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1.
Ci. Rural ; 50(6): e20190846, May 11, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29113

Resumo

Although Northeast Brazil is considered free of foot and mouth disease (FMD) with vaccination, several economic and health damages are still recorded due to the occurrence of vesicular syndromes that can be evaluated, such as Vesicular Stomatitis (VS). Therefore, this study aimed to confirm the occurrence of this disease and to determine the predominant viral serotype in suspected cases notified to the Official Veterinary Service of Ceará in 2013 performing official diagnostic protocols recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health. After clinical and epidemiological investigation in 46 farms, 32 probable cases of VS were considered with 78 sampled animals, 65 bovines and 13 equines. Serum (54) and epithelium (24) samples were collected. Six (14.6%) of 41 bovines and 8 (61.5%) of 13 equines described seroconversion to Indiana Vesiculovirus (IVV) by viral neutralization. The IVV was detected in 15 (62.5%) of 24 bovines epithelia using the indirect sandwich ELISA. Finally, positive epithelium underwent complement fixation test viral subtyping that identified the occurrence of Indiana III serotype (Alagoas/IVV-3) in 11 (73.3%) of 15 previous positives cattle. These were the first confirmed cases of VS in Ceará with an official diagnosis of IVV-3, confirming the endemic character attributed to the state through previous unofficial serological surveys. The presence of VS is a continuing diagnostic challenge, given the risk of possible incursions of FMD. Vesicular stomatitis is recurrent and is a worrying in this area free of foot and mouth disease with vaccination that bring damage to producers and a maximum alert to the Sanitary Defense Organs in the face of a probable case of vesicular syndrome.(AU)


Embora o Nordeste do Brasil seja considerado livre de Febre Aftosa (FA) com a vacinacao, ainda sao registrados varios prejuízos econômicos e sanitários devido a ocorrencia de sindromes vesiculares que precisam ser adequadamente avaliadas, como Estomatite Vesicular (EV). Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo confirmar a ocorrencia desta doenca e determinar o sorotipo viral predominante em casos suspeitos notificados ao Servico Veterinario Oficial do Ceara no ano de 2013 realizando protocolos oficiais de diagnóstico recomendados pela Organizacao Mundial de Saude Animal. Após investigação clínica e epidemiológica em 46 propriedades rurais, foram considerados 32 casos prováveis de propriedade foco de EV com 78 animais amostrados, sendo 65 bovinos e 13 equídeos. Amostras de soro (54) e epitelio (24) foram coletadas. Analises sorologicas de 6 (14,6%) de 41 bovinos e 8 (61,5%) de 13 equídeos apresentaram soroconversao ao Vesiculovirus Indiana (VVI) por neutralizacao viral. O VVI foi detectado em 15 (62,5%) de 24 epitélios bovinos usando ELISA indireto sanduiche. Por fim, amostras de epitélio positivas foram submetidas a subtipagem viral por fixacao do complemento que identificou a ocorrência do sorotipo Indiana III (Alagoas/VVI-3) em 11 (73,3%) de bovinos. Estes foram os primeiros casos confirmados de EV no estado do Ceara com diagnostico oficial de VVI-3 confirmando o carater endemico atribuido ao Estado por meio de levantamentos sorologicos nao oficiais anteriores. A presença de EV é um desafio diagnóstico contínuo, dado o risco de possíveis incursões de FA. A Estomatite Vesicular é recorrente e preocupante nesta área livre de FA com vacinação pois, além de prejuízos aos produtores, traz um alerta máximo aos Órgãos de Defesa Sanitária diante de um caso provável de síndrome vesicular.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Estomatite Vesicular/diagnóstico , Estomatite Vesicular/epidemiologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Equidae
2.
R. bras. Parasitol. Vet. ; 28(3): 522-527, aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-22962

