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1.
Sci. agric ; 79(4): e20200329, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1290214

Resumo

The concept of production environments, which is widely used to classify the yield potential of soils, and magnetic susceptibility (MS), is emerging as an important tool for mapping ultra-detailed areas. Given this background, this paper aims to evaluate the use of MS as a tool for the identification of areas with different potential the enhancing of sugarcane yield and quality, and the allocation of varieties. An area of 445 ha was sampled at 1 point every 7 ha, and 14 points were determined for stratified sampling following the top of the landscape. Particle size and MS of samples at depths of 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m were analyzed. The data on yield and quality of raw material were obtained from a nine crop season database and biometry performed in the 2018/19 crop season. The multivariate analysis of historical results showed the formation of three groups with different yield and quality potential, with a difference of up to 17.28 mg of cane per hectare between the group with the highest and lowest potential, based on soil MS. An analysis of the performance of the varieties involved showed that MS is effective in identifying areas with different potential for sugarcane yield and quality, differentiating by up to 34.5 % the performance of the same variety in different MS classes and by up to 38.5 % the performance of different varieties in similar MS classes. Thus, MS is an effective tool for identifying areas with different potential for sugarcane yield and quality, and can be used for allocating varieties in the field.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Características do Solo/economia , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia
2.
Ci. Rural ; 50(8): e20190606, July 10, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26811

Resumo

The construction of the hydroelectric power plant of Ilha Solteira, in state of São Paulo, was initiated in the 1960s, when an average, 8.60 m of soil depth was removed, resulting in a degraded area. A plan for the recovery of the area started in 2005 in Selvíria /MS with the use of plant species adapted to the Cerrado biome. This study aimed to evaluate the soil macrofauna of an area under recovery by using different types of soil cover (1- bare soil (control); 2- native Cerrado vegetation; 3- specie Astronium fraxinifolium; 4- Astronium fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 5- Astronium fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus; 6- Astronium fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge). Soil macrofauna was evaluated in 2005, 2006 and 2007 using the direct collection method and manual counting. Number of species, diversity and uniformity index were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used for data interpretation. Results showed that treatment 6 (Astronium fraxinifolium+ Brachiaria decumbens+ sewage sludge) increased the soil macrofauna population by approximately 4 to 6 times more than the other types of cover after three years of evaluation. And the PCA and cluster analysis showed the approximation of the data between treatment 6 and Cerrado, which represents the most appropriate treatment for the recovery of the degraded soil.(AU)


A construção da usina hidrelétrica de Ilha Solteira, no interior de São Paulo, foi iniciada nos anos 1960, quando foi retirado, em média, 8,60 m de solo em profundidade, dando origem a uma área degradada. Com isso, iniciou-se em 2005 um plano de recuperação da área no município de Selvíria/MS com plantio de espécies vegetais adaptadas ao bioma Cerrado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a macrofauna do solo de uma área em processo de recuperação com plantio de diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal (1- solo nu (testemunha); 2- vegetação nativa de Cerrado; 3- espécie arbórea Astronium fraxinifolium; 4- Astronium fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 5- Astronium fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus; 6- Astronium fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + lodo de esgoto). A macrofauna de solo foi avaliada em 2005, 2006 e 2007 utilizando o método de coleta direta e contagem manual. Foram determinados: quantidade de espécies e índices de diversidade e uniformidade. As análises de componentes principals (PCA) e de cluster foram utilizadas para interpretação de dados. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento 6 (Astronium fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + lodo de esgoto) aumentou a população de macrofauna do solo em aproximadamente 4 a 6 vezes mais que os demais tipos de cobertura vegetal após três anos de avaliação. As análises de PCA e de cluster mostraram aproximação dos dados do tratamento 6 às condições ambientais naturais de Cerrado, indicando ser o tratamento mais adequado para a recuperação do solo degradado.(AU)


Assuntos
Tratamento do Solo , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Pradaria
3.
Sci. agric ; 73(6): 543-551, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497602

Resumo

The harvesting system of green sugarcane, characterized by mechanized harvesting and no crop burning, affects soil quality by increasing the remaining straw left on the soil surface after harvesting, thus, contributing to the improvement of physical, chemical, and microbiological soil attributes, influencing CO2 fluxes. This study aimed to evaluate CO2 fluxes and their relation to soil properties in sugarcane crops under different harvesting managements: burned (B), Green harvesting for 5 years (G-5) and Green harvesting for ten years (G-10). For this, a 1 ha sampling grid with 30 points was installed in each area, all located in the Northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil. In each point, CO2 fluxes were measured and the soil was sampled to analyze the microbial biomass, physical (soil moisture and temperature, mean weight diameter, bulk density, clay, macroporosity and microporosity) and chemical characterization (pH, organic C, base saturation and P). The CO2 fluxes were divided into four quantitative criteria: high, moderate, low and very low from the Statistical Division (mean, first quartile, median and third quartile) and the other data were classified according this criterion. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the main soil attributes that influence CO2 fluxes. The results showed that G-10 CO2 fluxes were 28 and 41 % higher than those in the G-5 and B treatments, respectively. The PCA analysis showed that macroporosity was the main soil attribute that influenced the high CO2 fluxes.


