*Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(5): 1941-1956, jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Whole and halved strawberries were dried by using three methods, which were solar tunnel drying, shade drying, and microwave drying (180W, 540W, and 900W) to determine drying characteristic and modelling. The researchers measured solar irradiation at ambient and drying air temperatures and air velocity at specific intervals in various parts of the dryer. How microwave drying (180, 540, and 900 W) affected the drying time and drying ratio of the whole and halved strawberry samples was investigated. In addition, the data on the drying process were applied to 5 different mathematical models, which were Weibull distribution, Midilli et al., Jena and Das and Aghbashlo et al. Equation Models. The researchers compared the performance levels of the models according to correlation coefficient (R2), chi-square value (χ2), besides the root mean square error (RMSE) between moisture ratios that were observed and predicted. Furthermore, the Weibull Distribution and Midilli et al. models were found to reveal the ratio of drying in a satisfactory way for all the methods of drying.(AU)

Morangos inteiros e cortados ao meio foram secos usando três métodos, que foram secagem em túnel solar, secagem à sombra e secagem por micro-ondas (180W, 540W e 900W) para determinar a característica de secagem e modelagem. Os pesquisadores mediram a irradiação solar nas temperaturas ambiente e de secagem do ar e a velocidade do ar em intervalos específicos em várias partes do secador. Como a secagem por micro-ondas (180, 540 e 900 W) afetou o tempo de secagem e a proporção de secagem das amostras inteiras e cortadas de morango foi investigado. Além disso, os dados do processo de secagem foram aplicados a 5 modelos matemáticos diferentes, que foram a distribuição de Weibull, Midilli et al., Jena e Das e Aghbashlo et al. Modelos de equação. Os pesquisadores compararam os níveis de desempenho dos modelos de acordo com o coeficiente de correlação (R2), valor do qui-quadrado (χ2), além da raiz do erro quadrático médio (RMSE) entre as razões de umidade observadas e previstas. Além disso, a Distribuição Weibull e Midilli et al. os modelos revelaram a proporção de secagem de forma satisfatória para todos os métodos de secagem.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Fragaria/fisiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Dados*Rev. bras. zootec ; 49: e20190201, 2020. graf, tab*

##### Resumo

This study was conducted to examine the inclusion of random effects in non-linear models, identify the most suitable models, and describe the growth of naturalized chickens. Live-weight records of 166 birds of the Graúna Dourada, Nordestina, and Teresina ecotypes were estimated. The asymptotic weight (A), integration constant, related to animal initial weight (B), and the maturing rate (k) parameters of the non-linear Gompertz, Logistic, and von Bertalanffy models were estimated and adjusted using the Gauss-Newton method. Residual variance decreased by more than 50% when random effects were added to the model. The best fits in the estimate of the growth curve of females were obtained by associating the random effects with the three parameters of the Gompertz and Logistic models. The association of random effects with two parameters (asymptotic weight and maturing rate) and with the three parameters of the Logistic model provided the best fits for the males. The Teresina ecotype has the highest adult weight in both sexes, despite its slower growth. The opposite is true for the Graúna Dourada ecotype, formed by lighter and earlier-growing animals. The inclusion of random effects in models provides greater accuracy in the estimate of the growth curve.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Brasil , Dinâmica não Linear*Sci. agric ; 77(6): e20180409, 2020. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Leaf hyperspectral reflectance has been used to estimate nutrient concentrations in plants in narrow bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The aim of this study was to estimate leaf nutrient concentrations using leaf hyperspectral reflectance and verify the variable selection methods using the partial least squares regression (PLSR). Two studies were carried out using stands with Eucalyptus clones. Study I was established in Eucalyptus stands with three clones, classifying leaves into five colour patterns using the Munsell chart for plant tissues. Immediately after leaf collection, leaf reflectance was read and the chemical analysis was performed. Study II was carried out in commercial clonal stands of Eucalyptus performing the same leaf sampling and chemical analysis as used in Study I. All leaf reflectance spectra were smoothed and three more pre-processing procedures were applied. In addition, three methods of PLSR were tested. The first derivative was more accurate for predicting nitrogen ( Rcv2=0.95 ), phosphorous ( Rcv2=0.93 ), and sulphur concentration ( Rcv2=0.85 ). The estimates for concentrations of calcium ( Rcv2=0.81 ), magnesium ( Rcv2=0.22 ), and potassium ( Rcv2=0.76 ) were more accurate using the logarithm transformation. Only the estimates for iron concentrations were performed with higher accuracy ( Rcv2=0.35 ) using the smoothed reflectance. The copper concentrations were more accurate ( Rcv2=0.78 ) using the logarithm transformation. Concentrations of boron ( Rcv2=0.68 ) and manganese ( Rcv2=0.79 ) were more accurate using the first derivative, while zinc ( Rcv2=0.31 ) concentration was most accurate using the second derivative.

