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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 1-5, 20110000. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456869

Resumo

Background: Canine demodicosis is an inflammatory parasitic skin disease associated with the presence of excessive numbers of Demodex mites. The pathogenesis involving demodicosis is not completely recognized. It is suggested that demodicosis occurs because of the inability of the host to regulate mite intensity, rather than from an elevation of the mite virulence. The acute phase response is a part of the innate defence system of the host against trauma, inflammation, and infection. Some of the cytokines involved in pathogenic phenomena in canine demodicosis are known as inducers of the acute phase response. Among the large group of acute phase reactants, C-reactive protein (CRP) may have special attention in canine demodicosis, because of its relationship with cytokines involved in the development of skin inflammation. In this study we sought to elucidate the relationship between generalized demodicosis and the serum concentration CRP in dogs. Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty two dogs (n = 14 demodicosis, n = 8 healthy), enrolled in the study were recruited from the dogs referred to 5 different veterinary practices participated. Dogs of various breed, both sexes, entire/neutered were included in the study on the basis of being Demodex canis mite positive on microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Cytological examination of the skin scraping showed no yeast nor bacteria. The animals exhibited at least one of the following clinical signs of generalized demodicosis: presence of = 5 spot lesions, involvement of = 25% of the dog’s face or of its body surface, pododemodicosis involving two or more feet. None of the dogs completing the study had been treated with ectoparasiticides or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the last 30 days before the onset of the study. Plasma CRP concentration was determined using commercial ELISA test kit and an ELISA reader according to the manufacturer instructions. Statistical analysis were performed by Mann-Whitney U test. P values of less than 0.05 were regarded as significant. Serum CRP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with generalized demodicosis compared to those of control dogs Discussion: The present study presents for the first time a survey of the acute phase protein expression regarding CRP in serum of dogs affected by demodicosis. Results indicated that the concentration of investigated, including serum CRP, significantly increased in infected dogs. From a clinical perspective, acute phase protein measurement is a useful clinical tool in veterinary medicine but further studies are required to assure their value in particular diseases, because the acute phase response shows variation in different species and pathological processes. The mean plasma levels of the C-reactive protein measured in the peripheral blood of the 14 dogs included in the present study with generalised demodicosis were significantly elevated compared to those of the healthy controls. The results indicated that in generalised demodicosis acute phase response can be mobilized. According to results of this study, we thought that Demodectic mite may have the potential to stimulate an inflammatory response in dogs with generalized demodicosis. This information provides a remarkable potential for use in clinical practice for dogs, hence these biological markers may be very useful for the early diagnosis of inflammation due to the demodectic mange. Although the numbers of dogs investigated in this study was small, CRP concentration could be beneficial in monitoring the response to treatment in dogs with generalized demodicosis. Further studies are warranted for evaluating the clinical usage of this parameter for monitoring the efficacy of therapy in dogs with demodicosis.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/efeitos adversos
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 39(3): 1-5, 20110000. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11575

