increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ra. Although our data showed a reduction in proinflammatory markers and an increase in markers of the anti-inflammatory pathway, these changes were not sufficient to prevent damage to the lung and cardiovascular function induced by DEPs. Based on these data, we propose that aerobic exercise training prevents the lung inflammatory process induced by DEPs, although it was not sufficient to avoid chronic damage, such as a loss of lung function or cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Gases , Pulmão , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
2.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 27(12): 1735-1745, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276820

Resumo

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity, a phenotype of low muscle mass and high adiposity, in adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Various diagnostic criteria, including assessment of muscle/fat mass, muscle strength and physical function, were used to identify patients with and without sarcopenic obesity, and to compare outcomes of pain, function and quality of life. DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study including adults with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 and knee OA. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Assessments included gait speed, handgrip strength, six minute walk test, and self-reported pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQol Foundation (EQ-5D). RESULTS: 151 adults (59% female) aged 65.1 ± 7.9 years, mean BMI 37.1 ± 5.5 kg/m2, were included. Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity using diagnostic cut-offs of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) relevant to height2, weight and BMI varied from 1.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2-4.7%) to 14.6% (9.4-21.2%) and 27.2% (20.2-35%), respectively. A combined diagnostic approach including low ASM with either low strength or low function yielded a prevalence of 8.6% (4.7-14.3%). Sarcopenic obesity influenced walking speed, endurance, strength, and patient-reported difficulty with self-care activities, regardless of diagnostic approach. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied depending on diagnostic criteria. Given the impact of this condition and OA on physical function, we suggest a combined diagnostic approach be used to clarify expected prevalence and enable early clinical identification and management of sarcopenic obesity in patients with knee OA.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Artralgia , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Teste de Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada
3.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 27(2): e12611, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921375

Resumo

Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for cancer, the association between obesity and cancer survival remains controversial. This is partially due to the inability of conventional obesity measures to directly assess adiposity or adipose tissue distribution. As a metabolic organ, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) secrets a variety of cytokines and cytokine-like factors, potentially affecting cancer survival. The objective of this review was to investigate the influence of imaging-assessed VAT on cancer survival. A total of 22 studies assessing the impact of visceral adiposity on survival were included. Negative associations between VAT and survival were more frequently observed among patients with colorectal (four of six studies) and pancreatic (three of five studies) cancers, compared to higher VAT predicting longer survival in most studies of renal cell carcinoma patients (four of five studies). Methodological limitations, including unstandardised VAT measurement methods, lack of other body composition measurement (i.e. muscle mass), small sample size and heterogeneous cohort characteristics, may explain controversial findings related to the impact of VAT on cancer survival.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/complicações , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Prognóstico
4.
Eat Weight Disord ; 19(3): 397-402, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24142817

Resumo

PURPOSE: Body adiposity index (BAI) is a novel index for the assessment of percentage fat mass (FM%). We tested the association between BAI and metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese women of different ages. METHODS: 260 young women (24.7 ± 5.3 years, 31.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)) and 328 older women (66.9 ± 4.6 years, 34.8 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were recruited. BAI was calculated using hip circumference and height. Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure FM%. Metabolic risk was assessed using a composite z score integrating standardised measurements of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, liver enzymes and triglycerides. RESULTS: The association between BAI and FM% was modest in both young (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) and older (r = 0.49, p < 0.001) groups. BAI was directly associated with metabolic risk in young women (r = 0.29, p < 0.001), whereas it showed a weak, inverse association in the older group (r = -0.14, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: BAI validity needs to be re-assessed in older individuals for better definition of its predictive accuracy.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 96: 105769, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142785

Resumo

Fragrances can cause allergic skin reactions, expressed as allergic contact dermatitis and reactions in the respiratory tract that range from acute temporary upper airway irritation to obstructive lung disease. These adverse health effects may result from the stimulation of a specific (adaptive) immune response. Th1 cells, which essentially produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), play a key role in allergic contact dermatitis and also on allergic sensitization to common allergens (e.g., nickel and fragrance). It has been shown that fragrance allergy leads to Th2/Th22 production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, controlling the development of IgE and mediating hypersensitivity reactions in the lung, such as asthma. Cytokines released during immune response modulate the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) proteins, which can result in alterations of the pharmacological effects of substances in inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms linking environment and immunity are still not completely understood but it is known that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a sensor with conserved ligand-activated transcription factor, highly expressed in cells that controls complex transcriptional programs which are ligand and cell type specific, with CYPs as targeted genes. This review focuses on these important aspects of immune responses of the skin and respiratory tract cells, describing some in vitro models applied to evaluate the mechanisms involved in fragrance-induced allergy.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Perfumes , Humanos , Odorantes , Ligantes , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Perfumes/toxicidade , Imunidade
6.
ESMO Open ; 9(7): 103604, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935990

