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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): Pub. 820, 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401568

Resumo

Background: The Coragyps atratus flies long distances in search of food and has a marked behaviour of food competition. Since they are frequently found in areas of recent human occupation, they are subject to trauma, which may require surgical interventions. Locoregional blocks are used as part of a balanced-anaesthesia protocol and are currently being evaluated in birds, with brachial plexus block being the main technique described in the literature. However, to our knowledge, this is the first description of intravenous regional anaesthesia (Bier's block) in a vulture. Thus, we aim to report the use of Bier's block with 1% lidocaine, in a black-headed vulture submitted to digit amputation. Case: A black-headed vulture (Coragyps atratus), weighing 2 kg, was rescued and referred to the Veterinary Hospital due to its inability to fly. Physical examination revealed a swollen digit in the right pelvic limb. Radiographic examination confirmed the intermediate phalanx fracture of the 4th digit of the right pelvic limb with signs suggestive of advanced osteomyelitis. The animal was referred to surgery for amputation of the affected digit. Before surgery, water and food were withdrawn for 12 h. Pre-anaesthetic medication consisted of 1 mg/kg midazolam and 0.5 mg/kg morphine intramuscularly (IM). Anaesthetic induction was performed through face mask with isoflurane, followed by orotracheal intubation with a 3 mm-endotracheal tube. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane through a non-rebreathing circuit in 100% oxygen. Using a multiparametric monitor, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 ), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2 ), electrocardiography (ECG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and core temperature (CT) were evaluated. Antisepsis of the right pelvic limb was performed and an elastic band was applied around the distal region of the affected tibia to serve as a tourniquet. A scalp vein set was used to access the lateral saphenous vein in the region distal to the tourniquet, and 5 mg/ kg lidocaine 1% was injected intravenously. The patient remained stable during the procedure, with no need for analgesic rescue. The tourniquet was gradually released 40 min past its application, being completely removed after 45 min of surgery. The anaesthetic supply was interrupted, with extubation after 4 min; the patient had satisfactory anaesthetic recovery. Discussion: The present report describes the success in using the technique of intravenous regional anaesthesia with 1% lidocaine for digit amputation performed on a specimen of black-headed vulture. The pre-anaesthetic medication provided analgesia, satisfactory sedation for venoclysis, and anaesthetic induction without complications. Anaesthetic induction and maintenance in birds are preferably performed with inhaled anaesthetics, thus the choice of mask induction. Despite the reduction in RR soon after induction, the patient remained on spontaneous ventilation. Bier's block using 5 mg/kg lidocaine showed to be an easy and safe technique in vultures, but doses up to 6 mg/kg lidocaine are not associated with adverse effects in birds. The intravenous regional anaesthesia technique described in this manuscript promoted adequate analgesia for the digit amputation procedure in black-headed vultures and allowed hemodynamic stability without significant anaesthetic complications. Thus, the present report points to the potential use of this locoregional block in other birds.


Assuntos
Animais , Falconiformes/cirurgia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Amputação Cirúrgica/veterinária , Anestesia Local/veterinária
2.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 16(2): 112-116, maio 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1392532

Resumo

The maintenance of pumas under human care imposes different conditions from those found in the natural environment, which may result in stress and impaired welfare. The objective was to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment on the welfare of four jaguar specimens (Puma concolor), kept under human care. The enrichment techniques addressed were food, sensory, and mixed (physical-cognitive) enrichment. The research was divided into three phases: Phase 1, pre-enrichment; Phase 2, application of enrichment; and Phase 3, post-enrichment. The observation of the activities was performed using the focal animal method, and the behaviors were recorded to compose an ethogram. The sampling effort totaled 96 hours, with a 24-hour observation time for each specimen. During phases 2 and 3, the animals showed increased expression of natural behaviors, increased exploration and interaction with the enclosure, as well as, with other individuals. In addition, the applied activities provided cognitive challenges and reduced the animals' idle time. Although puma 4 showed stereotyped behavior, during the three phases of this study, this individual was healthy and active. Thus, the results demonstrate the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on the well-being of pumas held in captivity.(AU)


