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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 858, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434578

Resumo

Background: In the routine care of non-human primates, ocular trauma is frequent, however, unlike the small animal clinic, the prevalence of corneal ulcers is not documented. Among the numerous therapeutic options available in dogs, blood serum is being increasingly used as an adjuvant treatment in these conditions, due to its tear-like properties. Based on this, the present study aims to describe a case of corneal ulcer in a southern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) attacked by a porcupine, and the use of heterologous serum obtained from an equine as an adjuvant treatment. Case: A southern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans), which had been attacked by porcupine quills, was treated at a University Veterinary Hospital. During the clinical examination, the presence of blepharospasm and secretion in the right eye was noticed. The ophthalmological examination, through the fluorescein test, detected the presence of an extensive superficial corneal ulcer in the right eye. After removing the spines, the corneal ulcer was treated with tobramycin-based eye drops, 1% atropine sulfate eye drops, and serum from equine blood in the form of eye drops, as an adjuvant therapy. After 5 days of treatment, the fluorescein test was repeated, which was negative in both eyes due to complete healing of the lesion, and thus the treatment was concluded. Discussion: The scarcity of scientific literature on wild animals is one of the factors responsible for the difficulty in advancing clinical and surgical procedures in non-human primates. Corneal ulcers are characterized by the loss of corneal epithelium with exposure of the stroma. The main clinical treatments adopted include antimicrobial therapy, analgesics, lubricating agents, and antiprotease drugs. Widely used as an adjuvant therapy in corneal ulcers in small animals, blood serum presents some advantages, as it is rich in growth factors, vitamins, immunoglobulins, and anti-collagenolytic substances, in addition to being obtained for a low cost. Considering the aforementioned, in the case reported, it was decided to use blood serum obtained from an equine as an adjuvant treatment of the corneal ulcer in a southern brown howler monkey. Complete healing of the corneal ulcer was confirmed in just five days, contributing to the well-being of this animal and contributing to the evolution of ophthalmology in this species that is still poorly studied.


Assuntos
Animais , Úlcera da Córnea/terapia , Úlcera da Córnea/veterinária , Antígenos Heterófilos/sangue , Alouatta/lesões , Ouriços , Cavalos/sangue
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 860, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434593

Resumo

Background: The uncontrolled multiplication of Sertoli cells causes Sertoli cell tumor or Sertolioma. Because of this, the level of estrogen in the bloodstream increases rapidly and approximately 25% of dogs with this tumor develop feminization syndrome. Testicular neoplasms are more common in dogs than cats, and are often found in elderly patients. This work aims to describe the clinical signs of the feminization syndrome and the treatment instituted in a canine diagnosed with sertolioma. Case: A 18-year-old male canine, 19.5 kg of body mass, with an increase in testicular volume for about 2 years, was treated at the University Veterinary Hospital. On clinical examination, a matte and brittle coat, alopecia on the hind limbs and gynecomastia were observed. Also noted, non-harmonious aspect of the scrotum, pendular foreskin, atrophied right testicle and hyperplastic left, scrotal hyperthermia and absence of pain. In addition, as a result of the hyperestrogenism resulting from the neoplasm, the paraneoplastic syndrome of feminization, the patient also presented galactorrhea, pendular foreskin, atrophy of the penis and the contralateral testicle, dermatopathies, such as bilateral symmetrical alopecia of the flanks, easily removable hair and variable hyperpigmentation. Rectal body temperature of 38.6°C, clear lung auscultation and muffled cardiac auscultation. The results of laboratory tests showed changes such as thrombocytopenia, platelet counts below the reference levels, platelet count of 163,000/uL. There were no alterations that represented metastases in the imaging exams, such as in the chest X-ray in three incidences and in the abdominal ultrasonography. Then, we opted for the surgical procedure of orchiectomy, with the traditional technique of three clamps, associated with total ablation of the scrotum. Samples were sent to the histopathology laboratory and the diagnosis of sertolioma was confirmed. At 10, 30 and 90 days after the operation, the patient was reassessed for possible recurrences or alterations, but there were no complications or recurrence after the procedure. Discussion: Neoplasms of the male reproductive system are common in dogs. Sertolioma is considered one of the most frequent neoplasms in elderly dogs and that results in systemic clinical signs. This is in line with the 18-year-old dog described in the present report. In addition, it may result in clinical signs resulting from hyperestrogenism resulting from the neoplasm that is called paraneoplastic feminization syndrome. The characteristics of this syndrome are: gynecomastia, galactorrhea, pendular foreskin, atrophy of the penis and contralateral testicle, associated with dermatopathies, such as symmetrical bilateral alopecia. All these clinical signs were present. The diagnosis is made through complete anamnesis, complete clinical examination and complementary examination such as ultrasound help in the presumptive diagnosis, but only with histopathology can it be confirmed. In the clinical approach, histopathology was performed to close the diagnosis. Treatment is behind orchiectomy and total ablation of the scrotum, which was performed in the reported case. The treatment of choice was easy to apply, in addition to improving the patient's quality of life, promoting rapid post-surgical healing and an early return to normal life. However, for the effectiveness of the technique, the early diagnosis and collaboration of tutors is fundamental.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Tumor de Células de Sertoli/cirurgia , Tumor de Células de Sertoli/veterinária , Neoplasias Testiculares/veterinária , Feminização/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 863, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434647