Resumo

Background: Canine demodicosis is an inflammatory parasitic skin disease associated with the presence of excessive numbers of Demodex mites. The pathogenesis involving demodicosis is not completely recognized. It is suggested that demodicosis occurs because of the inability of the host to regulate mite intensity, rather than from an elevation of the mite virulence. The acute phase response is a part of the innate defence system of the host against trauma, inflammation, and infection. Some of the cytokines involved in pathogenic phenomena in canine demodicosis are known as inducers of the acute phase response. Among the large group of acute phase reactants, C-reactive protein (CRP) may have special attention in canine demodicosis, because of its relationship with cytokines involved in the development of skin inflammation. In this study we sought to elucidate the relationship between generalized demodicosis and the serum concentration CRP in dogs. Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty two dogs (n = 14 demodicosis, n = 8 healthy), enrolled in the study were recruited from the dogs referred to 5 different veterinary practices participated. Dogs of various breed, both sexes, entire/neutered were included in the study on the basis of being Demodex canis mite positive on microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Cytological examination of the skin scraping showed no yeast nor bacteria. The animals exhibited at least one of the following clinical signs of generalized demodicosis: presence of = 5 spot lesions, involvement of = 25% of the dogs face or of its body surface, pododemodicosis involving two or more feet. None of the dogs completing the study had been treated with ectoparasiticides or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the last 30 days before the onset of the study. Plasma CRP concentration was determined using commercial ELISA test kit and an ELISA reader according to the manufacturer instructions. Statistical analysis were performed by Mann-Whitney U test. P values of less than 0.05 were regarded as significant. Serum CRP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with generalized demodicosis compared to those of control dogs Discussion: The present study presents for the first time a survey of the acute phase protein expression regarding CRP in serum of dogs affected by demodicosis. Results indicated that the concentration of investigated, including serum CRP, significantly increased in infected dogs. From a clinical perspective, acute phase protein measurement is a useful clinical tool in veterinary medicine but further studies are required to assure their value in particular diseases, because the acute phase response shows variation in different species and pathological processes. The mean plasma levels of the C-reactive protein measured in the peripheral blood of the 14 dogs included in the present study with generalised demodicosis were significantly elevated compared to those of the healthy controls. The results indicated that in generalised demodicosis acute phase response can be mobilized. According to results of this study, we thought that Demodectic mite may have the potential to stimulate an inflammatory response in dogs with generalized demodicosis. This information provides a remarkable potential for use in clinical practice for dogs, hence these biological markers may be very useful for the early diagnosis of inflammation due to the demodectic mange. Although the numbers of dogs investigated in this study was small, CRP concentration could be beneficial in monitoring the response to treatment in dogs with generalized demodicosis. Further studies are warranted for evaluating the clinical usage of this parameter for monitoring the efficacy of therapy in dogs with demodicosis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/efeitos adversos
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 1-6, 20110000. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456862

Resumo

Background: The acute-phase response to infection is also characterized by an increase in protein turnover plus an increased loss of protein. Leukocyte proliferation and the synthesis of cytokines, immunoglobulins and positive acute phase proteins(APPs) contribute to protein turnover APPs levels, as markers of inflammation, usually rise significantly during the course of acute and chronic infections in the bovine. There has been a great interest shown on the usage of APPs as a marker of animal health or, alternatively, as an indicator of disease severity in veterinary medicine . Haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are important APPs in cattle , in different viral and bacterial infections The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of infection on acute-phase proteins in seldom persistent positive BVDV cattle, that were free of signs and symptoms of secondary infections. Materials, Methods & Results: Blood samples, from a total of 313 cows from three different farms, were collected in 10 mL polystyrene tubes coated with an anticoagulant (EDTA). Commercial BVDV antigen ELISA kits were used to determine the persistently infected animals. Sampling was carried out by two occasions within 40 days intervals. A total of 11 dairy cows were found BVDV Ag positive in both occasions, were evaluated as persistently infected. Eight non-infected dairy cows from same herds were served as control group. All animals were examined on the day of blood sampling. The levels of haptoglobin and SAA in serum were determined by use of the commercial kits. Statistical analyses were performed by Mann-Whitney Utest; P < 0.05 considered significant. None of the persistently infected animals showed clinical findings and a few of them were considered as poor doers, but they were unnoticed until they were identified as persistently infected animals. No clinical findings were observed in healthy control cows in routine clinical examination. Serum concentration of Hp in persistently infected cattle with BVDV was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the controls. Serum amyloid A concentrations were also significantly higher in persistently infected cattle with BVDV than the controls. Discussion: APPs have been proposed as valuable indicators of the manifestation and severity of pathological conditions in humans and animals. Levels of APPs are preferentially elevated during acute bacterial infections and less pronounced or even missed during viral infections. There are no reports on the alterations of the acute-phase protein profile in the persistent BVDV infection. In the present study, a significant increase in the positive acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and SAA in the symptom free persistent cattles were detected. These alterations of acute-phase proteins may be associated to the enhanced production of IL-6 and IL-8 which modulate the synthesis of positive acute-phase proteins. Clinical symptoms were not noticed in our study. Such animals could easly be underdiagnosed in a farm population. Clinical symptoms were associated with increase in APPs. Moreover, supra-normal APP values in persistently infected cattle with BVDV were observed without clinical symptoms. The role of inflammation as defined by Hp and SAA levels have not been fully explored in the context of persistently infected cattle with BVDV disease. The results of this study indicated that serum concentrations of haptoglobin and SAA were increased in persistently infected cattle. Moreover, it may be suggested that measurement of SAA and Hp may be of valuable in indicating suspected persistently infected animals with BVDV in screening herds for general health status.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Haptoglobinas , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica , Virologia/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária
4.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 39(3): 1-6, 20110000. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11568