A manutenção de onças-pardas mantidas sob cuidados humanos impõe condições diferentes daquelas encon-tradas no ambiente natural, o que pode resultar em estresse e prejuízo ao bem-estar. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do enriquecimento ambiental no bem-estar de quatro espécimes de Onça-parda (Puma concolor), mantidos sob cuidados humanos. As técnicas de enriquecimento abordadas foram o enriquecimento alimentar, sensorial e misto (físico-cogni-tivo). A pesquisa foi dividida em três fases: Fase 1; Pré-enriquecimento, Fase 2; Aplicação dos enriquecimentos e Fase 3; Pós-enriquecimento. A observação das atividades foi realizada através do método animal focal, sendo registrados os comportamentos para composição de um etograma. O esforço amostral totalizou 96 horas, com o tempo de observação de 24 horas para cada espécime. Durante as fases 2 e 3, os animais apresentaram aumento da expressão de comporta-mentos naturais, aumento da exploração e interação com o recinto, assim como, com os outros indivíduos. Além disso, as atividades aplicadas proporcionaram desafios cognitivos e reduziram o tempo ocioso dos animais. Embora a Onça-parda 4 tenha apresentado comportamento estereotipado, durante as três fases deste estudo, este indivíduo mostrou-se saudável e ativo. Dessa forma, os resultados demonstram os efeitos benéficos do enriquecimento ambiental no bem-estar de onças-pardas mantidas em cativeiro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Puma/fisiologia , Alimentos Fortificados , Ecossistema
3.
Acta Vet. Brasilica ; 15(4): 292-296, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1453301

Resumo

This is the case of a specimen of Didelphis albiventris with signs of respiratory difficulty after a dog attack. Thoracic radiographic examination revealed pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, and rib fracture, but no alteration compatible with diaphragmatic hernia was observed. Pneumothorax was reduced and the other alterations were treated. However, clinical manifestations persisted, and thus a contrast-gastrointestinal radiographic study was performed, showing abdominal organs in the thoracic cavity and loss of diaphragmatic line. The surgical approach was instituted, with access to the diaphragm through median laparotomy. Through the diaphragmatic rupture, present in the left antimere, there were herniated liver and gastric portions, intestinal segments, and omentum. After inspection and repositioning of the abdominal organs, the diaphragm raffia was performed with single sutures interrupted with 3-0 Nylon thread. The patient’s complete recovery occurred 14 days after the surgical procedure, with remission of clinical manifestations and normality of thoracic images in radiographic studies.


Esse é o caso de um espécime de Didelphis albiventris com sinais de dificuldade respiratória após ataque por cão. O exame radiográfico torácico revelou pneumotórax, contusão pulmonar e fratura de costelas, porém nenhuma alteração com-patível com hérnia diafragmática foi observada. O pneumotórax foi reduzido e as demais alterações tratadas. Contudo; houve a persistência das manifestações clínicas, e dessa forma um estudo radiográfico gastrointestinal contrastado foi realizado, sendo evidenciados órgãos abdominais na cavidade torácica e perda da linha diafragmática. A abordagem cirúrgica foi instituída, com acesso ao diafragma por meio de laparotomia mediana. Através da ruptura diafragmática, presente no antímero esquerdo, estavam herniadas porções hepáticas e gástricas, segmentos intestinais e omento. Após inspeção e reposicionamento dos órgãos abdominais, a rafia do diafragma foi realizada com suturas simples interrompidas com fio Nylon 3-0. A recuperação completa do paciente ocorreu 14 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico, com remissão das manifestações clínicas e normalidade das ima-gens torácicas nos estudos radiográficos.


Assuntos
Animais , Didelphis/anatomia & histologia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/cirurgia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/diagnóstico , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/veterinária , Radiografia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Herniorrafia , Laparotomia
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 723, 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366322

