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1.
Iheringia, Sér. zool ; 112: e2022021, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1405119

Resumo

In this study, we observed that burrows of Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) are distributed in a non-random manner in the habitat, suggesting a microhabitat selection for digging. This conclusion was based on a characterization of 36 burrows and surrounding micro-habitat. We established a 1 m x 1 m quadrat with the burrow in its central point (n=36) to measure the percentage (density) and the average heights of grasses, herbs, and shrubs. All measurements were repeated in two unused quadrats (without burrows) to evaluate the available microhabitat (n=72). The burrows are built in specific areas of the habitat with a higher percentage of grass, taller herbs, lower density of shrubs and low shaded sites than the founded at control sites. Based on three-dimensional models of the interior of the burrow (n=15), we observed that all of them were constructed with an elliptical opening that opens into a narrow channel perpendicular to the ground. Channels had a mean maximum diameter of 38 mm and a mean minimum diameter of 18 mm. The mean length of the burrows is 182 mm, and the mean volume is 95 mL.


Neste estudo, observamos que tocas de Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) são distribuídas de uma forma não-aleatória no habitat, sugerindo que esta espécie seleciona sítios para cavá-las. Esta conclusão foi baseada em uma caracterização de 36 tocas e do micro-habitat que as cerca. Estabelecemos um quadrante de 1 m x 1 m com a toca como seu ponto central (n=36) para medir a porcentagem (densidade) e a altura média de gramíneas, plantas herbáceas e arbustos. Todas as medidas foram repetidas em dois quadrantes não utilizados (sem tocas), para avaliar o micro-habitat disponível ao anfíbio (n=72). As tocas são construídas em áreas específicas do habitat com maior porcentagem de gramíneas, ervas mais altas, menos arbustos presentes e pouca área sombreada. Baseado em modelos tridimensionais do interior das tocas (n=15), observamos que todas elas são construídas com uma abertura elíptica que se abre para um canal estreito, perpendicular ao chão. Os canais têm diâmetro máximo médio de 38 mm e diâmetro mínimo médio de 18 mm. O comprimento médio das tocas é de 182 mm, e o volume médio é de 95 mL.


Assuntos
Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Bufonidae , Abrigo , Comportamento Animal , Brasil
2.
Iheringia. Sér. Zool. ; 111: e2021017, 2021. mapas, ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764766

Resumo

We studied the species composition of frogs in two phytophysiognomies within Pampa biome (grassland and forest) of a Ramsar site in southern Brazil to assess the distribution of species and dissimilarities in community composition on a small spatial scale. We tested the hypothesis that the vegetation structure and the types of land cover present in each physiognomy influence species distribution and the compositional dissimilarity patterns between locations. We sampled individuals using pitfall traps and active search in the areas around the traps. We evaluated the existence of these differences by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate dispersion. We found that the compositional dissimilarity was higher between the sampling sites from different phytophysiognomies than within the same phytophysiognomy. Also, the difference in anuran species composition between the sampling sites within the forest was considerably high. These differences were mainly due to the type of land cover present in each sampled site. Based on our results, we could assume that the phytophysiognomies evaluated here offer quite different colonization opportunities for anurans, especially those related to microhabitat characteristics, such as microclimate variables. Still, the presence of different types of land cover seems to be a decisive factor for the maintenance of some anuran species, since these can serve as an important source for obtaining food resources, in addition to facilitating the dispersion of individuals within and between locals, serve as sites for the regulation of physiological functions and also refuges against predators.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Pastagens/análise , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Microclima , Biodiversidade
3.
Iheringia, Sér. zool ; 111: e2021017, 2021. map, ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1483422

Resumo

We studied the species composition of frogs in two phytophysiognomies within Pampa biome (grassland and forest) of a Ramsar site in southern Brazil to assess the distribution of species and dissimilarities in community composition on a small spatial scale. We tested the hypothesis that the vegetation structure and the types of land cover present in each physiognomy influence species distribution and the compositional dissimilarity patterns between locations. We sampled individuals using pitfall traps and active search in the areas around the traps. We evaluated the existence of these differences by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate dispersion. We found that the compositional dissimilarity was higher between the sampling sites from different phytophysiognomies than within the same phytophysiognomy. Also, the difference in anuran species composition between the sampling sites within the forest was considerably high. These differences were mainly due to the type of land cover present in each sampled site. Based on our results, we could assume that the phytophysiognomies evaluated here offer quite different colonization opportunities for anurans, especially those related to microhabitat characteristics, such as microclimate variables. Still, the presence of different types of land cover seems to be a decisive factor for the maintenance of some anuran species, since these can serve as an important source for obtaining food resources, in addition to facilitating the dispersion of individuals within and between locals, serve as sites for the regulation of physiological functions and also refuges against predators.