Resumo

The anthelmintic resistance stimulated the search for strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes, including the use of free essential oils or its nanoemulsion. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (CcEO) and C. citratus essential oil nanoemulsion (CcEOn). Pysicochemical analyses were performed. The in vitro effect was determined using the egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus and in vivo effect was evaluated in sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The animals were treated with CcEO (500 mg/kg) or CcEOn (450 mg/kg) for the fecal egg count (FEC) and the determination of worm burden. The main component of CcEO was citral. The CcEO content in the nanoemulsion was 20% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 248 nm. In EHT, CcEO and CcEOn (1.25 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98.4 and 97.1%, respectively. Three animals treated with CcEO died whereas in the group treated with CcEOn one animal died. The FEC and total worm burden of the treated groups did not differ from the negative control (p>0.05). The CcEOn showed efficacy only on H. contortus (p 0.05). In conclusion, nanoencapsulation reduced toxicity and increased efficacy on H. contortus.(AU)


A resistência anti-helmíntica estimulou a busca por estratégias de controle de nematoides gastrintestinais, incluindo óleos essenciais livres ou em nanoemulsão. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (OECc) e da nanoemulsão do óleo essencial de C. citratus (nOECc). Análises físico-químicas foram realizadas. O efeito in vitro foi determinado no teste de eclosão de ovos (TEO) sobre Haemonchus contortus e o efeito in vivo foi avaliado em ovinos infectados com nematoides gastrintestinais. Os animais foram tratados com OECc (500 mg/kg) ou nOECc (450 mg/kg) para determinação do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e carga parasitária. O principal constituinte do OECc foi citral. O conteúdo de OECc na nanoemulsão foi 20% e o tamanho médio de partícula foi 248 nm. No TEO, OECc e nOECc (1,25 mg/mL) inibiram 98,4 e 97,1% da eclosão larvar, respectivamente. Três animais tratados com o OECc morreram, enquanto um animal do grupo tratado com a nOECc morreu. O OPG e a carga parasitária total dos grupos tratados não diferiram do controle negativo (p>0.05). A nOECc apresentou eficácia somente sobre H. contortus (p 0.05). Como conclusão, o nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade e aumentou a eficácia sobre H. contortus.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Cymbopogon , Nematoides , Ovinos
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 46: 1-14, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1457831

Resumo

Background: Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major health and economic problem of sheep and goats in the world. The control of these nematodes is carried out conventionally with synthetic anthelminths, which favored the selection of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) populations multiresistant to anthelmintics. The emergence of anthelmintic resistance has stimulated the search for new alternatives to control small ruminant GIN, standing out the use of plants and their bioactives compounds, such as essential oils (EO). The objective of this review was to present the main characteristics and anthelmintic activity of EO, their isolated compounds and drug delivery systems in the control of GIN.Review: Essential oils are a complex blend of bioactive compounds with volatile, lipophilic, usually odoriferous and liquid substances. EO are composed of terpenes, terpenoids, aromatic and aliphatic constituents. EO has various pharmacological activities of interest in preventive veterinary medicine such as antibacterials, antifungals, anticoccicids, insecticides and anthelmintics. In vitro and in vivo tests are used to validate the anthelmintic activity of EO on GIN. In vitro tests are low cost screening tests that allow the evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of a large amount of bioactive compounds on eggs, first (L1) and third stage larvae (L3), and adult nematodes. The antiparasitic effect of EO is related to its main compound or to the interaction of the compounds. These bioactive compounds penetrate the cuticle of the nematodes by transcuticular diffusion, altering the mechanisms of locomotion, besides causing cuticular lesions. Following in vitro evaluation, the acute and sub-chronic toxicity test should be performed to assess the toxicity of the bioactive compounds and to define the dose to be used in in vivo tests.[...]


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Nematoides , Ovinos/parasitologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 46: 1-14, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-728662

