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1.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 47(3): 712-723, Jul-Set. 2016. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23417

Resumo

Unraveling the microbial diversity and its complexity in petroleum reservoir environments has been a challenge throughout the years. Despite the techniques developed in order to improve methodologies involving DNA extraction from crude oil, microbial enrichments using different culture conditions can be applied as a way to increase the recovery of DNA from environments with low cellular density for further microbiological analyses. This work aimed at the evaluation of different matrices (arenite, shale and polyurethane foam) as support materials for microbial growth and biofilm formation in enrichments using a biodegraded petroleum sample as inoculum in sulfate reducing condition. Subsequent microbial diversity characterization was carried out using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene libraries in order to compare the microbial biomass yield, DNA recovery efficiency and diversity among the enrichments. The DNA from microbial communities in petroleum enrichments was purified according to a protocol established in this work and used for 16S rRNA amplification with bacterial generic primers. The PCR products were cloned, and positive clones were screened by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial community was mostly represented by members of the genera Petrotoga, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Geobacillus and Rahnella. The use of different support materials in the enrichments yielded an increase in microbial biomass and biofilm formation, indicating that these materials may be employed for efficient biomass recovery from petroleum reservoir samples. Nonetheless, the most diverse microbiota were recovered from the biodegraded petroleum sample using polyurethane foam cubes as support material.(AU)


Assuntos
Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Desnaturação Proteica
2.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 46(2): 347-354, Apr.-Jun. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-2241

Resumo

Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU) of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications.(AU)


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Brevibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Brasil , Brevibacterium/classificação , Brevibacterium/genética , Brevibacterium/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/metabolismo
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