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Low muscle mass (MM) predicts unfavorable outcomes in cancer. Protein intake supports muscle health, but oncologic recommendations are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of dietary change to attain 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg/day protein diets, and the preliminary potential to halt MM loss and functional decline in patients starting chemotherapy for stage II-IV colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to the diets and provided individualized counseling. Assessments at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks included weighed 3-day food records, appendicular lean soft tissue index (ALSTI) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to estimate MM, and physical function by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test. RESULTS: Fifty patients (mean ± standard deviation: age, 57 ± 11 years; body mass index, 27.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2; and protein intake, 1.1 ± 0.4 g/kg/day) were included at baseline. At week 12, protein intake reached 1.6 g/kg/day in the 2.0 g/kg/day group and 1.2 g/kg/day in the 1.0 g/kg/day group (P = 0.012), resulting in a group difference of 0.4 g/kg/day rather than 1.0 g/kg/day. Over one-half (59%) of patients in the 2.0 g/kg/day group maintained or gained MM compared with 44% of patients in the 1.0 g/kg/day group (P = 0.523). Percent change in ALSTI did not differ between groups [2.0 g/kg/day group (mean ± standard deviation): 0.5% ± 4.6%; 1.0 g/kg/day group: -0.4% ± 6.1%; P = 0.619]. No differences in physical function were observed between groups. However, actual protein intake and SPPB were positively associated (ß = 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.08-0.67; P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Individualized nutrition counselling positively impacted protein intake. However, 2.0 g/kg/day was not attainable using our approach in this population, and group contamination occurred. Increased protein intake suggested positive effects on MM and physical function, highlighting the potential for nutrition to attenuate MM loss in patients with cancer. Nonetheless, muscle anabolism to any degree is clinically significant and beneficial to patients. Larger trials should explore the statistical significance and clinical relevance of protein interventions.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 106(10): 1583-6, 2012 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22510747

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is characterised by skeletal muscle wasting; however, potential for muscle anabolism in patients with advanced cancer is unproven. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of computed tomography images for loss/gain of muscle in cholangiocarcinoma patients receiving selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) in a Phase II study, compared with a separate standard therapy group. Selumetinib is an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and of interleukin-6 secretion, a putative mediator of muscle wasting. RESULTS: Overall, 84.2% of patients gained muscle after initiating selumetinib; mean overall gain of total lumbar muscle cross-sectional area was 13.6 cm(2)/100 days (∼2.3 kg on a whole-body basis). Cholangiocarcinoma patients who began standard treatment were markedly catabolic, with overall muscle loss of -7.3 cm(2)/100 days (∼1.2 kg) and by contrast only 16.7% of these patients gained muscle. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that selumetinib promotes muscle gain in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Specific mechanisms and relevance for cachexia therapy remain to be investigated.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
8.
Clin Nutr ; 41(12): 2910-2917, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282986

Resumo

INTRODUCTION: Low muscle mass is a common condition in the critically ill population and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of low muscle mass using computed tomography (CT) scans in COVID-19 critically ill patients. A second objective was to determine the accuracy and agreement in low muscle mass identification using diverse markers compared to CT as the gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle area at the third lumbar vertebra was measured. Clinical outcomes (intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital length of stay [LOS], tracheostomy, days on mechanical ventilation [MV], and in-hospital mortality) were assessed. Phase angle, estimated fat-free mass index, calf circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured as surrogate markers of muscle mass. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included (mean age ± SD: 48.6 ± 12.9; 74% males). Patients with low muscle mass (48%) had a higher rate of tracheostomy (50 vs 20%, p = 0.01), prolonged ICU (adjusted HR 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.92, p = 0.024) and hospital LOS (adjusted HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.86, p = 0.014). Bedside markers of muscle mass showed poor to fair agreement and accuracy compared to CT-assessed low muscle mass. CONCLUSION: Low muscle mass at admission was associated with prolonged length of ICU and hospital stays. Further studies are needed to establish targeted nutritional interventions to halt and correct the catabolic impact of COVID-19 in critically ill patients, based on standardized and reliable measurements of body composition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estado Terminal/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores
9.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(7): 783-790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744576