##### Assuntos

Eucalyptus/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/química*Sci. agric. ; 77(6): e20180409, 2020. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Leaf hyperspectral reflectance has been used to estimate nutrient concentrations in plants in narrow bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The aim of this study was to estimate leaf nutrient concentrations using leaf hyperspectral reflectance and verify the variable selection methods using the partial least squares regression (PLSR). Two studies were carried out using stands with Eucalyptus clones. Study I was established in Eucalyptus stands with three clones, classifying leaves into five colour patterns using the Munsell chart for plant tissues. Immediately after leaf collection, leaf reflectance was read and the chemical analysis was performed. Study II was carried out in commercial clonal stands of Eucalyptus performing the same leaf sampling and chemical analysis as used in Study I. All leaf reflectance spectra were smoothed and three more pre-processing procedures were applied. In addition, three methods of PLSR were tested. The first derivative was more accurate for predicting nitrogen ( Rcv2=0.95 ), phosphorous ( Rcv2=0.93 ), and sulphur concentration ( Rcv2=0.85 ). The estimates for concentrations of calcium ( Rcv2=0.81 ), magnesium ( Rcv2=0.22 ), and potassium ( Rcv2=0.76 ) were more accurate using the logarithm transformation. Only the estimates for iron concentrations were performed with higher accuracy ( Rcv2=0.35 ) using the smoothed reflectance. The copper concentrations were more accurate ( Rcv2=0.78 ) using the logarithm transformation. Concentrations of boron ( Rcv2=0.68 ) and manganese ( Rcv2=0.79 ) were more accurate using the first derivative, while zinc ( Rcv2=0.31 ) concentration was most accurate using the second derivative.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Eucalyptus/enzimologia*Semina ciênc. agrar ; 41(3): 829-846, May-June 2020. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Hydraulic projects and water management require reliable hydrological data. The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin, in addition to agricultural use, has great potential for hydroelectric exploitation. However, the streamflow monitoring network in the Araguaia River basin is composed of only a few stations, resulting in a lack of hydrological data. The regionalization of the reference streamflows is a technique that can help circumvent this lack of data, enabling the estimation of streamflows from easily obtainable explanatory variables. In this context, the objective of this study was to develop regional functions for the maximum streamflow (Qmax) applicable to different Return Periods (RP), the long-term mean streamflow (Qmlt) and the 95% streamflow permanence (Q95) of the upper and middle Araguaia River sub-basins. The dimensionless streamflow methodology was adopted with the drainage area as an explanatory variable. The tested regressive models were the linear, potential and quotient models. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to assess the quality of the regional models. Ten statistical distributions of 2 to 5 parameters were used. (i) Satisfactory results were obtained for all reference streamflows. (ii) The cross-validation technique proved to be essential for the selection of the most robust model. (iii) The quotient model was shown to be superior to the potential linear model in most cases.

Projetos hidráulicos e a gestão da água demandam dados hidrológicos confiáveis. A bacia hidrográfica do rio Araguaia-Tocantins, além do uso agrícola, apresenta grande potencial para exploração hidroelétrica. No entanto, a rede de monitoramento fluviométrico na bacia hidrográfica do rio Araguaia apresenta densidade reduzida de estações, o que implica na falta de dados hidrológicos. A regionalização de vazões de referência é uma técnica que pode ajudar a contornar essa insuficiência de dados, propiciando a estimativa de vazões a partir de variáveis explicativas de fácil obtenção. Neste contexto, objetivou-se desenvolver funções regionais para vazão máxima (Qmax) aplicáveis a diferentes Períodos de Retorno (RP), vazão média em longo prazo (Qmlt) e vazão com 95% de permanência (Q95) para as sub-bacias de alto e médio curso do rio Araguaia. Adotou-se a metodologia da vazão adimensional e a área de drenagem como variável explicativa. Os modelos regressivos testados foram o linear, potencial e quociente. Empregou-se para verificação da qualidade dos modelos regionais a validação-cruzada leave-one-out. Utilizou-se 10 distribuições estatística de 2 a 5 parâmetros. (i) Obtiveram-se resultados satisfatórios para todas as vazões de referência. (ii) A técnica de validação cruzada mostrou-se essencial para a seleção do modelo mais robusto. (iii) O modelo de quociente mostrou-se superior ao modelo potencial e linear na maioria dos casos.