Assuntos
Biologia do Solo , Características do Solo , 24444 , Dióxido de Carbono , Saccharum , Agricultura , Biomassa , Porosidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Qualidade do Solo
4.
Sci. agric. ; 73(6): 543-551, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-684152

Resumo

The harvesting system of green sugarcane, characterized by mechanized harvesting and no crop burning, affects soil quality by increasing the remaining straw left on the soil surface after harvesting, thus, contributing to the improvement of physical, chemical, and microbiological soil attributes, influencing CO2 fluxes. This study aimed to evaluate CO2 fluxes and their relation to soil properties in sugarcane crops under different harvesting managements: burned (B), Green harvesting for 5 years (G-5) and Green harvesting for ten years (G-10). For this, a 1 ha sampling grid with 30 points was installed in each area, all located in the Northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil. In each point, CO2 fluxes were measured and the soil was sampled to analyze the microbial biomass, physical (soil moisture and temperature, mean weight diameter, bulk density, clay, macroporosity and microporosity) and chemical characterization (pH, organic C, base saturation and P). The CO2 fluxes were divided into four quantitative criteria: high, moderate, low and very low from the Statistical Division (mean, first quartile, median and third quartile) and the other data were classified according this criterion. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the main soil attributes that influence CO2 fluxes. The results showed that G-10 CO2 fluxes were 28 and 41 % higher than those in the G-5 and B treatments, respectively. The PCA analysis showed that macroporosity was the main soil attribute that influenced the high CO2 fluxes.(AU)


Assuntos
Biologia do Solo , Características do Solo , Saccharum , Dióxido de Carbono , 24444 , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Porosidade , Biomassa , Qualidade do Solo
5.
Sci. agric ; 72(6): 535-539, Nov.-Dec. 2015. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497521

Resumo

ABSTRACT Soil CO2 emissions (fCO2) in agricultural areas have been widely studied in global climate change research, but its characterization and quantification are restricted to small areas. Because spatial and time variability affect emissions, tools need to be developed to predict fCO2 for large areas. This study aimed to investigate soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) and its correlation with fCO2 in an agricultural environment. The experiment was carried out on a Typic Eutrudox located in Guariba-SP, Brazil. Results showed that there was negative spatial correlation between fCO2 and the magnetic susceptibility of Air Dried Soil (MSADS) up to 34.3 m distant. However, the fCO2 had no significant correlation with MSADS, magnetic susceptibility of sand (MSSAND) nor clay (MSCLAY). However, MSADS could be a supplemental mean of identifying regions of high fCO2 potential over large areas.


Assuntos
Campos Magnéticos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/classificação , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Zonas Agrícolas/análise
6.
Sci. Agric. ; 72(6): 535-539, Nov.-Dec. 2015. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-16153

Resumo

ABSTRACT Soil CO2 emissions (fCO2) in agricultural areas have been widely studied in global climate change research, but its characterization and quantification are restricted to small areas. Because spatial and time variability affect emissions, tools need to be developed to predict fCO2 for large areas. This study aimed to investigate soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) and its correlation with fCO2 in an agricultural environment. The experiment was carried out on a Typic Eutrudox located in Guariba-SP, Brazil. Results showed that there was negative spatial correlation between fCO2 and the magnetic susceptibility of Air Dried Soil (MSADS) up to 34.3 m distant. However, the fCO2 had no significant correlation with MSADS, magnetic susceptibility of sand (MSSAND) nor clay (MSCLAY). However, MSADS could be a supplemental mean of identifying regions of high fCO2 potential over large areas.(AU)


Assuntos
Zonas Agrícolas/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/classificação , Campos Magnéticos
7.
Sci. agric ; 72(2): 157-166, Mar.-Apr. 2015. map, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497478