Resumo

Background: The anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological characteristics of reptiles make anesthesia in chelonians particularly challenging. Specific literature regarding safe anesthetic protocols that provide immobilization, antinociception, amnesia, and unconsciousness are scarce. Thus, this paper aims to report the case of a red-footed tortoise submitted to long-duration general anesthesia to celiotomy for foreign body removal. Case: An adult red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria), 5.9 kg, was admitted due to hyporexia after ingesting a metallic fishhook. Serial radiographs confirmed the diagnosis and location of the foreign body in the stomach. The animal was premedicated with 0.03 mg/kg dexmedetomidine, 6 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol intramuscularly. After 90 min we inserted a 22G jugular catheter and proceeded to anesthesia induction with 5 mg/kg propofol. We intubated the animal with a 2.5 mm uncuffed endotracheal and started fluid therapy at a rate of 5 mL/kg/h. Surgical anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 0.21 oxygen, in a non-rebreathing circuit (baraka), under spontaneous breathing. Expired isoflurane was maintained between 3 and 4.5%. Due to reduced respiratory rate and hypercapnia, we opted for implementing manually-assisted positive pressure ventilation. Morphine (0.5 mg/kg) was administered at 10 and 87 min after the beginning of the surgery for further analgesia when the isoflurane requirement increased significantly. We did not detect any alterations in heart and body temperature. Surgical anesthesia lasted 6 h. During anesthesia recovery, voluntary head retraction and coordinated movement of the limbs occurred at 240 and 540 min after the extubation, respectively. In 2 days, the patient returned to voluntary feeding, being very active and responsive to stimulus. The post-surgical hematologic evaluation was unremarkable. Discussion: Pre-anesthetic medication aimed to promote sedation and preemptive analgesia. Due to its minimal cardiorespiratory depression, we chose the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine, and butorphanol. Dexmedetomidine reduced the ketamine dose and caused sufficient muscle relaxation and immobilization to perform the jugular catheter placement. Butorphanol is an agonist-antagonist opioid; that is why we decided to add it to the protocol for antinociception. However, due to signs of nociceptive response (increased isoflurane requirements and heart rate), and considering the evidence of a predominance of µ receptors in reptiles, we administered low-dose morphine twice during the procedure. Propofol was chosen as an induction agent at a dose sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation. Since reptilians often show apnea in the presence of 100% oxygen, we used a 0.21 oxygen fraction. Despite this, the patient showed respiratory depression. Due to right to left cardiac shunt, sudden changes in the direction of the blood can lead to very rapid changes in the serum concentrations of isoflurane, which leads to frequent oscillations in the anesthetic depth and consequently the need for vaporizer adjustments, which may justify the high expired isoflurane fraction during the procedure. Despite that, physiological parameters were maintained within normal ranges for the species, with slight variations during the surgical procedure. We conclude that the proposed anesthetic protocol is safe for long-duration anesthesia in chelonians, ensuring cardiovascular and respiratory stability. Thus, this report may help veterinarians to perform safe anesthesia in tortoises submitted to invasive surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Animais , Tartarugas/cirurgia , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Estômago/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária
5.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(suppl.1): Pub.651-Jan 4, 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458511

Resumo

Background: The South American coatis (Nasua nasua) are capable of adapting to different habitats, which allowed themto exchange between domestic and wild areas, increasing the occurrence of traumas. Procedures performed in this speciesdemand anesthetic protocols that take comorbidities into account and cause minimal cardiorespiratory depression as wellas rapid recovery. It is in such context that locoregional anesthesia has become an essential tool. Thus, we aim to reportthe use of two techniques of locoreginal block: brachial plexus block and lumbosacral epidural block, in a Nasua nasuasubmitted to osteosynthesis of the radius and caudectomy due to trauma.Case: A adult male coati weighing 2.3 kg was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the UniversidadeFederal do Paraná (UFPR) - Setor Palotina with a history of trauma. Physical examination showed crackling in the radius and ulnar region, and also abnormal angulation in the distal portion of the tail. After taking x-rays, fractures wereconfirmed in the distal radius and in the distal portion of the tail. The patient was referred for surgery. After 8 h of waterand food withdrawal, the animal was premedicated with a combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg), midazolam (0.3 mg/kg)and methadone (0.2 mg/kg), intramuscularly (IM). Induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol titrated to effect(total dose 4 mg/kg) and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in spontaneous ventilation using a non-rebreathingcircuit (Baraka). It was evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RF), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), expired isoflurane fraction (FE´Iso), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), electrocardiography (ECG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and coretemperature (CT) using a multiparametric monitor. After the stabilization period, the animal was positioned in lateral...