##### Assuntos

Bacias Hidrográficas , Estatísticas Hidrológicas , Regionalização da Saúde , Vazão de Água*Semina Ci. agr. ; 41(3): 829-846, May-June 2020. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Hydraulic projects and water management require reliable hydrological data. The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin, in addition to agricultural use, has great potential for hydroelectric exploitation. However, the streamflow monitoring network in the Araguaia River basin is composed of only a few stations, resulting in a lack of hydrological data. The regionalization of the reference streamflows is a technique that can help circumvent this lack of data, enabling the estimation of streamflows from easily obtainable explanatory variables. In this context, the objective of this study was to develop regional functions for the maximum streamflow (Qmax) applicable to different Return Periods (RP), the long-term mean streamflow (Qmlt) and the 95% streamflow permanence (Q95) of the upper and middle Araguaia River sub-basins. The dimensionless streamflow methodology was adopted with the drainage area as an explanatory variable. The tested regressive models were the linear, potential and quotient models. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to assess the quality of the regional models. Ten statistical distributions of 2 to 5 parameters were used. (i) Satisfactory results were obtained for all reference streamflows. (ii) The cross-validation technique proved to be essential for the selection of the most robust model. (iii) The quotient model was shown to be superior to the potential linear model in most cases.(AU)

Projetos hidráulicos e a gestão da água demandam dados hidrológicos confiáveis. A bacia hidrográfica do rio Araguaia-Tocantins, além do uso agrícola, apresenta grande potencial para exploração hidroelétrica. No entanto, a rede de monitoramento fluviométrico na bacia hidrográfica do rio Araguaia apresenta densidade reduzida de estações, o que implica na falta de dados hidrológicos. A regionalização de vazões de referência é uma técnica que pode ajudar a contornar essa insuficiência de dados, propiciando a estimativa de vazões a partir de variáveis explicativas de fácil obtenção. Neste contexto, objetivou-se desenvolver funções regionais para vazão máxima (Qmax) aplicáveis a diferentes Períodos de Retorno (RP), vazão média em longo prazo (Qmlt) e vazão com 95% de permanência (Q95) para as sub-bacias de alto e médio curso do rio Araguaia. Adotou-se a metodologia da vazão adimensional e a área de drenagem como variável explicativa. Os modelos regressivos testados foram o linear, potencial e quociente. Empregou-se para verificação da qualidade dos modelos regionais a validação-cruzada leave-one-out. Utilizou-se 10 distribuições estatística de 2 a 5 parâmetros. (i) Obtiveram-se resultados satisfatórios para todas as vazões de referência. (ii) A técnica de validação cruzada mostrou-se essencial para a seleção do modelo mais robusto. (iii) O modelo de quociente mostrou-se superior ao modelo potencial e linear na maioria dos casos.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Regionalização da Saúde , Vazão de Água , Bacias Hidrográficas , Estatísticas Hidrológicas*Acta Sci. Anim. Sci. ; 41: e42563-e42563, 2019. graf, tab*

##### Resumo

This study adjusted different regression models to describe the growth pattern of meat quails from birth to 42 days of age. Data of 300 male quails were used. Weight and height information of all quails were collected weekly from the 1st to the 42nd day of age. Body weight of poultry was subjected to the polynomial, logistic, Gompertz, Weibull, and log-normal regression models. The criteria used to choose the best model to explain the growth curve of quails were the coefficient of determination of the model, Akaikes information criterion, sum of squared residuals and Willmotts index. For all the models used, the variables age and height were significant to explain the weight of quails. The polynomial (R² = 99.99%, AIC = 24.68, SSR = 27.5, d = 0.9999) and log-normal (R² = 99.60%, AIC = -17.5, SSR = 107.15, d = 0.9989) models presented the best fit criteria and were recommended to explain the growth of quails.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Animais , Masculino , Coturnix/anatomia & histologia , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Análise de Regressão*Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 41: 42563-42563, 2019. graf, tab*

