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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 25(1): eRBCA-2022-1646, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416248

Resumo

The control of Salmonella in the poultry production chain combined with biosecurity measures is an important tool to maintain and guarantee the sanitary status of Brazilian flocks. The aim of this work was to compare official laboratory data on molecular typification of Salmonella isolates from poultry breeding flocks in different Brazilian states between 2016 and 2018 and identify the production category with the most positive flocks, in light of current legislation. Surveillance data of positive samples from the official Brazilian Salmonella Control Programme sent to Federal Agricultural Defence Laboratory of São Paulo (LFDA-SP) after molecular characterization were analysed. These data were subject to an exploratory study, undergoing a descriptive statistical analysis followed by the use of frequency and non-parametric hypothesis tests. Overall, 49 serovars were detected in poultry broiler-breeder and layer-breeder flocks. Salmonella ser. Heidelberg, Salmonella ser. Anatum, Salmonella ser. Newport, Salmonella ser. Schwarzengrund and Salmonella ser. Mbandaka were the five most common isolated serovars. The data shows that there is an opportunity to improve biosecurity measures in parent breeder flocks. A total of 16 serovars were identified in turkey-breeders. Salmonella ser. Anatum, Salmonella ser. Newport, Salmonella ser. Brandenburg, Salmonella ser. Litchfield, and Salmonella ser. Livingstone were the most common ones. The four official controlled serovars represented a small part of the isolated strains. These data demonstrate the importance of an official program in Brazil for Salmonella surveillance in breeder flocks combined with biosecurity measures.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos
2.
Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. (Online) ; 32(2): e014722, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1428806

Resumo

Protozoa of the Apicomplexa phylum are worldwide distributed with capacity to infect endothermic animals. The study of these protozoa in wild birds in Brazil is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of apicomplexan protozoa in wild birds in the Northeast of Brazil. From October to December 2019, brain tissue samples were collected from 71 captive birds from the Wild Animal Screening Center of the Pernambuco State (CETRAS-Tangara) and 25 free-living birds from the Caatinga biome in Rio Grande do Norte, totaling 96 animals (41 species). Brain fragments were subjected to molecular diagnosis by nested PCR for the 18s rDNA gene of Apicomplexa parasites, followed by DNA sequencing. This gene was detected in 25% (24/96) of the samples, and it was possible to perform DNA sequencing of 14 samples, confirming three genera: Isospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma from eight bird species (Amazona aestiva, Coereba flaveola, Egretta thula, Paroaria dominicana, Sporophila nigricollis, Cariama cristata, Columbina talpacoti, Crypturellus parvirostris). The occurrence these coccidia in wild birds provides important epidemiological information for the adoption of preventive measures for its conservation. Future studies are needed to better understand the consequence of Apicomplexa infection in birds in Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes.(AU)


Protozoários do filo Apicomplexa são distribuídos mundialmente e com capacidade de infectar animais endotérmicos. O estudo destes protozoários, em aves silvestres do Brasil, é escasso. Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência de protozoários Apicomplexa em aves silvestres na região Nordeste do Brasil. De outubro a dezembro de 2019, foram coletadas amostras de encéfalo de 71 aves de cativeiro do Centro de Triagem e Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres de Pernambuco (CETRAS-Tangara). E 25 aves de vida livre do bioma Caatinga no Rio Grande do Norte, totalizando 96 animais (41 espécies). Os fragmentos de encéfalo foram submetidos ao diagnóstico molecular por nested PCR, para o gene 18s rDNA de protozoários Apicomplexa, seguido por sequenciamento do DNA. Este gene foi detectado em 25% (24/96) das amostras analisadas; foi possível realizar o sequenciamento de 14 amostras, confirmando-se três gêneros: Isospora, Sarcocystis e Toxoplasma em oito espécies de aves (Amazona aestiva, Coereba flaveola, Egretta thula, Paroaria dominicana, Sporophila nigricollis, Cariama cristata, Columbina talpacoti, Crypturellus parvirostris). A ocorrência destes coccídios nas aves silvestres fornece informações epidemiológicas importantes para a adoção de medidas preventivas tendo em vista sua conservação. Estudos futuros são necessários para melhor compreensão da consequência da infecção por Apicomplexa, em aves silvestres dos biomas Caatinga e Floresta Atlântica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Apicomplexa/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 25(1): eRBCA-2022-1628, 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416205