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Procyonidae/cirurgia , Procyonidae/lesões , Fentanila , Isoflurano , Ketamina , Lidocaína , Metadona , Midazolam , Propofol
6.
Acta Vet. bras. ; 15(4): 292-296, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765279

Resumo

This is the case of a specimen of Didelphis albiventris with signs of respiratory difficulty after a dog attack. Thoracic radiographic examination revealed pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, and rib fracture, but no alteration compatible with diaphragmatic hernia was observed. Pneumothorax was reduced and the other alterations were treated. However, clinical manifestations persisted, and thus a contrast-gastrointestinal radiographic study was performed, showing abdominal organs in the thoracic cavity and loss of diaphragmatic line. The surgical approach was instituted, with access to the diaphragm through median laparotomy. Through the diaphragmatic rupture, present in the left antimere, there were herniated liver and gastric portions, intestinal segments, and omentum. After inspection and repositioning of the abdominal organs, the diaphragm raffia was performed with single sutures interrupted with 3-0 Nylon thread. The patients complete recovery occurred 14 days after the surgical procedure, with remission of clinical manifestations and normality of thoracic images in radiographic studies.(AU)


Esse é o caso de um espécime de Didelphis albiventris com sinais de dificuldade respiratória após ataque por cão. O exame radiográfico torácico revelou pneumotórax, contusão pulmonar e fratura de costelas, porém nenhuma alteração com-patível com hérnia diafragmática foi observada. O pneumotórax foi reduzido e as demais alterações tratadas. Contudo; houve a persistência das manifestações clínicas, e dessa forma um estudo radiográfico gastrointestinal contrastado foi realizado, sendo evidenciados órgãos abdominais na cavidade torácica e perda da linha diafragmática. A abordagem cirúrgica foi instituída, com acesso ao diafragma por meio de laparotomia mediana. Através da ruptura diafragmática, presente no antímero esquerdo, estavam herniadas porções hepáticas e gástricas, segmentos intestinais e omento. Após inspeção e reposicionamento dos órgãos abdominais, a rafia do diafragma foi realizada com suturas simples interrompidas com fio Nylon 3-0. A recuperação completa do paciente ocorreu 14 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico, com remissão das manifestações clínicas e normalidade das ima-gens torácicas nos estudos radiográficos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Radiografia , Didelphis/anatomia & histologia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/diagnóstico , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/cirurgia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/veterinária , Herniorrafia , Laparotomia
7.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 49(suppl.1): Pub. 651, 8 jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32658

Resumo

Background: The South American coatis (Nasua nasua) are capable of adapting to different habitats, which allowed themto exchange between domestic and wild areas, increasing the occurrence of traumas. Procedures performed in this speciesdemand anesthetic protocols that take comorbidities into account and cause minimal cardiorespiratory depression as wellas rapid recovery. It is in such context that locoregional anesthesia has become an essential tool. Thus, we aim to reportthe use of two techniques of locoreginal block: brachial plexus block and lumbosacral epidural block, in a Nasua nasuasubmitted to osteosynthesis of the radius and caudectomy due to trauma.Case: A adult male coati weighing 2.3 kg was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the UniversidadeFederal do Paraná (UFPR) - Setor Palotina with a history of trauma. Physical examination showed crackling in the radius and ulnar region, and also abnormal angulation in the distal portion of the tail. After taking x-rays, fractures wereconfirmed in the distal radius and in the distal portion of the tail. The patient was referred for surgery. After 8 h of waterand food withdrawal, the animal was premedicated with a combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg), midazolam (0.3 mg/kg)and methadone (0.2 mg/kg), intramuscularly (IM). Induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol titrated to effect(total dose 4 mg/kg) and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in spontaneous ventilation using a non-rebreathingcircuit (Baraka). It was evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RF), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), expired isoflurane fraction (FE´Iso), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), electrocardiography (ECG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and coretemperature (CT) using a multiparametric monitor. After the stabilization period, the animal was positioned in lateral...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Procyonidae/lesões , Procyonidae/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Metadona , Midazolam , Ketamina , Propofol , Isoflurano , Fentanila , Lidocaína
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