##### Resumo

This study adjusted different regression models to describe the growth pattern of meat quails from birth to 42 days of age. Data of 300 male quails were used. Weight and height information of all quails were collected weekly from the 1st to the 42nd day of age. Body weight of poultry was subjected to the polynomial, logistic, Gompertz, Weibull, and log-normal regression models. The criteria used to choose the best model to explain the growth curve of quails were the coefficient of determination of the model, Akaikes information criterion, sum of squared residuals and Willmotts index. For all the models used, the variables age and height were significant to explain the weight of quails. The polynomial (R² = 99.99%, AIC = 24.68, SSR = 27.5, d = 0.9999) and log-normal (R² = 99.60%, AIC = -17.5, SSR = 107.15, d = 0.9989) models presented the best fit criteria and were recommended to explain the growth of quails.

##### Assuntos

Masculino , Animais , Análise de Regressão , Coturnix/anatomia & histologia , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal*J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 25: e.20190030, Dec. 5, 2019. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Background:Crude venom of the banded tiger waspVespa affinis contains a variety of enzymes including hyaluronidases, commonly known as spreading factors.Methods:The cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and structural modelling of V. affinis venom hyaluronidase (VesA2) were herein described. Moreover, heterologous expression and mutagenesis of rVesA2 were performed.Results:V. affinis venom hyaluronidase full sequence is composed of 331 amino acids, with four predicted N-glycosylation sites. It was classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 56. The homology modelling exhibited a central core (α/β)7 composed of Asp107 and Glu109, acting as the catalytic residues. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli with hyaluronidase activity. A recombinant mutant type with the double point mutation, Asp107Asn and Glu109Gln, completely lost this activity. The hyaluronidase from crude venom exhibited activity from pH 2 to 7. The recombinant wild type showed its maximal activity at pH 2 but decreased rapidly to nearly zero at pH 3 and was completely lost at pH 4.Conclusion:The recombinant wild-type protein showed its maximal activity at pH 2, more acidic pH than that found in the crude venom. The glycosylation was predicted to be responsible for the pH optimum and thermal stability of the enzymes activity.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Animais , Venenos de Vespas/química , Elementos Estruturais de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes , Hialuronoglucosaminidase*J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e.20190030, 2019. ilus, tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Background:Crude venom of the banded tiger waspVespa affinis contains a variety of enzymes including hyaluronidases, commonly known as spreading factors.Methods:The cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and structural modelling of V. affinis venom hyaluronidase (VesA2) were herein described. Moreover, heterologous expression and mutagenesis of rVesA2 were performed.Results:V. affinis venom hyaluronidase full sequence is composed of 331 amino acids, with four predicted N-glycosylation sites. It was classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 56. The homology modelling exhibited a central core (α/β)7 composed of Asp107 and Glu109, acting as the catalytic residues. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli with hyaluronidase activity. A recombinant mutant type with the double point mutation, Asp107Asn and Glu109Gln, completely lost this activity. The hyaluronidase from crude venom exhibited activity from pH 2 to 7. The recombinant wild type showed its maximal activity at pH 2 but decreased rapidly to nearly zero at pH 3 and was completely lost at pH 4.Conclusion:The recombinant wild-type protein showed its maximal activity at pH 2, more acidic pH than that found in the crude venom. The glycosylation was predicted to be responsible for the pH optimum and thermal stability of the enzymes activity.

##### Assuntos

Animais , Elementos Estruturais de Proteínas , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Proteínas Recombinantes , Venenos de Vespas/química*Ci. Rural ; 49(2): e20180050, Feb. 28, 2019.*

##### Resumo

Continental aquatic ecosystems play a fundamental role in economic and social development; however, they are vulnerable to environmental degradation due to the various stresses to which they are submitted. Aquaculture is among the main anthropic activities that influence these environments. Mathematical modelling of aquatic ecosystems performed using a set of computational tools allows simplified representation of environment regarding its biotic and abiotic components. Some of the most used techniques are: hydrodynamic modelling, focusing on the dispersion of nutrients; nutrient-mass balance modelling, especially phosphorus; bioenergetic modelling in animal production systems, with an estimate of the generation of residues in the environment by farmed animals; and trophic and ecological modelling, focusing on aquatic communities and their interactions. These techniques help understand changes caused by aquaculture systems in aquatic environments. In this way, it is possible to estimate the magnitude and extent of the impacts of these activities by simulating the possible environmental changes over time. It can be concluded that techniques involving mathematical modelling can provide relevant information for future impacts prediction on aquatic environments, promoting the management of water resources and their multiple uses.(AU)