Resumo

OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition affecting millions of individuals worldwide and is defined with different criteria. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Canadians using three internationally accepted criteria. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from 12,592 subjects [6,314 males (50.1%), 6,278 females (49.9%)] ≥65 years old in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging were included. MEASUREMENTS: Appendicular lean mass (ALM; kg) and appendicular lean mass index (ALM kg/height in m2) were collected from dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements. Physical performance was assessed using the 4-m gait speed test, and muscle strength was measured by hand dynamometry. Sarcopenia was defined according to criteria put forth by the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project, and revised European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Positive and negative percent agreements and Cohen's kappa (κ) described the agreement among sarcopenia definitions. RESULTS: Among the evaluated criteria, gait speed ≤ 1.0 m/s (IWGS definition of slowness) was the most frequently identified deficit (56.8% males, 57.2% females). The prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 1.4 to 5.2% in males and 1.6 to 7.2 % in females among the different definitions. Positive percent agreement values among criteria were generally low (range: 1.5 - 55.3%) and corresponded to κ indicating none to minimal agreement (0.01 - 0.23). Negative percent agreement values were ≥ 95%. CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia prevalence was relatively low in older Canadian adults and current definitions had poor agreement in diagnosing individuals as sarcopenic.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
10.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(5): e12493, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589518

Resumo

The roles of obestatin and adropin in paediatric obesity are poorly understood. We compared obestatin and adropin concentrations in younger (n = 21) and older children (n = 14) with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and age and BMI-z-matched controls (n = 31). Fasting plasma obestatin and adropin were higher in younger children with PWS than controls; adropin was also higher in older children with PWS. Growth hormone treatment had no effects on obestatin or adropin in PWS. The ratio of ghrelin to obestatin declined from early to late childhood but was higher in older PWS than older controls. Adropin correlated with fasting glucose in the PWS group only. Changes in the ratio of ghrelin to obestatin may suggest changes in the processing of preproghrelin to ghrelin and obestatin during development and differential processing of preproghrelin in PWS.


Assuntos
Grelina/sangue , Obesidade Infantil/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/sangue , Adolescente , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Masculino
11.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 77(2): 135-151, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745361

Resumo

Advancements in image-based technologies and body composition research over the past decade has led to increased understanding of the importance of muscle abnormalities, such as low muscle mass (sarcopenia), and more recently low muscle attenuation (MA), as important prognostic indicators of unfavourable outcomes in patients with cancer. Muscle abnormalities can be highly prevalent in patients with cancer (ranging between 10 and 90 %), depending on the cohort under investigation and diagnostic criteria used. Importantly, both low muscle mass and low MA have been associated with poorer tolerance to chemotherapy, increased risk of post-operative infectious and non-infectious complications, increased length of hospital stay and poorer survival in patients with cancer. Studies have shown that systemic antineoplastic treatment can exacerbate losses in muscle mass and MA, with reported loss of skeletal muscle between 3 and 5 % per 100 d, which are increased exponentially with progressive disease and proximity to death. At present, no effective medical intervention to improve muscle mass and MA exists. Most research to date has focused on treating muscle depletion as part of the cachexia syndrome using nutritional, exercise and pharmacological interventions; however, these single-agent therapies have not provided promising results. Rehabilitation care to modify body composition, either increasing muscle mass and/or MA should be conducted, and its respective impact on oncology outcomes explored. Although the optimal timing and treatment strategy for preventing or delaying the development of muscle abnormalities are yet to be determined, multimodal interventions initiated early in the disease trajectory appear to hold the most promise.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/complicações , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle , Caquexia/etiologia , Humanos , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Síndrome de Emaciação/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
12.
Clin Nutr ; 37(6 Pt A): 2284-2287, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056283