Resumo

Background: The acute-phase response to infection is also characterized by an increase in protein turnover plus an increased loss of protein. Leukocyte proliferation and the synthesis of cytokines, immunoglobulins and positive acute phase proteins(APPs) contribute to protein turnover APPs levels, as markers of inflammation, usually rise significantly during the course of acute and chronic infections in the bovine. There has been a great interest shown on the usage of APPs as a marker of animal health or, alternatively, as an indicator of disease severity in veterinary medicine . Haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are important APPs in cattle , in different viral and bacterial infections The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of infection on acute-phase proteins in seldom persistent positive BVDV cattle, that were free of signs and symptoms of secondary infections. Materials, Methods & Results: Blood samples, from a total of 313 cows from three different farms, were collected in 10 mL polystyrene tubes coated with an anticoagulant (EDTA). Commercial BVDV antigen ELISA kits were used to determine the persistently infected animals. Sampling was carried out by two occasions within 40 days intervals. A total of 11 dairy cows were found BVDV Ag positive in both occasions, were evaluated as persistently infected. Eight non-infected dairy cows from same herds were served as control group. All animals were examined on the day of blood sampling. The levels of haptoglobin and SAA in serum were determined by use of the commercial kits. Statistical analyses were performed by Mann-Whitney Utest; P < 0.05 considered significant. None of the persistently infected animals showed clinical findings and a few of them were considered as poor doers, but they were unnoticed until they were identified as persistently infected animals. No clinical findings were observed in healthy control cows in routine clinical examination. Serum concentration of Hp in persistently infected cattle with BVDV was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the controls. Serum amyloid A concentrations were also significantly higher in persistently infected cattle with BVDV than the controls. Discussion: APPs have been proposed as valuable indicators of the manifestation and severity of pathological conditions in humans and animals. Levels of APPs are preferentially elevated during acute bacterial infections and less pronounced or even missed during viral infections. There are no reports on the alterations of the acute-phase protein profile in the persistent BVDV infection. In the present study, a significant increase in the positive acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and SAA in the symptom free persistent cattles were detected. These alterations of acute-phase proteins may be associated to the enhanced production of IL-6 and IL-8 which modulate the synthesis of positive acute-phase proteins. Clinical symptoms were not noticed in our study. Such animals could easly be underdiagnosed in a farm population. Clinical symptoms were associated with increase in APPs. Moreover, supra-normal APP values in persistently infected cattle with BVDV were observed without clinical symptoms. The role of inflammation as defined by Hp and SAA levels have not been fully explored in the context of persistently infected cattle with BVDV disease. The results of this study indicated that serum concentrations of haptoglobin and SAA were increased in persistently infected cattle. Moreover, it may be suggested that measurement of SAA and Hp may be of valuable in indicating suspected persistently infected animals with BVDV in screening herds for general health status.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Haptoglobinas , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica , Virologia/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária
5.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 1-8, 20110000. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456866