Ecossistemas aquáticos continentais desempenham papel fundamental no desenvolvimento econômico e social, entretanto, são vulneráveis à degradação ambiental devido às diversas pressões a que estão submetidos. Entre as principais atividades antrópicas a interferir nestes ambientes, podemos destacar a aquicultura. A modelagem matemática de ecossistemas aquáticos permite a representação simplificada do ambiente, em seus componentes bióticos e abióticos, através de um conjunto de ferramentas computacionais. Neste contexto, entre as técnicas mais utilizadas estão a modelagem hidrodinâmica, com foco na dispersão de nutrientes; a modelagem do balanço de massa de nutrientes, em especial o fósforo; a modelagem bioenergética em sistemas de produção animal, com estimativa da geração de resíduos pelos animais de cultivo para o ambiente; e a modelagem trófica e ecológica, com foco nas comunidades aquáticas e suas interações. Estas técnicas auxiliam no entendimento das alterações provocadas por sistemas de aquicultura em ambientes aquáticos. Deste modo, é possível estimar a magnitude e extensão dos impactos destas atividades, simulando as possíveis alterações ambientais ao longo do tempo. Pode-se concluir que as técnicas envolvendo modelagem matemática podem produzir informações relevantes para a predição de impactos futuros sobre ambientes aquáticos, dando subsídios para a gestão de recursos hídricos e seus múltiplos usos.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Níveis Tróficos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente/análise*Sci. agric ; 75(4)2018.*

##### Resumo

ABSTRACT Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.

*Sci. agric. ; 75(4)2018.*

##### Resumo

ABSTRACT Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.

*Sci. agric. ; 75(4): 296-303, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Animais , Temperatura Alta , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Ração Animal , Suínos*Acta amaz. ; 48(2): 85-92, Apr-June 2018. tab, ilus, graf*

##### Resumo

The Amazon forest comprises many different forest types, amongst them are campinas and campinaranas, which occur on Amazonian sandy soils, representing 2.65% of Amazonian territory. An understanding of the ecology and quantification of the environmental goods and services of campinaranas is key to their conservation. Based on a direct method to estimate biomass and carbon content of campinarana, we harvested and weighted 89 trees and other forest components in ten randomly allocated plots of 100 m2 (10 x 10 m) and 11 additional trees outside the plots. The data allowed us to describe how biomass is distributed amongst campinarana vegetation and amongst tree compartments. We developed allometric equations to estimate the total, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stock of this forest type. We used a Weibull function to test if the diameter distribution of the individual trees sampled was consistent with the diameter distribution of the forest type. We also tested if terra-firme forest biomass equations could be used to estimate campinarana biomass, and whether a correction factor based on dominant height would reduce the error from these estimates. Allometric equations are considered to be the most reliable and rapid method for calculating forest biomass, and are used in forest management and climate change studies. These are the first total biomass equations developed for central Amazonian campinaranas. The best fitted allometric equation for total fresh biomass was: ln (Total Biomass) = -1.373 + 2.546 * ln DBH (R ² = 0.98, Sxy% = 4.19%).(AU)

Entre as diversas fitofisionomias da Floresta Amazônica estão as campinas e campinaranas, que ocorrem sobre solos arenosos, ocupando 2,65% de seu território. Baseando-se no método direto, com a finalidade de estimar carbono e biomassa de uma campinarana na Amazônia Central, derrubamos, medimos e pesamos 89 árvores e outros componentes florestais em dez parcelas de 100 m² (10 x 10m) alocadas aleatoriamente, e mais 11 árvores fora das parcelas. A partir dos dados coletados, desenvolvemos equações alométricas para estimar a biomassa total, aérea e de raízes e o estoque de carbono para esse tipo florestal. A função Weibull foi utilizada para comprovar que a distribuição diamétrica das árvores coletadas é análoga a esse tipo florestal. Verificamos, ainda, qual o erro gerado ao se estimar a biomassa da campinarana utilizando equações desenvolvidas para florestas densas de terra-firme, e se o uso de um fator de correção baseado na altura dominante reduziria esse erro. O uso de equações alométricas é considerado o método mais preciso e rápido na obtenção da biomassa florestal, e é utilizado em questões ligadas, entre outras, às áreas de manejo florestal e de clima. Essas são as primeiras equações de biomassa total desenvolvidas para campinaranas nesta região da Amazônia. A melhor equação ajustada para estimar a biomassa total foi: ln(PFtotal) = -1,373 + 2,546 * ln(DAP) (R²=0,98; Sxy%= 4,19).(AU)