Assuntos
Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Microclima , Pastagens/análise
4.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1483454

Resumo

ABSTRACT We studied the species composition of frogs in two phytophysiognomies within Pampa biome (grassland and forest) of a Ramsar site in southern Brazil to assess the distribution of species and dissimilarities in community composition on a small spatial scale. We tested the hypothesis that the vegetation structure and the types of land cover present in each physiognomy influence species distribution and the compositional dissimilarity patterns between locations. We sampled individuals using pitfall traps and active search in the areas around the traps. We evaluated the existence of these differences by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate dispersion. We found that the compositional dissimilarity was higher between the sampling sites from different phytophysiognomies than within the same phytophysiognomy. Also, the difference in anuran species composition between the sampling sites within the forest was considerably high. These differences were mainly due to the type of land cover present in each sampled site. Based on our results, we could assume that the phytophysiognomies evaluated here offer quite different colonization opportunities for anurans, especially those related to microhabitat characteristics, such as microclimate variables. Still, the presence of different types of land cover seems to be a decisive factor for the maintenance of some anuran species, since these can serve as an important source for obtaining food resources, in addition to facilitating the dispersion of individuals within and between locals, serve as sites for the regulation of physiological functions and also refuges against predators.

5.
Iheringia. Sér. Zool. ; 111: e2021013, 2021. mapas, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764763

Resumo

Climatic conditions and microhabitat characteristics, such as the substrate and type of vegetation, influence the choice of male anurans for calling sites that optimize their reproductive success. We evaluated the structure and selection of vocalization microhabitat of 17 individuals of Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 and 25 of Boana leptolineata (Braun & Braun, 1977), in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil. We measure the height of the perch, the distance between the perch and the edge of the body of water and the structure of the microhabitat of quadrants used by individuals. The same attributes were measured in the quadrants available (but not used) by the individuals. We classified the microhabitats by visual estimate, assigning percentages of coverage for each quadrant by herbaceous, shrub, tree and wetland vegetation. We observed that both species selected their microhabitat, since the characteristics of the quadrants occupied by the individuals were different from those available. Phyllomedusa distincta was more associated with heterogeneous microhabitats, while B. leptolineata occurred in environments with greater coverage of tree strata. Additionally, we observed that both species used shrubs more frequently as a perch site. The selection of these microhabitat characteristics must be associated with strategies to optimize the use of the reproductive habitat, based on the morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species. Finally, it is possible to infer that the differences observed in the microhabitat structure selected by the species can facilitate the coexistence of both in the context of the heterogeneity of the environment.(AU)


Seleção e uso de sítios de vocalização por Boana leptolineata e Phyllomedusa distincta durante o período reprodutivoAs condições climáticas e as características de micro-habitat, como o substrato e o tipo de vegetação, influenciam a escolha de anuros machos por sítios de vocalização que otimizem seu sucesso reprodutivo. Avaliamos a estrutura e a seleção de micro-habitat de vocalização de 17 indivíduos de Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 e 25 de Boana leptolineata (Braun & Braun, 1977), em uma floresta subtropical no sul do Brasil. Medimos a altura do poleiro, a distância do poleiro até a margem do corpo dágua e a estrutura do micro-habitat de quadrantes utilizados pelos indivíduos. Os mesmos atributos foram mensurados nos quadrantes disponíveis (mas não utilizados) pelos indivíduos. Classificamos os micro-habitats por estimativa visual, atribuindo-se porcentagens de cobertura de cada quadrante por vegetação herbácea, arbustiva, arbórea e de área alagada. Observamos que ambas as espécies selecionaram seu micro-habitat, uma vez que as características dos quadrantes ocupados pelos indivíduos foram distintas daquelas disponíveis. Phyllomedusa distincta esteve mais associada a micro-habitats heterogêneos, enquanto B. leptolineata ocorreu em ambientes com maior cobertura de estrato arbóreo. Adicionalmente, observamos que ambas as espécies utilizaram mais frequentemente arbustos como local do poleiro. A seleção destas características de micro-habitat deve estar associada a estratégias para otimização do uso do habitat reprodutivo, baseadas em características morfológicas e comportamentais das espécies. Por fim, é possível inferir que as diferenças observadas na estrutura de micro-habitat selecionadas pelas espécies podem facilitar a coexistência de ambas no contexto da heterogeneidade do ambiente.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Anfíbios/embriologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Ecossistema
6.
Iheringia, Sér. zool ; 111: e2021013, 2021. map, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1483419

Resumo

Climatic conditions and microhabitat characteristics, such as the substrate and type of vegetation, influence the choice of male anurans for calling sites that optimize their reproductive success. We evaluated the structure and selection of vocalization microhabitat of 17 individuals of Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 and 25 of Boana leptolineata (Braun & Braun, 1977), in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil. We measure the height of the perch, the distance between the perch and the edge of the body of water and the structure of the microhabitat of quadrants used by individuals. The same attributes were measured in the quadrants available (but not used) by the individuals. We classified the microhabitats by visual estimate, assigning percentages of coverage for each quadrant by herbaceous, shrub, tree and wetland vegetation. We observed that both species selected their microhabitat, since the characteristics of the quadrants occupied by the individuals were different from those available. Phyllomedusa distincta was more associated with heterogeneous microhabitats, while B. leptolineata occurred in environments with greater coverage of tree strata. Additionally, we observed that both species used shrubs more frequently as a perch site. The selection of these microhabitat characteristics must be associated with strategies to optimize the use of the reproductive habitat, based on the morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species. Finally, it is possible to infer that the differences observed in the microhabitat structure selected by the species can facilitate the coexistence of both in the context of the heterogeneity of the environment.