Resumo

Background: Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major health and economic problem of sheep and goats in the world. The control of these nematodes is carried out conventionally with synthetic anthelminths, which favored the selection of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) populations multiresistant to anthelmintics. The emergence of anthelmintic resistance has stimulated the search for new alternatives to control small ruminant GIN, standing out the use of plants and their bioactives compounds, such as essential oils (EO). The objective of this review was to present the main characteristics and anthelmintic activity of EO, their isolated compounds and drug delivery systems in the control of GIN.Review: Essential oils are a complex blend of bioactive compounds with volatile, lipophilic, usually odoriferous and liquid substances. EO are composed of terpenes, terpenoids, aromatic and aliphatic constituents. EO has various pharmacological activities of interest in preventive veterinary medicine such as antibacterials, antifungals, anticoccicids, insecticides and anthelmintics. In vitro and in vivo tests are used to validate the anthelmintic activity of EO on GIN. In vitro tests are low cost screening tests that allow the evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of a large amount of bioactive compounds on eggs, first (L1) and third stage larvae (L3), and adult nematodes. The antiparasitic effect of EO is related to its main compound or to the interaction of the compounds. These bioactive compounds penetrate the cuticle of the nematodes by transcuticular diffusion, altering the mechanisms of locomotion, besides causing cuticular lesions. Following in vitro evaluation, the acute and sub-chronic toxicity test should be performed to assess the toxicity of the bioactive compounds and to define the dose to be used in in vivo tests.[...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/química , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária
5.
R. bras. Parasitol. Vet. ; 21(3): 185-191, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-12617

Resumo

The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.(AU)


O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Coriandrum , Fabaceae , Leishmania , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Monócitos/parasitologia
6.
Tese em Português | VETTESES | ID: vtt-9272

Resumo

A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) das Américas é foco de estudo, pois é a principal causa do aparecimento da leishmaniose visceral humana. Desta forma, objetivou-se ampliar os conhecimentos da LVC na cidade de Fortaleza, identificando os fatores de risco inerentes ao cão susceptível à infecção. Foram analisadas duas populações, cães domiciliados oriundos da Unidade Hospitalar Veterinária da Universidade Estadual do Ceará e animais de rua capturados pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas e após centrifugação foram estocadas a -20 C. O ELISA, com antígenos brutos solúveis L. chagasi (LTCC WDCM731) foi usado para diagnóstico. Foram obtidas 1.381 amostras, sendo 750 de cães domiciliados e 631 de animais irrestritos. A prevalência da LV canina nos cães domiciliados foi de 26,2% (197/750) e nos cães irrestritos foi de 21,4% (135/631). A prevalência nas secretarias executivas regionais de Fortaleza demonstrou que a regional V foi a mais prevalente com 31,4% dos casos nos cães irrestritos e os de grande porte foram mais prevalentes (27,7%). A LV foi mais prevalente nas SER V (38,5%) e VI (37,6%) entre os cães domiciliados. A faixa etária de 1 a 6 anos, porte grande, ambiente com vegetação densa e sintomatologia compatível com LV estão associados com LVC em cães domiciliados. A freqüência pluviométrica mensal associada à prevalência da LVC nos domiciliados demonstrou uma possível distribuição sazonal da LVC na cidade de Fortaleza. Esses resultados demonstraram o perfil do cão suscetível à infecção por Leishmania chagasi na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil


The visceral canine leishmaniasis of America is focus of many studies since the decade of 50, is the main cause of visceral leishmaniasis human the appearance. The aim was to extend the knowledge of the visceral canine leishmaniasis in the city of Fortaleza and to identify the risk factors inherent to dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations had been analyzed, domiciliated dogs deriving from clinics and the UHV of the UECE and mongrels captured by the CCZ. Samples of blood had been collected and after centrifugalization stored at -20 C. ELISA, with soluble brute antigens L. chagasi (LTCC - WDCM731) was used for diagnosis. 1,381 samples, being 750 of domiciliated dogs and 631 of mongrels animals had been collected. The prevalence of the visceral canine leishmaniasis was of 26.2% (197/750) in domiciliated dogs and 21.4% (135/631) in mongrels dog. The prevalence in the regional executive secretariats of Fortaleza demonstrated that the regional V was the most prevalent with 31.4% cases in the street dogs and animals of great size had been more prevalent (27.7%). The LV was more prevalent in SER V (38.5%) and VI (37.6%) amongst domiciliated dogs. The age of 1 to 6 years, size great, surrounding band with dense vegetation and compatible sintomatology with LV are associates with the illness in domiciliated dogs. The frequency of the illness presented sazonal variation, being the prevalence greater on July and December. This finds suggests a desription the dog susceptibility of Leishmania chagasi in Fortaleza city, state of Ceara, Brazil

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