##### Assuntos

Ecossistema Amazônico , Carbono , Biomassa , Florestas , Mudança Climática*Semina Ci. agr. ; 38(2): 997-1008, mar-abr. 2017. tab*

##### Resumo

The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF) phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn"s position relative to the sun (P = 0.048), initial body weight (P 0.0001) and final body weight (P 0.0001). It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barns position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001), the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03), the presence of composters (P = 0.006), trees on the sides of barns (P 0.045), the initial body weight of the pigs (P 0.0001) and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P 0.0001). The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.(AU)

Objetivou-se neste estudo identificar e quantificar, através de modelos matemáticos, os fatores de produção presentes em unidades de crescimento e terminação (CT) de suínos que influenciam os parâmetros consumo diário de ração (CDR) e conversão alimentar (CA). Foram avaliados o histórico produtivo de 65 granjas de CT entre os anos de 2010 e 2013, vinculadas a um sistema cooperativo localizado na região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, representando 463 lotes com média de 642,79 ± 363,29 animais por lote, totalizando aproximadamente 300.000 animais. Foram considerados 40 fatores de produção relacionados ao manejo, sanidade, instalações e equipamentos, nutrição, genética e ambiente. Observou-se que o CDR foi influenciado pela posição dos barracões em relação ao sol (P = 0,048), pelo peso de entrada (P 0,0001) e de saída (P 0,0001). Para a variável CA a posição dos barracões em relação ao sol (P = 0,0001), o uso de umidificadores/nebulizadores (P = 0,03), a presença de composteira (P = 0,006) e de árvores nas laterais dos barracões (P = 0,045), o peso de entrada (P 0,0001) e a duração da fase de CT (P 0,0001) influenciaram o parâmetro. As variáveis selecionadas nos modelos explicaram aproximadamente 44 e 20% da variância total do CDR e CA, respectivamente, sendo este recurso uma boa ferramenta para interpretar os fatores relacionados com os parâmetros avaliados.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Animais , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Ração Animal , Análise Multinível*J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 23: 34, 2017. tab, graf, ilus*

##### Resumo

Background: Vector-borne diseases are important public health issues and, consequently, in silico models that simulate them can be useful. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model simulates the population dynamics of an epidemic and can be easily adapted to vector-borne diseases, whereas the Hardy-Weinberg model simulates allele frequencies and can be used to study insecticide resistance evolution. The aim of the present study is to develop a coupled system that unifies both models, therefore enabling the analysis of the effects of vector population genetics on the population dynamics of an epidemic. Methods: Our model consists of an ordinary differential equation system. We considered the populations of susceptible, infected and recovered humans, as well as susceptible and infected vectors. Concerning these vectors, we considered a pair of alleles, with complete dominance interaction that determined the rate of mortality induced by insecticides. Thus, we were able to separate the vectors according to the genotype. We performed three numerical simulations of the model. In simulation one, both alleles conferred the same mortality rate values, therefore there was no resistant strain. In simulations two and three, the recessive and dominant alleles, respectively, conferred a lower mortality. Results: Our numerical results show that the genetic composition of the vector population affects the dynamics of human diseases. We found that the absolute number of vectors and the proportion of infected vectors are smaller when there is no resistant strain, whilst the ratio of infected people is larger in the presence of insecticide-resistant vectors. The dynamics observed for infected humans in all simulations has a very similar shape to real epidemiological data. Conclusion: The population genetics of vectors can affect epidemiological dynamics, and the presence of insecticide-resistant strains can increase the number of infected people. Based on the present results, the model is a basis for development of other models and for investigating population dynamics.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Simulação por Computador , Resistência a Inseticidas , Epidemias , Inseticidas*J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 23: e34, 2017. tab, graf, ilus*