Resumo

Salmonellosis is an important gastrointestinal infection in humans and cause of foodborne outbreaks in the world. In this context, molecular characterization is essential to understand how the strains circulate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic distribution of S. Heidelberg according to the source of isolation. The genetic relatedness of the S. Heidelberg isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most prevalent pulsotypes of cluster A were BRJF6X01.006 (27/95 = 28,42%) related between 1995 and 2011 in broilers, poultry meat and poultry farms, meat product and human, and BRJF6X01.001 (21/95 = 22,10%) related between 2011 and 2017 in wild animals, broilers, poultry meat, poultry farms, meat product, animal feed, and pork meat. The pulsotype BRJF6X01.001 shows a high distribution in the environmental and productive chain. The degree of similarity between pulsotypes BRJF6X01.006 and BRJF6X01.001 is 88%. To ensure the safety of human and animal health, holistic approaches, including surveillance of Salmonella throughout the environment and in the production chain, together with control measures, are critical. As transmission of Salmonella from food producing animals to wildlife and to the environment is considered potential public health problem, information on the survival and persistence of Salmonella in the environment and in potential reservoirs is of considerable importance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/genética , Aves/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brasil , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos
4.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 22(1): eRBCA-2019-1055, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-761949

Resumo

Using disinfectants in poultry houses is a common practice to ban the zoonotic pathogens like Salmonella. A major concern in using disinfectants is the emergence of bacteria strains that resist some disinfectants. This phenomenon is manifested in the resistance of some Salmonella serotypes against quaternary ammonium compounds. Such resistance is attributed to qacE1 gene which may be possessed by some Salmonella serotypes. This work aimed to evaluate the resistance of Salmonella serotypes (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis and S. Entiridis) against different disinfectants (benzalkonium chloride, iodine, gluteraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide). The effect of the disinfectants were evaluated by treatment of the bacteria with different concentrations (1:100, 200 and 400) at different temperatures and periods. Bacterial count was performed before and after the treatment. PCR for presence of qacE1 gene was also performed before and after the treatment. The biocidal effect of the disinfectants found to be dependent on concentration, temperature and treatment period in addition to the type of the disinfectant. Hydrogen peroxide proved to be the most active agent followed by gluteradehyde, iodine and benzalkonium chloride. A link between the resistance against benzalkonium chloride and the existence of qacE1 gene was proven in S. Typhimurium, whether treated or not treated with benzalkonium chloride.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Fatores R/genética , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/química
5.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 22(1): eRBCA, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490752

Resumo

Using disinfectants in poultry houses is a common practice to ban the zoonotic pathogens like Salmonella. A major concern in using disinfectants is the emergence of bacteria strains that resist some disinfectants. This phenomenon is manifested in the resistance of some Salmonella serotypes against quaternary ammonium compounds. Such resistance is attributed to qacE1 gene which may be possessed by some Salmonella serotypes. This work aimed to evaluate the resistance of Salmonella serotypes (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis and S. Entiridis) against different disinfectants (benzalkonium chloride, iodine, gluteraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide). The effect of the disinfectants were evaluated by treatment of the bacteria with different concentrations (1:100, 200 and 400) at different temperatures and periods. Bacterial count was performed before and after the treatment. PCR for presence of qacE1 gene was also performed before and after the treatment. The biocidal effect of the disinfectants found to be dependent on concentration, temperature and treatment period in addition to the type of the disinfectant. Hydrogen peroxide proved to be the most active agent followed by gluteradehyde, iodine and benzalkonium chloride. A link between the resistance against benzalkonium chloride and the existence of qacE1 gene was proven in S. Typhimurium, whether treated or not treated with benzalkonium chloride.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Fatores R/genética , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/química
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 121-128, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098444

Resumo

Necropsy protocols of the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" were reviewed, ranging the period from 2000 to 2018. Three hundred eighty one necropsies, 25 refrigerated and/or formaline fixed organs, and seven biopsies were received, representing 413 samples. Most of these materials were sent by the "Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre" of "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) and were from municipalities within the range area of LRD-UFPel influence. Of the 413 cases 55 (13.31%) corresponded to metabolic/nutritional diseases; 50 (12.10%) to trauma; 35 (8.47%) to bacterial diseases/toxi-infections; 30 (7.26%) to parasitic diseases; 28 (6.77%) to fungal diseases; four (0.97%) to viral diseases and 17 (4.11%) to other diseases. Cases where it was not possible to determine the etiology, were in severe autolysis or were inconclusive totaled 194 (46.97%). Metabolic/nutritional diseases and traumatic injuries were the main cause of death in wild birds', being Passeriformes the most affected order.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos diagnósticos de causas de morte e de lesões em aves silvestres na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul de 2000 a 2018. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais de aves silvestres encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas no período. Foram recebidos 381 cadáveres para necropsia, 25 órgãos refrigerados e/ou em formol e 7 biopsias, totalizando 413 materiais. A maioria desses materiais foi remetida pelo Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) e provenientes de municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. Dos 413 casos 55 (13,31%) corresponderam a doenças metabólicas/nutricionais; 50 (12,10%) a traumas; 35 (8,47%) a doenças bacterianas/toxi-infecções; 30 (7,26%) a doenças parasitárias; 28 (6,77%) doenças fúngicas; 4 (0,97%) doenças virais e 17(4,12%) outras doenças que não se encaixavam nas categorias. Ainda em nos casos em que não foi possível determinar a etiologia, apresentaram autólise acentuada ou foram inconclusivos somaram 194 (46,97%). As doenças metabólicas/nutricionais e lesões traumáticas foram as principais causas de morte de aves silvestres, sendo a ordem mais afetada a Passeriformes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Biópsia/veterinária , Zoonoses
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 220-225, Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135611