Resumo

Background: Although Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is most commonly seen in the epidermis, this malignant neoplasm can manifest in various other tissues. A wide range of factors may be related to the development of SCC in the cornea, with continuous exposure to ultraviolet radiation and chronic friction to the ocular surface being the most accepted theories. In addition to surgical procedures, the use of mitomycin C in the topical treatment of corneal SCC has shown good results in therapeutic management. Thus, the objective of the current work is to report the satisfactory response observed in the use of mitomycin C in a case of SCC in the cornea of a dog. Case: A 9-year-old male Pug dog was attended by the Veterinary Ophthalmology and Microsurgery Sector (SOMVET) of the University Veterinary Hospital (HVU) of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in the cornea of the left eye, which had recurred after a previous surgical intervention. Secretion and discomfort in the left eye were noted during clinical examination. In addition, both eyes presented pigmentary keratitis in the medial corner. Surgical excision of the neoplasm was performed using the surgical technique of anterior lamellar keratectomy. In the immediate postoperative period, topical therapy was started with eye drops based on mitomycin C at 0.02%, for a period of 28 consecutive days. The use of this chemotherapy drug in the topical form was intended to minimize the chances of recurrence of the clinical condition, since the patient is predisposed to this alteration. In addition, supportive therapy was implemented to improve patient comfort, consisting of the use of tobramycin-based eye drops (6 times a day, for 14 days), atropine 1% eye drops (BID, for 3 days), lubricating eye drops based on sodium hyaluronate (3 times a day, for continuous use), and immunomodulatory eye drops based on tacrolimus 0.02% (twice a day, for continuous use). The patient was evaluated 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after surgery, when good results were observed. One year after treatment, the dog was still showing no signs of recurrence of the treated clinical condition. Discussion: It is known that chronic friction on the surface of the cornea predisposes to the diagnosis of corneal SCC. Accordingly, in the clinical examination of the patient in this report, the presence of bilateral pigmentary keratitis was observed, an alteration that leads to a framework of chronic aggression to the cornea. Surgical treatment is recommended to remove the tumor mass in the ocular region. However, in cases of corneal SCC, the literature highlights that recurrence after surgical excision is a common factor. As the patient in this study arrived at the clinic with a history of recurrence, topical therapy with mitomycin C associated with surgical treatment was instituted. This chemotherapy drug has shown encouraging results in the treatment of some neoplasms, especially SCC. Its use in this case supported previous findings, pointing to a satisfactory result in which the patient had no recurrences after one year of follow-up. In addition, the concentration and frequency used of the active ingredient did not lead to adverse effects in the short or medium term.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Mitomicina/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Córnea/veterinária , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/veterinária , Neoplasias Oculares/veterinária
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 883, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437116