Seleção e uso de sítios de vocalização por Boana leptolineata e Phyllomedusa distincta durante o período reprodutivoAs condições climáticas e as características de micro-habitat, como o substrato e o tipo de vegetação, influenciam a escolha de anuros machos por sítios de vocalização que otimizem seu sucesso reprodutivo. Avaliamos a estrutura e a seleção de micro-habitat de vocalização de 17 indivíduos de Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 e 25 de Boana leptolineata (Braun & Braun, 1977), em uma floresta subtropical no sul do Brasil. Medimos a altura do poleiro, a distância do poleiro até a margem do corpo d’água e a estrutura do micro-habitat de quadrantes utilizados pelos indivíduos. Os mesmos atributos foram mensurados nos quadrantes disponíveis (mas não utilizados) pelos indivíduos. Classificamos os micro-habitats por estimativa visual, atribuindo-se porcentagens de cobertura de cada quadrante por vegetação herbácea, arbustiva, arbórea e de área alagada. Observamos que ambas as espécies selecionaram seu micro-habitat, uma vez que as características dos quadrantes ocupados pelos indivíduos foram distintas daquelas disponíveis. Phyllomedusa distincta esteve mais associada a micro-habitats heterogêneos, enquanto B. leptolineata ocorreu em ambientes com maior cobertura de estrato arbóreo. Adicionalmente, observamos que ambas as espécies utilizaram mais frequentemente arbustos como local do poleiro. A seleção destas características de micro-habitat deve estar associada a estratégias para otimização do uso do habitat reprodutivo, baseadas em características morfológicas e comportamentais das espécies. Por fim, é possível inferir que as diferenças observadas na estrutura de micro-habitat selecionadas pelas espécies podem facilitar a coexistência de ambas no contexto da heterogeneidade do ambiente.


Assuntos
Animais , Anfíbios/embriologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Ecossistema
7.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1483449

Resumo

ABSTRACT Climatic conditions and microhabitat characteristics, such as the substrate and type of vegetation, influence the choice of male anurans for calling sites that optimize their reproductive success. We evaluated the structure and selection of vocalization microhabitat of 17 individuals of Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 and 25 of Boana leptolineata (Braun & Braun, 1977), in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil. We measure the height of the perch, the distance between the perch and the edge of the body of water and the structure of the microhabitat of quadrants used by individuals. The same attributes were measured in the quadrants available (but not used) by the individuals. We classified the microhabitats by visual estimate, assigning percentages of coverage for each quadrant by herbaceous, shrub, tree and wetland vegetation. We observed that both species selected their microhabitat, since the characteristics of the quadrants occupied by the individuals were different from those available. Phyllomedusa distincta was more associated with heterogeneous microhabitats, while B. leptolineata occurred in environments with greater coverage of tree strata. Additionally, we observed that both species used shrubs more frequently as a perch site. The selection of these microhabitat characteristics must be associated with strategies to optimize the use of the reproductive habitat, based on the morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species. Finally, it is possible to infer that the differences observed in the microhabitat structure selected by the species can facilitate the coexistence of both in the context of the heterogeneity of the environment.


RESUMO Seleção e uso de sítios de vocalização por Boana leptolineata e Phyllomedusa distincta durante o período reprodutivoAs condições climáticas e as características de micro-habitat, como o substrato e o tipo de vegetação, influenciam a escolha de anuros machos por sítios de vocalização que otimizem seu sucesso reprodutivo. Avaliamos a estrutura e a seleção de micro-habitat de vocalização de 17 indivíduos de Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 e 25 de Boana leptolineata (Braun & Braun, 1977), em uma floresta subtropical no sul do Brasil. Medimos a altura do poleiro, a distância do poleiro até a margem do corpo dágua e a estrutura do micro-habitat de quadrantes utilizados pelos indivíduos. Os mesmos atributos foram mensurados nos quadrantes disponíveis (mas não utilizados) pelos indivíduos. Classificamos os micro-habitats por estimativa visual, atribuindo-se porcentagens de cobertura de cada quadrante por vegetação herbácea, arbustiva, arbórea e de área alagada. Observamos que ambas as espécies selecionaram seu micro-habitat, uma vez que as características dos quadrantes ocupados pelos indivíduos foram distintas daquelas disponíveis. Phyllomedusa distincta esteve mais associada a micro-habitats heterogêneos, enquanto B. leptolineata ocorreu em ambientes com maior cobertura de estrato arbóreo. Adicionalmente, observamos que ambas as espécies utilizaram mais frequentemente arbustos como local do poleiro. A seleção destas características de micro-habitat deve estar associada a estratégias para otimização do uso do habitat reprodutivo, baseadas em características morfológicas e comportamentais das espécies. Por fim, é possível inferir que as diferenças observadas na estrutura de micro-habitat selecionadas pelas espécies podem facilitar a coexistência de ambas no contexto da heterogeneidade do ambiente.

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