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Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51: Pub. 1920, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1443975


Background: Measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been commonly used for early pregnancy diagnosis in ruminants. However, an accurately pregnancy detection depends on test antibody, breed and number of embryos. Only few studies have conducted to detect or predict animals at risk of late embrionic mortality (LEM) and to use hormonal interventions for embryo losses reducing, but this area is still open in sheep. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) administration on Day 4 after artificial insemination on the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in dairy sheep with different reproductive status in relation to pregnancy and late embrionic mortality detection. Materials, Methods & Results: Sixty-five East Friesian sheep were divided in 2 groups - I (Control group, n = 35) and II (GnRH group, n = 30) and sublected to estrus synchronization and artificial insemination (AI). Group I was not treated and Group II received 50 µg GnRH on Day 4 after AI. PAGs in blood serum were measured by Alertys Ruminant Pregnancy test on Days 4, 12, 20, 25 and 35 after AI and ultrasound pregnancy test was conducted on Days 20, 25, 35 and 60. Reproductive status (non-pregnant, pregnant and animals with LEM) was determined by ultrasound and the results between different groups were compared. The PAGs mean values according to reproductive status and Day after AI were analysed. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the PAGs test for pregnancy diagnosis on Day 35 were calculated. On Day 20 after AI the pregnat sheep (83.3%) in group I tended to be higher than those (77.1%) in group II with decrease of 25.7% and 20% for the same groups on Day 25. On day 25 LEM was recorded in 33.3% and 24% in group I and II, respectively. The ultrasound exams on Day 60 confirmed the results from Day 25 after AI. A total value of non-pegnant, pregnant animals and LEM was 20%, 56.9% and 28.8%, respectively. The mean values of PAGs in animals with the same reproductive status in group I and II no differed statistically between Days 4 and 35 after AI. On Day 25 the PAGs values in LEM groups (0.126 ± 0.072 and 0.179 ± 0.029) were higher than those (0.062 ± 0.038 and 0.083 ± 0.023) in the non-pregnant groups, but no significan difference was deternined. On Day 35 after AI the mean values of PAGs (0.414 ± 0.125 and 0.421 ± 0.121) for the pregnant groups were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those (0.078 ± 0.053 and 0.093 ± 0.034) for the non-pregnant groups. The values of PAGs in LEM groups on Day 25 (0.099 ± 0.062 and 0.113 ± 0.058) were decreased and close to the mean values in non-pregnant sheep. A significant effect of the day after AI on the PAGs values was evidenced in pregnant animals only (control r = 0.97 and GnRH r = 0.98; P < 0.05). The PAGs started to rise rapidly between Days 25 and 35 after AI. On Day 35 the accuracy (98%), the sensitivity (97.3%) and the specificity (100%) of the PAG test for pregnancy diagnosis were similar to the values (100%) for ultrasound method. Discussion: The gonadotropin treatment on Day 4 after AI tended to improve the reproductive performance in the sheep, but no significant effect of GnRH on the PAGs values in the animals with different reproductive status was found. The PAGs profiles in non-pregnant and LEM sheep were close and distinguishing between non-pregnant and LEM ewes on Day 35 was impossible. The PAGs values in pregnant sheep showed significantly (P < 0.05) increase between Days 25 and 35 after AI with higher mean values in pregnant than non-pregnant groups on Day 35 (P < 0.05). Alertys Ruminant Pregnancy test was a reliable for pregnancy detection in sheep on Day 35 after artificial insemination.

Animais , Feminino , Radioimunoensaio , Ovinos/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas/análise , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Desenvolvimento Embrionário
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50: 1867, 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369551