Resumo

BACKGROUND & AIM: Low fat-free mass (FFM) or high fat mass (FM) are abnormal body composition phenotypes associated with morbidity. These conditions in combination lead to worse health outcomes, and can be identified by a high FM/FFM ratio. Here, we developed sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) stratified, population-based FM/FFM reference values using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. METHODS: White, non-Hispanic individuals aged 18-90 years old with data for weight, stature and BIA resistance measures from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III were included. Previously validated and sex-specific BIA prediction equations were used to calculate FM and FFM. FM/FFM values were generated at 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each sex, age (18-39.9, 40-59.9, 60-69.9 and 70-90 years), and BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I/II and class III obesity). RESULTS: A total of 6372 individuals who had estimated FM and FFM values were identified (3366 females, 3006 males). Median values of FM/FFM were 0.24 and 0.40 for young (≤39.9 years) males and females with normal BMI, and 0.34 for males and 0.59 for females who were overweight. For elderly individuals aged >70 years, median FM/FFM for males and females were respectively 0.28 and 0.45 for those with normal BMI, and 0.37 and 0.61 for those in the overweight category. CONCLUSIONS: These FM/FFM reference values provide information on body composition characteristics that account for age, sex and BMI, which can be useful to identify individuals at risk for body composition abnormalities.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 29(9): 805-8, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17114911

Resumo

GH secretion by the pituitary is the result of the balance between the stimulatory effect of GHRH and the inhibitory effect of SS. Patients with mutations in GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) gene (GHRH-R) offer a unique model to study the mechanism of action of different GH secretion stimuli. In the past, we have demonstrated a small but significant GH response to a GH secretagogue (GHRP-2) in a homogenous cohort of patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) due to a homozygous null mutation in GHRH-R (IVS1+1G-->A). Now, we sought to determine if we could detect a GH response to hypoglycemia (ITT: insulin tolerance test) or clonidine (CL) in these patients. Nine young GHD subjects underwent both ITT and CL tests, and 2 additional subjects underwent only CL test. There was a small but significant GH increase during ITT, but not during CL test. These results indicate that a minimal albeit significant GH response to ITT can occur despite complete lack of GHRH-R function.


Assuntos
Clonidina/farmacologia , Nanismo Hipofisário/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Nanismo Hipofisário/genética , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Síndrome , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 75(2): 188-98, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26743210

Resumo

Our understanding of body composition (BC) variability in contemporary populations has significantly increased with the use of imaging techniques. Abnormal BC such as sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity (excess adipose tissue) are predictors of poorer prognosis in a variety of conditions or clinical situations. As a catabolic illness, a defining feature of cancer is muscle loss. Although the conceptual model of wasting in cancer is typically conceived as involuntary weight loss leading to low body weight, recent studies have shown that both sarcopenia and cachexia can be present with obesity. The combination of low muscle and high adipose tissue (sarcopenic obesity) is an emerging abnormal BC phenotype prevalent across the body weight, and hence BMI spectra. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in cancer are in most instances occult conditions, which have been independently associated with higher incidence of chemotherapy toxicity, shorter time to tumour progression, poorer outcomes of surgery, physical impairment and shorter survival. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully understood, the associations with poorer clinical outcomes emphasise the value of nutritional assessment as well as the need to develop appropriate interventions to countermeasure abnormal BC. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity create diverse nutritional requirements, highlighting the compelling need for a more comprehensive and differentiated understanding of energy and protein requirements in this heterogeneous population.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade , Sarcopenia , Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Neoplasias/terapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Necessidades Nutricionais
15.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 70(11): 1230-1238, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273068

Resumo

Great discrepancies exist in the reported prevalence of altered energy metabolism (hypo- or hypermetabolism) in cancer patients, which is likely due to the vast array of phenomena that can affect energy expenditure in these patients. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate key determinants of energy expenditure in cancer and the relevance for clinical practice. Resting energy expenditure (REE) is the largest and most commonly measured component of total energy expenditure. In addition to the energetic demand of the tumor itself, REE may be increased due to changes in inflammation, body composition and brown adipose tissue activation. Energy expenditure from physical activity is often lower in cancer compared with healthy populations, and there is evidence to suggest that the thermic effect of food might also be blunted and affected by cancer therapy. Although accurate assessment of energy metabolism is a cornerstone of adequate nutritional therapy, prediction methods often do not capture the true energy expenditure of most cancer patients. In fact, limits of agreement of prediction equations may range from 40% below to 30% above measured REE. Such variability highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of energy expenditure in cancer and the value of accurately assessing the energy needs of these patients.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Neoplasias , Necessidades Nutricionais , Humanos
16.
Clin Obes ; 6(6): 365-375, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869360