Resumo

Background: Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous is a rare ocular condition that is usually unilateral, formed when normal regression of the hyaloid vascular system does not occur. Diagnosis is possible through ultrasonography, by obtaining images that provide information and also serve as a differential diagnosis. Clinically the condition presents with signs of leukocoria, microphthalmia, and cataracts, and it can be further classified into 6 degrees according to the evolution. The objective of this work is to describe the case and treatment of a canine of the Pointer breed that presented opacity in both eyes, with diagnosis confirmed through ocular ultrasonography. Case: A 6-year-old male pointer dog, weighing 27 kg, was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFRGS), Santa Maria, RS - Brazil with a history of blindness. According to the owner, the animal's right eye has always been "white", since it was a puppy and the left eye began to present the same characteristic a short time ago. On ophthalmological examination, neither eye showed signs of ocular discomfort, the Schirmer's tear test was within the range expected for the species, fluorescein and threat tests were negative, and a positive pupillary reflex was observed in the left eye. The right eye had total corneal opacity associated with a chronic lesion and the presence of pigment cells in the medial portion of the eyeball, the opacity making it impossible to visualize the other internal structures of the eyeball. The left eye presented lens opacity. In the ultrasound of the right eye, there were several alterations, the presence of a triangular-shaped hyperechogenic structure in the vitreous chamber, a decrease in the depth of the anterior chamber, and the presence of abnormality in the development of the lens. The findings are compatible with and confirmed the diagnosis of PHPV. In the left eye, the ultrasound images indicated hyperechogenicity of the posterior and anterior poles of the lens, findings compatible with cataracts. Through the animal's history, complete ophthalmic examination, and use of ocular ultrasonography, it was possible to diagnose and differentiate the causes of the white eye in the patient. The preoperative screening was continued with an electroretinography examination, which showed a satisfactory electrical response for the retina of the left eye and an unsatisfactory electrical response for the retina of the right eye. Phacoemulsification surgery was performed to remove the cataract in the left eye with intraocular lens implantation. The positive threat reflex returned in this eye, with a return of visual acuity. Discussion: Persistent hyperplastic tunica lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHTVL/PHPV) are congenital anomalies caused by a failure to regress the fetal hyaloid vasculature. These conditions are not common, but occur sporadically in dogs. The PHPV classification can be classified into degrees, based on the morphological aspect of the lesion. Following this classification scheme, the PHPV of the animal in question refers to the 6th degree of evolution. The total opacity of the cornea in the right eye was associated with the presence of a hyperplastic primary vitreous and the leukocoria in the left eye was due to the presence of a mature cataract. The conclusion of the diagnosis was only possible through ocular ultrasonography, which is very useful to differentiate the causes of ocular opacity and leukocoria, in addition to allowing complete evaluation of the intraocular structures and being considered an essential exam to confirm the diagnosis of PHPV.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Catarata/veterinária , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Vítreo Primário Hiperplásico Persistente/veterinária , Anormalidades do Olho/veterinária
5.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 837, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401708

Resumo

Background: Disorders of the locomotor system are among the main treatments for this species, among the main causes are falls from a cage, arms or stairs and aggression by animals, such as dogs and cats. Biological osteosynthesis promotes early formation of secondary bone callus and allows a less accurate reconstruction of difficult interfragmentary apposition of 100% of the fragments. The objective of this work is to report the method of external immobilization with an aluminum channel aiming at the use of bone biology for the healing of unexposed tibial fractures in 3 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Cases: Between 2020 and 2021, 3 cases of rabbits with unexposed tibial fractures were treated at the Veterinary Hospital. The 3 patients were diagnosed through physical examination and radiographic examination. All patients underwent anesthesia, underwent external immobilization with an aluminum channel, received analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and recommended rest and care with the maintenance of external immobilization. Approximately at 30 days of rigid immobilization, all cases were evaluated by means of radiographic examination revealing the formation of bone callus at different post-immobilization times in the case 1 - 30 days, case 2 - 23 days and case 3 - 37 days. Discussion: Some surgical principles in rabbits must be followed, such as preserving vascularity if the open technique is decided, providing adequate diet, controlling edema, promoting analgesia and deciding on closed reduction if the fracture is recent and stable. The external coaptation method is a non-invasive method for the treatment of fractures and is also indicated with a high success rate for fractures of metacarpal, metatarsal and phalange bones in rabbits. The patient's age contributed to the early healing, which corroborates with case 1 (3-month-old), case 2 (6-month-old) and a little later the healing in case 3 (24-month-old), allowing unrestricted use of the member. It is worth reinforcing the point of view which defends that "biological osteosynthesis" promotes a favorable environment, especially in the preservation of the vascular supply of the periosteum when compared to traditional open surgical approaches. In this species, the surgical approach is a challenge due to the fact that the bones break or crack very easily, because the bones have a low density and higher mineral composition. Together, the skeleton represents 7% of the body weight, lower when compared to dogs and cats, which is 12%. In addition to these factors, rabbits are prone to secondary fractures, postoperative infections and rapid development of osteomyelitis, which significantly worsens the prognosis. The aluminum used in the manufacture of the aluminum channel has properties that offer resistance, lightness and radio transparency radiographic examination without removal of the channel, avoiding excessive micro-movement of the focus of the fracture due to lack of stabilization and possible refracture of the tibia. Rigid external immobilization with an aluminum channel was satisfactory in the 3 patients evaluated and preserved bone biology and anatomical axis. The treatment of choice was easy to apply, in addition to enabling better radiographic follow-up, promoting rapid bone healing for patients and early use of limbs without restrictions. However, for the effectiveness of the technique, the collaboration of tutors is essential.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Fraturas da Tíbia/reabilitação , Fraturas da Tíbia/veterinária , Consolidação da Fratura , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(suppl.1): Pub.756-4 jan. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458564