Background: The intensive reproductive management in the dairy farms requires inclusion of a large group of replacement heifers in the breeding program for a shorter period. In this aspect, a creation of effective estrus synchronization protocols with timed artificial insemination (TAI) by sexed semen and optimization of the current ones have a crucial role for obtaining high pregnancy rate. These protocols are beneficial, because they led to reduced interval to first AI, lack of need for estrus detection, and allow obtaining a large group of female calves for on time. Because of limited fertilizing potential of sexed spermatozoa this type of semen is applied mainly for heifers, as fertility is higher compared to lactating cows. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ovarian status on the reproductive performance in dairy heifers subjected to estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination with sexed semen. Materials, Methods & Results: Forty-eight Holstein healthy heifers separated in 2 groups were subjected to PGF2α-GnRH pre-treatment and Ovsynch or PRID-5-day estrus synchronization protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) with sex-sorted semen, staring 6 days after end of the hormonal pre-treatment. The ovarian status (presence of follicles with or not a corpus luteum) of the heifers at the begin of the treatment, on day of TAI and pregnancy rate in different groups were determined and compared. Additionally, the ovarian status at the begin of the treatment, ovarian status and size of preovulatory follicle (PF) on day of TAI and total values for both groups according to reproductive performance (pregnant or non-pregnant) were also analyzed. On day of TAI the animals with PF and a lack of corpus luteum (CL) in both groups were more that those with PF and CL (39.3% and 30% vs. 60.7 % and 70%), with significant (P < 0.05) difference in PRID-5-day group. The pregnancy rate tended to be higher in PRID-5 day than Ovsynch treatment (65% vs. 35.7%). A higher percentage (100% and 67.9%) of the pregnant animals in both treatments had not CL on day of TAI, and the size of the PF (1.58 ± 0.12 cm and 1.64 ± 0.13 cm) was increased (P < 0.05). Similar effects of the ovarian status on reproductive performance were obtained after a comparison of the total values between pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The percentage of heifers with observed PF without CL on day of TAI was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pregnant compared to non-pregnant group (91.3% vs. 40%). The opposite dependence was determined for the parameter presence of follicles and corpus luteum (8.7% vs. 60%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the size of the PF measured immediately before TAI was increased in animals became pregnant (1.60 ± 0.12 cm vs. 1.34 ± 0.17 cm; P < 0.05). Discussion: The analysis of the obtained results showed that the ovarian status on day of TAI affects the reproductive performance in dairy heifers subjected to estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination with sexed semen. Hormonal pre-treatment with onset of PRID-5-day protocol 6 days later and TAI with sex-sorted semen ensure acceptable pregnancy rate. The greater preovulatory follicle and a lack of corpus luteum before insemination provide significantly (P < 0.05) more pregnant animals, compared to the cases when CL is presented. Ultrasound determination of the ovarian function before insemination can be used in selection of heifers for TAI with sex-sorted semen.

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Sêmen , Corpo Lúteo , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Folículo Ovariano , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50: Pub. 1883, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1400871


Background: Effect of the epigenetic factors on the male fertility is well proofed. Sperm acts as a carrier of genetic material, and its DNA methylome can affect maternal pregnancy rate and offspring phenotype. However, the research on the DNA methylation in the spermatozoids of livestock males, in particular rams, is still limited. To best of our knowledge the data about as a global as well as gene specific DNA methylation in ram spermatozoa from different breeds and ages are missed in the scientific literature. The present study was designed to analyze the relationship between methylation levels of the important for spermatogenesis gene SIRT1 in spermatozoa and fertilizing ability of sperm in rams from different breeds and ages. Materials, Methods & Results: The ejaculates of 16 rams from Lacaune, East Friesian and Assaf breeds at age between 18 to 96 months were evaluated. The kinematic parameters of 2 semen samples from each animal were estimated by CASA. The separated spermatozoa were used for DNA extraction followed by bisulfite conversion. The DNA methylation of SIRT1 was detected through quantitative methylation-specific PCR using 2 sets of primers designed specifically for bisulfite-converted DNA sequences to attach methylated and unmethylated sites. The breed and age effect on the gene SIRT1 methylation by ANOVA was estimated. Experimental females included 393 clinically healthy milk ewes (Lacaune, n = 131; East Friesian sheep, n = 100 and Assaf, n = 162) in breeding season. Reproductive performances (conception rate at lambing, lambing percentage and fecundity) of ewes, inseminated by sperm of the investigated rams, were statistically processed. ANOVA showed that the animal breed influences significantly on the level of DNA methylation of gene SIRT1 in ram spermatozoa (P = 0.002) An average value of DNA methylation of SIRT1 in ram sperm from Lacaune breed was significantly higher than in Assaf and East Friesian (81.21 ± 15.1% vs 36.7 ± 14.2% and 38.3 ± 18.6 respectively, P < 0.01). The highest percent of SIRT1 methylation was observed in old animals compared to the young and middle-age. Moderate and strong correlations (r from 0.44 to 0.71, P < 0.05) between the methylation level of the SIRT1 gene in rams' sperm and reproductive parameters of inseminated ewes in all breeds were established. Discussion: Our data are the first message about the effect of breed on the specificity of DNA methylation of gene SIRT1 in ram spermatozoa. These results demonstrated an existence of the sheep breeds with high and low level of DNA methylation of gene SIRT1 in ram sperm. Although the effect of age on the methylation level in sperm is still discussable, our results showed a moderate correlation between age and methylation level of SIRT1 in spermatozoa of rams. Taking into account that DNA methylation in sperm is stabilized with puberty onset and is a heritable epigenetic modification, it can be a promising marker of sperm quality in animal breeding. In all investigated breeds the rams with relatively high level of DNA methylation of gene SIRT1 in spermatozoa (50-68%) demonstrated a high conception rate at lambing (> 70%). In conclusion, the DNA methylation level of the SIRT1 gene in ram spermatozoa is determined by both the breed and the age of the animals and correlates with fertilizing ability of sperm.

Animais , Masculino , Espermatogênese , Ovinos/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Sirtuína 1/análise , Fatores Etários