Resumo

The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography. A continuous metabolic risk Z score and harmonised international criteria were used to define cumulative metabolic risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS), respectively. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to test associations between body composition indexes and metabolic risk. In unadjusted models, VAT:FFMI was a better predictor of MetS (OR 8.03, 95%CI 6.69-9.65) compared to FMI:FFMI (OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.45-3.46). However, the strength of association of VAT:FFMI and FMI:FFMI became comparable when models were adjusted for age, gender, clinical and sociodemographic factors (OR 4.06, 95%CI 3.31-4.97; OR 4.25, 95%CI 3.42-5.27, respectively). A similar pattern was observed for the association of the two indexes with the metabolic risk Z score (VAT:FFMI: unadjusted b = 0.69 ± 0.03, adjusted b = 0.36 ± 0.03; FMI:FFMI: unadjusted b = 0.28 ± 0.028, adjusted b = 0.38 ± 0.02). Our results suggest that there is no real advantage in using either VAT:FFMI or FMI:FFMI ratios as a predictor of metabolic risk in adults. However, these results warrant confirmation in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia
17.
Mol Neurobiol ; 53(10): 6635-6643, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637327

Resumo

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway controls the inflammatory response and nonreflexive consciousness through bidirectional communication between the brain and immune system. Moreover, brain acetylcholinesterase activity may have a role in regulating the vagus nerve in this pathway. Thus, we analyzed the role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the inflammatory response 15 days after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Balb/c mice were pretreated with or without donepezil (5 mg/kg/day, orally) 7 days before CLP, and mice homozygous for vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT) knockdown (KD) were subjected to CLP. All animals were sacrificed 15 days after CLP, and the plasma, spleen, and hippocampus were collected. Characterization of splenic lymphocytes and cytokine levels in the plasma, spleen, and hippocampus was determined. Our results showed a splenomegaly in group CLP. The numbers of cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, and Th17 cells differed between mice subjected to CLP and to sham operation in both untreated and donepezil-treated groups. In VAChT-KD mice, CLP resulted in decreased cytotoxic and helper T cells and increased in Th17 cells compared with the sham. Additionally, in VAChT-KD mice, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, were increased following CLP. Thus, we concluded that ACh affected the inflammatory response at 15 days after CLP since stimulation of cholinergic transmission increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, including regulatory T cells, in association with a lower inflammatory profile and VAChT-KD decreased the number of lymphocytes and increased inflammation.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Ceco/patologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Punções , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/patologia , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ligadura , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão , Baço/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 48(3): 234-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25651459

Resumo

This study aimed to demonstrate that congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results in vascular abnormalities that are directly associated with the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension. These events increase right ventricle (RV) afterload and may adversely affect disease management and patient survival. Our objective was to investigate cardiac function, specifically right ventricular changes, immediately after birth and relate them to myocardial histological findings in a CDH model. Pregnant New Zealand rabbits underwent the surgical procedure at 25 days of gestation (n=14). CDH was created in one fetus per horn (n=16), and the other fetuses were used as controls (n=20). At term (30 days), fetuses were removed, immediately dried and weighed before undergoing four-parameter echocardiography. The lungs and the heart were removed, weighed, and histologically analyzed. CDH animals had smaller total lung weight (P<0.005), left lung weight (P<0.005), and lung-to-body ratio (P<0.005). Echocardiography revealed a smaller left-to-right ventricle ratio (LV/RV, P<0.005) and larger diastolic right ventricle size (DRVS, P<0.007). Histologic analysis revealed a larger number of myocytes undergoing mitotic division (186 vs 132, P<0.05) in CDH hearts. Immediate RV dilation of CDH hearts is related to myocyte mitosis increase. This information may aid the design of future strategies to address pulmonary hypertension in CDH.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Coelhos
19.
Ars Vet. ; 36(4): 253-270, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29928

Resumo

Essa revisão apresenta considerações acerca da relevância das infecções de parasitos gastrintestinais (PGI) em ruminantes, abordando a importância de fármacos antiparasitários no controle das helmintoses e demais alternativas. Foi realizada uma abordagem conceitual e histórica sobre o controle de PGI e o processo de desenvolvimento da resistência parasitária. Como alternativa da baixa eficácia de medicamentos, foi feita uma descrição detalhada sobre o uso de óleos essenciais (OE) e de componentes bioativos no controle das PGI em ruminantes. A produção de OE de plantas, passa pela composição química, técnicas de extração dos componentes, mecanismo de ação e ensaios para validação da sua atividade terapêutica, incluindo sua ação anti-helmíntica. Este artigo traz, na sua segunda parte, uma descrição detalhada de duas espécies do gênero Mentha, com foco em sua biologia, composição química e mecanismos de ação de seus OE. Dentro desse tópico, as espécies Mentha vilosa e M. piperita são as mais estudadas, bem como os seus componentes majoritários e bioativos; carvone e limoneno. Ao final do documento, discutimos sobre a técnica de cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas, que se faz obrigatória para a identificação de compostos presentes em OE. Incluímos ainda, o detalhamento sobre tecnologias de nanoemulsão e suas vantagens na confecção de formulações mais estáveis, menos tóxicas aos hospedeiros e com potencial de aumentar a eficácia de fármacos contra as PGI, para o desenvolvimento de novos compostos fitoterápicos ecosustentáveis.(AU)