##### Resumo

Vector-borne diseases are important public health issues and, consequently, in silico models that simulate them can be useful. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model simulates the population dynamics of an epidemic and can be easily adapted to vector-borne diseases, whereas the Hardy-Weinberg model simulates allele frequencies and can be used to study insecticide resistance evolution. The aim of the present study is to develop a coupled system that unifies both models, therefore enabling the analysis of the effects of vector population genetics on the population dynamics of an epidemic. Methods: Our model consists of an ordinary differential equation system. We considered the populations of susceptible, infected and recovered humans, as well as susceptible and infected vectors. Concerning these vectors, we considered a pair of alleles, with complete dominance interaction that determined the rate of mortality induced by insecticides. Thus, we were able to separate the vectors according to the genotype. We performed three numerical simulations of the model. In simulation one, both alleles conferred the same mortality rate values, therefore there was no resistant strain. In simulations two and three, the recessive and dominant alleles, respectively, conferred a lower mortality. Results: Our numerical results show that the genetic composition of the vector population affects the dynamics of human diseases. We found that the absolute number of vectors and the proportion of infected vectors are smaller when there is no resistant strain, whilst the ratio of infected people is larger in the presence of insecticide-resistant vectors. The dynamics observed for infected humans in all simulations has a very similar shape to real epidemiological data. Conclusion: The population genetics of vectors can affect epidemiological dynamics, and the presence of insecticide-resistant strains can increase the number of infected people. Based on the present results, the model is a basis for development of other models and for investigating population dynamics.(AU)

##### Assuntos

Simulação por Computador , Resistência a Inseticidas , Epidemias , Inseticidas*J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 232017.*

##### Resumo

Abstract Background: Vector-borne diseases are important public health issues and, consequently, in silico models that simulate them can be useful. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model simulates the population dynamics of an epidemic and can be easily adapted to vector-borne diseases, whereas the Hardy-Weinberg model simulates allele frequencies and can be used to study insecticide resistance evolution. The aim of the present study is to develop a coupled system that unifies both models, therefore enabling the analysis of the effects of vector population genetics on the population dynamics of an epidemic. Methods: Our model consists of an ordinary differential equation system. We considered the populations of susceptible, infected and recovered humans, as well as susceptible and infected vectors. Concerning these vectors, we considered a pair of alleles, with complete dominance interaction that determined the rate of mortality induced by insecticides. Thus, we were able to separate the vectors according to the genotype. We performed three numerical simulations of the model. In simulation one, both alleles conferred the same mortality rate values, therefore there was no resistant strain. In simulations two and three, the recessive and dominant alleles, respectively, conferred a lower mortality. Results: Our numerical results show that the genetic composition of the vector population affects the dynamics of human diseases. We found that the absolute number of vectors and the proportion of infected vectors are smaller when there is no resistant strain, whilst the ratio of infected people is larger in the presence of insecticide-resistant vectors. The dynamics observed for infected humans in all simulations has a very similar shape to real epidemiological data. Conclusion: The population genetics of vectors can affect epidemiological dynamics, and the presence of insecticide-resistant strains can increase the number of infected people. Based on the present results, the model is a basis for development of other models and for investigating population dynamics.

*Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 47(7): 01-09, jul. 2017. tab, graf*

##### Resumo

Optimizing nutrient efficiency is essential in order to increase sustainability of pig production systems, especially where the growing demand for food must be met at an affordable cost, without compromising environmental resources. To make this happen, it is necessary to develop efficient methods to accurately estimate the nutritional requirements of animals, as well as develop equipment and systems that allow for applying such expertise in the production system. Estimating the nutritional requirement of pigs through mathematical models, considering several factors that can impact the requirement, is a key factor to reduce the environmental load from pig production. Likewise, feed formulation and feeding programs, can help to achieve this. In this context, increasing the number of feeding phases in pig production, as well as precision feeding techniques, may be a tool to the esure adequacy of nutritional requirements, since its use can bring economic and environmental benefits.

Otimizar a eficiência nutricional é essencial para aumentar a sustentabilidade do sistema de produção de suínos, especialmente em um momento onde a crescente demanda por alimentos deve ser atendida a um custo acessível, mas sem comprometer os recursos ambientais. Para tornar isso possível, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes e acurados para estimar as exigências nutricionais dos animais, bem como o desenvolvimento de equipamentos e sistemas que permitam aplicar esses métodos no sistema produtivo. Estimar as exigências nutricionais de suínos através de modelos matemáticos, considerando os vários fatores que impactam as exigências, pode ser um fator chave para reduzir a carga ambiental da suinocultura. Da mesma forma, formulações de rações e programas de alimentação podem auxiliar a alcançar isso. Neste contexto, o aumento do número de fases de alimentação na produção de suínos, bem como as técnicas de alimentação de precisão, podem ser ferramentas para a adequação das exigências nutricionais, uma vez que proporcionam benefícios econômicos e ambientais.