Resumo

Brazil is one of the countries with the most abundant avifauna in the world. The confinement of birds associated with close contact with other animals and humans favor the spread of agents of respiratory diseases. Among them, mycoplasmas can cause asymptomatic or apparent disease that manifests in birds by coughing, sneezing, rales, conjunctivitis, ocular and nasal discharge. Several described mycoplasmas cause disease in birds, especially Mycoplasma gallisepticum(MG) andMycoplasma synoviae(MS). The diagnosis ofMycoplasmaspp. can be done by clinical observation and laboratory analysis. Molecular diagnosis by PCR was boosted by its speed, sensitivity, and low cost of agent isolation techniques that take up to 21 days to complete. This study aimed to verify the occurrence ofMycoplasmaspp. in birds of the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (Rio Zoo), by isolation and PCR. Of the total 635 birds from the Rio Zoo, 81 were studied for detection ofMycoplasmaspp., when taken for routine health assessment exams. These birds belonged to the following orders: Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) and Cariamiformes (1), all individuals already identified by microchip or leg-ring. There was no isolation of mycoplasmas in any of the samples tested, whereas, in the PCR, 62.96% (51/81) were positive, with 1.96% (1/51) identified as MG and 19.61% (10/51) as MS, representing 1.23% (1/81) and 12.34% (10/81) of the total population studied. PCR was shown to be a more effective technique than isolation in the detection ofMycoplasmaspp. in birds. It was possible to detect mycoplasmas in birds from Riozoo with no clinical respiratory signs, with higher MS prevalence than MG. The positivities forMycoplasmaspp., MS, and MG were different among the orders studied, being the highest occurrence in birds of prey, followed by Galliformes and Piciformes. The presence of MG and MS in birds of Rio de Janeiro Zoo confirms the circulation of these agents and the need for further studies on the dissemination of mycoplasmas in zoos for the epidemiological analysis of these bacteria in these places.(AU)


O Brasil é um dos países com maior avifauna do mundo. O confinamento de aves associado ao contato próximo a outros animais e seres humanos favorece a disseminação de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças respiratórias. Dentre eles, os micoplasmas podem causar doença assintomática ou aparente que se manifesta em aves por espirros, estertores, conjuntivite, corrimentos oculares e nasais. São diversos os micoplasmas descritos causadores de doença em aves, com destaque para Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) e Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). O diagnóstico de Mycoplasma spp. pode ser feito pela observação clínica e análises laboratoriais. O diagnóstico molecular pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) ganhou impulso por sua rapidez, sensibilidade e baixo custo em relação às técnicas de isolamento do agente que levam até 21 dias para conclusão do gênero Mycoplasma. Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência da infecção por Mycoplasma spp. em aves no Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio Zoo), por isolamento e PCR. Do plantel de 635 aves do Rio Zoo, foram estudadas 81 para detecção de Mycoplasma spp., quando contidas para exames rotineiros de avaliação da condição de saúde. Essas aves eram pertencentes às ordens Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) e Cariamiformes (1), todas já identificadas por microchip ou por anilha. Não houve isolamento de micoplasmas em nenhuma das amostras testadas, enquanto na PCR, 62,96% (51/81) foram positivas, sendo 1,96% (1/51) identificadas como MG e 19,61% (10/51) como MS, representando 1,23% (1/81) e 12,34% (10/81) da população total estudada. A PCR demonstrou ser uma técnica mais efetiva que o isolamento na detecção de Mycoplasma spp. em aves. Foi possível detectar micoplasmas nas aves do Riozoo sem sinal clínico respiratório, tendo MS maior prevalência do que MG. As positividades para Mycoplasma spp., MG e MS foram diferentes entre as ordens de aves estudadas, sendo a maior ocorrência nas aves de rapina, seguida dos Galliformes e dos Piciformes. A presença de MG e MS nas aves do Rio de Janeiro Zoo confirma a circulação destes agentes e a necessidade de mais estudos sobre a disseminação de micoplasmas em zoológicos para análise epidemiológica dessas bactérias nesse local.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Aves Predatórias/microbiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Galliformes/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 220-225, Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26830