Resumo

Soil CO2 emission (FCO2) is one of the main sources of carbon release into the atmosphere. Moreover, FCO2 is related to soil attributes governing the transfer of gases from soil to the atmosphere. This study aimed firstly to describe the spatial variability of hematite (Hm), goethite (Gt), iron extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (Fed) contents, soil CO2 emission (FCO2) and free-water porosity (FWP) and secondly, to develop statistical models to predict the above mentioned factors in an Oxisol cultivated under manual harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharumspp.) in southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted on an irregular 50 m × 50 m grid containing 89 points, each 0.5-10 m apart. The 0-0.1 m soil layer at each sampling point was used to assess soil FCO2, moisture and total pore volume. The results were subjected to descriptive statistical and geostatistical analyses using auto- and cross-semivariograms. All soil attributes exhibited a spatial dependence structure and the experimental semivariograms fitted spherical and exponential models. The Gt content was the individual attribute that exhibited the highest linear and spatial correlation, especially with FCO2. We were able to use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to map large areas, which allows for easy identification and estimation of soil attributes such as FCO2 and FWP. Geostatistical techniques faciltate the interpretation of spatial relationships between soil respiration and the examined properties.


Assuntos
Análise do Solo , Dióxido de Carbono , Saccharum
8.
Sci. agric. ; 72(2): 157-166, Mar.-Apr. 2015. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30043

Resumo

Soil CO2 emission (FCO2) is one of the main sources of carbon release into the atmosphere. Moreover, FCO2 is related to soil attributes governing the transfer of gases from soil to the atmosphere. This study aimed firstly to describe the spatial variability of hematite (Hm), goethite (Gt), iron extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (Fed) contents, soil CO2 emission (FCO2) and free-water porosity (FWP) and secondly, to develop statistical models to predict the above mentioned factors in an Oxisol cultivated under manual harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharumspp.) in southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted on an irregular 50 m × 50 m grid containing 89 points, each 0.5-10 m apart. The 0-0.1 m soil layer at each sampling point was used to assess soil FCO2, moisture and total pore volume. The results were subjected to descriptive statistical and geostatistical analyses using auto- and cross-semivariograms. All soil attributes exhibited a spatial dependence structure and the experimental semivariograms fitted spherical and exponential models. The Gt content was the individual attribute that exhibited the highest linear and spatial correlation, especially with FCO2. We were able to use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to map large areas, which allows for easy identification and estimation of soil attributes such as FCO2 and FWP. Geostatistical techniques faciltate the interpretation of spatial relationships between soil respiration and the examined properties.(AU)


Assuntos
Saccharum , Dióxido de Carbono , Análise do Solo
9.
Jaboticabal; s.n; 25/02/2010. 75 p.
Tese em Português | VETTESES | ID: vtt-3623

Resumo

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial da suscetibilidade magnética para estimar atributos do solo e mapear áreas de manejo especifico para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, foram amostrados 50 pontos de forma aleatória em uma área de 2 ha, na profundidade de 0,00 ? 0,20 m. Foi construída uma curva de calibração para converter as leituras das amostras de solo feitas na balança em medidas de suscetibilidade magnética. A suscetibilidade magnética medida por uma balança analítica teve uma correlação de 0,58 com o teor de argila, -0,75 com o teor de matéria orgânica, 0,41 com a saturação por bases e 0,82 com o teor de hematita do solo na profundidade 0,00 ? 0,20 m. A análise estatística multivariada dos componentes principais mostrou que a suscetibilidade magnética explica 10,69% da variância do conjunto de atributos do solo estudados. No segundo experimento, foram retiradas aleatoriamente (grade irregular) 110 amostras em uma área de 770 ha em duas profundidades, 0,00-0,20 m e 0,20- 0,40 m, para avaliação dos atributos granulométricos, químicos e da suscetibilidade magnética do solo. Foram avaliados os atributos da cana-de-açúcar em 32 subáreas. A dependência espacial dos atributos foi estimada por meio do semivariograma, semivariograma escalonado e correlação dos mapas de distribuição espacial. Os resultados mostram que a suscetibilidade magnética apresentou um erro 33 a 50% menor do que a outros atributos físicos e químicos do solo na delimitação dos limites para áreas de manejo específico para cana-de-açúcar. Além disso, a suscetibilidade magnética teve correlação espacial significativa com os atributos físicos e químicos do solo e os atributos da cana-de-açúcar, podendo ser utilizada para auxiliar no mapeamento de áreas de manejo especifico para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar


The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of magnetic susceptibility in estimating soil attributes and to map specific management areas under sugar cane cultivation. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, 50 points were sampled, at random, in an area of 2 ha, in 0.00 to 0.20 m depth. It has been constructed a calibration curve in order to convert the soil sample readings, taken from the balance, in magnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnetic susceptibility measured by an analytical balance had a 0.58 correlation with the clay content, -0.75 with the organic matter content, 0.41 to saturation and 0.82 with the hematite content in a soil depth from 0.00 to 0.20 m. The multivariate statistical analysis of principal components show that the magnetic susceptibility explains 10.69% of the soil set properties variance. In the second experiment were taken (irregular grid) 110 samples, at random, in a 770 ha area in two different depths, one from 0.00 to 0.20 m and other from 0.20 to 0.40 m, to assess the soil texture and chemical attributes and the magnetic susceptibility. The sugar cane attributes over 32 subareas were also evaluated. The spatial dependence in soil attributes was estimated through the semivariogram, scaled semivariogram and spatial distribution correlation maps. The results show that the magnetic susceptibility presented 33 to 50% error which is lower than the physical and chemical properties to define the specific management areas limits in sugar cane. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility had a significant spatial correlation with the sugar cane chemical and physical attributes and can be used to aid in the specific management areas mapping for sugar cane cultivation

10.
Jaboticabal,; s.n; 22/08/2013. 109 p.
Tese em Português | VETTESES | ID: vtt-12643

Resumo

O atual contexto nacional da agricultura e da ciência do solo demonstra a importância sobre desenvolvimento de protocolos para delineamento de unidades de mapeamento detalhado do solo e planejamento amostral estratificado. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo utilizar a suscetibilidade magnética (SM), cor do solo e relação solo-paisagem no mapeamento de atributos e planejamento amostral para Latossolos. Foram coletadas 86 amostras em intervalos regulares de 30 m em uma transeção. Nas laterais da transeção, foram coletadas 150 amostras em intervalos de 159 metros (densidade de um ponto a cada 2,5 ha) em 380 ha. Os atributos granulométricos, químicos, SM e cor do solo foram analisados juntamente com resultados de NDVI (Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada) para os anos de 2009, 2010 e 2011, além de dados da planta coletados em campo. Os resultados da análise ?Split Moving Windows? para SM correlacionaram-se com teor de argila (r=0,7; p<0,01), matiz (r=0,4; p<0,05) e NDVI 2010 e 2011 (r=-0,3; p<0,01). Os resultados mostraram que as áreas de manejo específico definidas podem auxiliar no delineamento de unidades de mapeamento detalhado com base na relação solo- -paisagem e variabilidade espacial da SM. Para o estudo do planejamento amostral, em parte da área (150 ha), foram coletadas 60 amostras na densidade de um ponto a cada 2,5 ha com amostragem simples e composta ( 3 subamostras). Diferentes densidades amostrais (um ponto a cada 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8 e 9 ha) foram obtidas na área de 380 ha, retirando-se pontos aleatoriamente. Os mapas de krigagem da SM, teor de argila e saturação por bases elaborados com amostragem simples e compostas tiveram índice de concordância (d) próximo de 1. A correlação dos mapas de krigagem nas densidades amostrais de um ponto a cada 2 a 7 ha foi de 0,9. Para as densidade de um ponto a cada 8 e 9 ha, foram encontradas correlações


The current national context of agriculture and soil science demonstrates the importance of developing protocols for delineation of units of detailed mapping soil and stratified sampling. This paper aims to use the magnetic susceptibility (MS), soil color and soil-landscape relationship in mapping attributes and sample design for Oxisols. 86 samples were collected at regular intervals of 30 m on a transect. On the sides of the transect 150 samples were collected at intervals of 159 meters (density of one point every 2.5 ha) in 380 ha. The texture attributes, chemical, MS and color were considered together with the results of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation) for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011, and plant data collected in the field. The results of analysis "Split Moving Windows" correlates to SM-RAM with clay content (r = 0.7, p <0.01), hue (r = 0.4, p <0.05) and NDVI 2010 and 2011 (r = -0.3, p <0.01). The results showed that the specific management of areas can assist in the design of detailed mapping units based on soil-landscape relationship and spatial variability of MS. For the sample planning study, in part of the area (150 ha), 60 samples were collected at a density of one point every 2.5 ha with simple sampling and composite (3 subsample). Different sample densities (one point every 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8 and 9 h) were obtained in the area of 380 ha removing dots at random. The kriging maps of MS, clay content and base saturation made with simple sampling were composed at an index of agreement (d) close to 1. The correlation maps of kriging sampling densities of one point every 2 to 7 ha was 0.9. For the density of a point every 8 and 9 were found correlations ranging from 0.4 to 0.7. There was agreement of kriging map of clay content in the density of one point every 2.5 ha with the map of SM in the density of each point to 7 ha (d = 0.9). The SM can be used to improve estimates of

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