Resumo

Background: Pestiviruses cause economically important diseases in domestic ruminants worldwide. Border Disease is a congenital viral infection of sheep, caused by a pestivirus, and is first reported in the Border region of Wales and England. The BDV has worldwide distribution in sheep with different prevalences among countries. Vertical transmission is an important route in the epidemiology of this virus. Infection of fetuses may cause birth of persistently infected lambs, that are viremic, antibody negative, and are excreting virus. The disease is characterized by abortion, barren ewes, stillbirth and persistently infected weak lambs showing neurological and dermatological signs. The economic importance of the disease is related to reproductive failure, abortions and significantly low survival rate of affected lambs. In the present study the aim was to describe clinical, hematological and serological aspects of natural Border disease virus (BDV) infection in a sheep flock in Cine, Aydin. Besides we sought to elucidate the relationship between natural (active infection) and persistent BDV disease and the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in infected sheep Materials, Methods & Results: Field observations were carried out in a sheep flock comprising 327 sheep with a history of an outbreak abortion in Cine town in Aydin, Turkey. Twenty-five out of 327 sheep in the flock was monitorized by blood sampling. The animals were selected among aborted ones, at least once, into two weeks preceeding period or with a history of weak lambing. BDV antigen (persistent infection) was detected in 8 out of 25 sheep (32%) while antiviral antibodies (active infection) were detected in 18 animals tested (68%). The disease was mainly characterized by abortions, stillbirth/weak lamb and abnormal brown/black fleece pigmentation, which occurred in an epidemic form. Twenty five sheep were related to disease condition as detected serologically, and the ratio of the number affected to number at risk being was 17:8. The culling rate was 50% of the affected animals. Most of the affected animals were second lambing sheep (5/25, 20%). Hematological variables did not reveal statistical difference whereas serum concentrations of Hp (P < 0.05) and SAA (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in naturally infected sheep in contrast to persistently infected sheep with BDV. Discussion: Clinical signs and detailed laboratory analysis related to natural Border disease outbreak have never been reported in Turkey, although previous epidemiological studies had shown that Border disease virus infection is relatively common in some parts of Turkey in sheep flocks and persistent Border disease virus infection had been described in apparently healthy sheep in Turkey. In the present study the disease was mainly characterized by abortions, stillbirth/weak lamb and abnormal brown/black fleece pigmentation, which occurred in an epidemic form. Besides bronchopneumonia, enteritis and conjunctivitis were detected in a limited population. Neurological signs were only observed in 2 animals. Besides persistent infection was detected in 32% of sheep enrolled. An acute phase reaction involving Hp and SAA has been identified in the present study. These results indicate that the monitoring of selected acute phase proteins may increase the diagnostic information available as a result of their analyses in naturally infected sheep and persistently infected sheep with BDV.


Assuntos
Animais , Doença da Fronteira/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Ovinos/imunologia
6.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 39(3): 1-8, 20110000. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-11572

Resumo

Background: Pestiviruses cause economically important diseases in domestic ruminants worldwide. Border Disease is a congenital viral infection of sheep, caused by a pestivirus, and is first reported in the Border region of Wales and England. The BDV has worldwide distribution in sheep with different prevalences among countries. Vertical transmission is an important route in the epidemiology of this virus. Infection of fetuses may cause birth of persistently infected lambs, that are viremic, antibody negative, and are excreting virus. The disease is characterized by abortion, barren ewes, stillbirth and persistently infected weak lambs showing neurological and dermatological signs. The economic importance of the disease is related to reproductive failure, abortions and significantly low survival rate of affected lambs. In the present study the aim was to describe clinical, hematological and serological aspects of natural Border disease virus (BDV) infection in a sheep flock in Cine, Aydin. Besides we sought to elucidate the relationship between natural (active infection) and persistent BDV disease and the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in infected sheep Materials, Methods & Results: Field observations were carried out in a sheep flock comprising 327 sheep with a history of an outbreak abortion in Cine town in Aydin, Turkey. Twenty-five out of 327 sheep in the flock was monitorized by blood sampling. The animals were selected among aborted ones, at least once, into two weeks preceeding period or with a history of weak lambing. BDV antigen (persistent infection) was detected in 8 out of 25 sheep (32%) while antiviral antibodies (active infection) were detected in 18 animals tested (68%). The disease was mainly characterized by abortions, stillbirth/weak lamb and abnormal brown/black fleece pigmentation, which occurred in an epidemic form. Twenty five sheep were related to disease condition as detected serologically, and the ratio of the number affected to number at risk being was 17:8. The culling rate was 50% of the affected animals. Most of the affected animals were second lambing sheep (5/25, 20%). Hematological variables did not reveal statistical difference whereas serum concentrations of Hp (P < 0.05) and SAA (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in naturally infected sheep in contrast to persistently infected sheep with BDV. Discussion: Clinical signs and detailed laboratory analysis related to natural Border disease outbreak have never been reported in Turkey, although previous epidemiological studies had shown that Border disease virus infection is relatively common in some parts of Turkey in sheep flocks and persistent Border disease virus infection had been described in apparently healthy sheep in Turkey. In the present study the disease was mainly characterized by abortions, stillbirth/weak lamb and abnormal brown/black fleece pigmentation, which occurred in an epidemic form. Besides bronchopneumonia, enteritis and conjunctivitis were detected in a limited population. Neurological signs were only observed in 2 animals. Besides persistent infection was detected in 32% of sheep enrolled. An acute phase reaction involving Hp and SAA has been identified in the present study. These results indicate that the monitoring of selected acute phase proteins may increase the diagnostic information available as a result of their analyses in naturally infected sheep and persistently infected sheep with BDV.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doença da Fronteira/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Ovinos/imunologia
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