This review presents considerations about the relevance of gastrointestinal parasite (GIP) infections in ruminants, covering also the importance of antiparasitic drugs in the control of helminth infections and some other alternatives. This document describes a conceptual and historical view of the development of routine GIP control and the process of development of drug resistance. As an alternative to the low efficacy of some products, a detailed description was made of the use of essential oils (EO) and their bioactive compounds in the control of GIP in ruminants. The production of EO from plants, goes through the chemical composition, techniques of extraction of components, mechanism of action and assays for the validation of their activity, including the anthelmintic activity. The present document brings, in its second part, a more detailed description of two species of the genus Mentha, focusing on their biology, chemical composition and the mechanism of action of their EO. Within this topic, the species of Mentha vilosa and M. piperita are better studied, as well as their chemical composition and bioactive components carvone and limonene. At the end, it is discussed the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques that are useful to identify compounds present in EO. It was also included the details about nanoemulsion technologies and their advantages in obtaining a more stable formulation, less toxic to the host, with a great potential to increase anthelmintic efficacy against GIP, for the development of new herbal bioactive and ecofriendly compounds.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Mentha , Plantas Medicinais , Ruminantes
20.
Ars vet ; 36(4): 253-270, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1463552

Resumo

Essa revisão apresenta considerações acerca da relevância das infecções de parasitos gastrintestinais (PGI) em ruminantes, abordando a importância de fármacos antiparasitários no controle das helmintoses e demais alternativas. Foi realizada uma abordagem conceitual e histórica sobre o controle de PGI e o processo de desenvolvimento da resistência parasitária. Como alternativa da baixa eficácia de medicamentos, foi feita uma descrição detalhada sobre o uso de óleos essenciais (OE) e de componentes bioativos no controle das PGI em ruminantes. A produção de OE de plantas, passa pela composição química, técnicas de extração dos componentes, mecanismo de ação e ensaios para validação da sua atividade terapêutica, incluindo sua ação anti-helmíntica. Este artigo traz, na sua segunda parte, uma descrição detalhada de duas espécies do gênero Mentha, com foco em sua biologia, composição química e mecanismos de ação de seus OE. Dentro desse tópico, as espécies Mentha vilosa e M. piperita são as mais estudadas, bem como os seus componentes majoritários e bioativos; carvone e limoneno. Ao final do documento, discutimos sobre a técnica de cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas, que se faz obrigatória para a identificação de compostos presentes em OE. Incluímos ainda, o detalhamento sobre tecnologias de nanoemulsão e suas vantagens na confecção de formulações mais estáveis, menos tóxicas aos hospedeiros e com potencial de aumentar a eficácia de fármacos contra as PGI, para o desenvolvimento de novos compostos fitoterápicos ecosustentáveis.


This review presents considerations about the relevance of gastrointestinal parasite (GIP) infections in ruminants, covering also the importance of antiparasitic drugs in the control of helminth infections and some other alternatives. This document describes a conceptual and historical view of the development of routine GIP control and the process of development of drug resistance. As an alternative to the low efficacy of some products, a detailed description was made of the use of essential oils (EO) and their bioactive compounds in the control of GIP in ruminants. The production of EO from plants, goes through the chemical composition, techniques of extraction of components, mechanism of action and assays for the validation of their activity, including the anthelmintic activity. The present document brings, in its second part, a more detailed description of two species of the genus Mentha, focusing on their biology, chemical composition and the mechanism of action of their EO. Within this topic, the species of Mentha vilosa and M. piperita are better studied, as well as their chemical composition and bioactive components carvone and limonene. At the end, it is discussed the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques that are useful to identify compounds present in EO. It was also included the details about nanoemulsion technologies and their advantages in obtaining a more stable formulation, less toxic to the host, with a great potential to increase anthelmintic efficacy against GIP, for the development of new herbal bioactive and ecofriendly compounds.


Assuntos
Animais , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Mentha , Plantas Medicinais , Ruminantes
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