Resumo

Background: Due to its ocular microflora, the equine species is predisposed to develop mycotic ulcers which, when notproperly treated, can lead to the formation of a stromal abscess. A stromal abscess occurs through the introduction ofmicroorganisms into the corneal stroma. During re-epithelialization, the foreign body is encapsulated, thus creating abarrier that protects bacteria or fungi from treatment with antimicrobial medication. This framework can end up resultingin blindness due to chronic iridocyclitis, putting the animal’s vision at risk. The current work aims to report a case of corrective surgery for stromal abscess in a mare with the administration of intraoperative intrastromal fluconazole, in orderto corroborate the effectiveness of the technique.Case: A 9-year-old mare was evaluated, with the complaint that her right eye was closed and “yellowish” and that she hadalready been treated with intramuscular injectable anti-inflammatory drugs based on flunexin meglumine (Banamine® -50 mg) for 15 days, referring to a possible ulcer in the right eye. Ophthalmic screening resulted in a negative direct reflexand no threat response in the right eye. Examination of the conjunctiva showed congestion and chemosis. Examination ofthe cornea of the right eye was negative for Fluorescein and Green Lissamine tests, and opacity and corneal neovascularization were noted. The final diagnosis was a corneal abscess of probable fungal origin secondary to a keratomycosis. Afterthe consultation, complementary blood and biochemical tests were performed, which showed normal results for the speciesin question, and treatment was started with eye drops based on atropine 1% (Fagra® - 20 mL), ciprofloxacin antimicrobialeye drops (Ciprovet Colirio® - 5 mL), and antifungal eye drops based on ketoconazole...


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Abscesso/veterinária , Cavalos/cirurgia , Fluconazol/administração & dosagem , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Substância Própria/cirurgia , Substância Própria/microbiologia , Ceratectomia/veterinária , Cinoxacino/uso terapêutico
7.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 729, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366371

Resumo

Background: The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is also known as the quaker parrot and belongs to the order Psittaciformes in the family Psittacidae. The cloaca is a posterior orifice common to reproductive, digestive and urinary systems and the cloacal prolapse is the displacement or inversion of its anatomic position. Nowadays, the non-conventional pet market in Brazil is rapidly growing, which demands more skills and competences from an avian veterinarian. This study case has as its main objective to present a 40-day-old monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) with cloacal prolapse, treated using the cloacoplasty technique. It is important to mention that the occurrence of cloacal prolapse in this species and in such an early age is uncommon. Case: The patient presented 1 day before the physical examination an increased volume in the cloacal region and hematochezia, and diagnosed as cloacal prolapse. For the treatment, wounds were washed using physiological saline solution, ice and sugar were applied in order to reduce the edema, and mineral oil was used for repositioning the cloacal mucosa. Finally, local anesthesia was applied and 2 isolated contralateral sutures were done with the objective of reducing the sphincter's diameter, without compromising the flow of urine and feces. The monk parakeet was treated with antibiotic Avitrin® [oxytetracycline hydrochloride - 8.1 mg/mL] and a vermifuge [mebendazole 50 mg/mL]. A sample of feces was also obtained and sent to the Laboratory of Avian Pathology Diagnosis. The patient was discharged after 7 days of the treatment, obtaining a favorable result with no further complications. Discussion: The results of the coproparasitological examination were negative for the samples analyzed; nevertheless, the possibility of a false negative result cannot be totally dismissed. Cloacal prolapse may be related to cases of hypersexual disorder or overexertion to defecate due to intestinal parasites, posture, polyps, enteritis, neoplasm or cloacal hyperplasia. Besides that, endoparasitism is common in captive birds. For the correct treatment, proceed with a cloacoplasty, in which 1 or 2 simple sutures are made separated laterally in both sides, promoting the narrowing of the orifice. The surgeries such as the cloacoplasty are currently being defended, but in most cases as an adjuvant therapy. Cloacal prolapse in birds is a disease considered as an intestinal emergency. The techniques presented in this work demand sedation or anesthesia for the patient, which were not authorized by the tutor due to the high risk involved. However, due to the characteristic of domestication and docile behavior of the bird, it was possible to perform the 2 sutures with a local anesthetic block only. Cloacal prolapse is relatively common in adult psittacine birds, but uncommon in monk parakeets and young birds. The treatment performed was effective for the monk-parakeet presented in this study case. The authors, however, would like to strongly reinforce the need to identify the cause of cloacal prolapse in order to properly treat it. The importance of correctly identifying the anatomy of a psittacine bird as well as applying precisely the suture techniques are the most important conclusions obtained, making both the identification of the problem and its solution through surgical intervention a simpler and successful process.


Assuntos
Animais , Periquitos/cirurgia , Prolapso , Suturas/veterinária , Cloaca/cirurgia , Cloaca/patologia , Parasitos
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