Resumo

Brazil is one of the countries with the most abundant avifauna in the world. The confinement of birds associated with close contact with other animals and humans favor the spread of agents of respiratory diseases. Among them, mycoplasmas can cause asymptomatic or apparent disease that manifests in birds by coughing, sneezing, rales, conjunctivitis, ocular and nasal discharge. Several described mycoplasmas cause disease in birds, especially Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae(MS). The diagnosis of Mycoplasma spp. can be done by clinical observation and laboratory analysis. Molecular diagnosis by PCR was boosted by its speed, sensitivity, and low cost of agent isolation techniques that take up to 21 days to complete. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in birds of the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (Rio Zoo), by isolation and PCR. Of the total 635 birds from the Rio Zoo, 81 were studied for detection of Mycoplasma spp., when taken for routine health assessment exams. These birds belonged to the following orders: Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) and Cariamiformes (1), all individuals already identified by microchip or leg-ring. There was no isolation of mycoplasmas in any of the samples tested, whereas, in the PCR, 62.96% (51/81) were positive, with 1.96% (1/51) identified as MG and 19.61% (10/51) as MS, representing 1.23% (1/81) and 12.34% (10/81) of the total population studied. PCR was shown to be a more effective technique than isolation in the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in birds. It was possible to detect mycoplasmas in birds from Riozoo with no clinical respiratory signs, with higher MS prevalence than MG. The positivities for Mycoplasma spp., MS, and MG were different among the orders studied, being the highest occurrence in birds of prey, followed by Galliformes and Piciformes...(AU)


O Brasil é um dos países com maior avifauna do mundo. O confinamento de aves associado ao contato próximo a outros animais e seres humanos favorece a disseminação de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças respiratórias. Dentre eles, os micoplasmas podem causar doença assintomática ou aparente que se manifesta em aves por espirros, estertores, conjuntivite, corrimentos oculares e nasais. São diversos os micoplasmas descritos causadores de doença em aves, com destaque para Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) e Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). O diagnóstico de Mycoplasma spp. pode ser feito pela observação clínica e análises laboratoriais. O diagnóstico molecular pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) ganhou impulso por sua rapidez, sensibilidade e baixo custo em relação às técnicas de isolamento do agente que levam até 21 dias para conclusão do gênero Mycoplasma. Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência da infecção por Mycoplasma spp. em aves no Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio Zoo), por isolamento e PCR. Do plantel de 635 aves do Rio Zoo, foram estudadas 81 para detecção de Mycoplasma spp., quando contidas para exames rotineiros de avaliação da condição de saúde. Essas aves eram pertencentes às ordens Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) e Cariamiformes (1), todas já identificadas por microchip ou por anilha. Não houve isolamento de micoplasmas em nenhuma das amostras testadas, enquanto na PCR, 62,96% (51/81) foram positivas, sendo 1,96% (1/51) identificadas como MG e 19,61% (10/51) como MS, representando 1,23% (1/81) e 12,34% (10/81) da população total estudada. A PCR demonstrou ser uma técnica mais efetiva que o isolamento na detecção de Mycoplasma spp. em aves. Foi possível detectar micoplasmas nas aves do Riozoo sem sinal clínico respiratório, tendo MS maior prevalência do que MG...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Aves Predatórias/microbiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Galliformes/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 121-128, fev. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30462

Resumo

Necropsy protocols of the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" were reviewed, ranging the period from 2000 to 2018. Three hundred eighty one necropsies, 25 refrigerated and/or formaline fixed organs, and seven biopsies were received, representing 413 samples. Most of these materials were sent by the "Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre" of "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) and were from municipalities within the range area of LRD-UFPel influence. Of the 413 cases 55 (13.31%) corresponded to metabolic/nutritional diseases; 50 (12.10%) to trauma; 35 (8.47%) to bacterial diseases/toxi-infections; 30 (7.26%) to parasitic diseases; 28 (6.77%) to fungal diseases; four (0.97%) to viral diseases and 17 (4.11%) to other diseases. Cases where it was not possible to determine the etiology, were in severe autolysis or were inconclusive totaled 194 (46.97%). Metabolic/nutritional diseases and traumatic injuries were the main cause of death in wild birds', being Passeriformes the most affected order.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos diagnósticos de causas de morte e de lesões em aves silvestres na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul de 2000 a 2018. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais de aves silvestres encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas no período. Foram recebidos 381 cadáveres para necropsia, 25 órgãos refrigerados e/ou em formol e 7 biopsias, totalizando 413 materiais. A maioria desses materiais foi remetida pelo Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) e provenientes de municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. Dos 413 casos 55 (13,31%) corresponderam a doenças metabólicas/nutricionais; 50 (12,10%) a traumas; 35 (8,47%) a doenças bacterianas/toxi-infecções; 30 (7,26%) a doenças parasitárias; 28 (6,77%) doenças fúngicas; 4 (0,97%) doenças virais e 17(4,12%) outras doenças que não se encaixavam nas categorias. Ainda em nos casos em que não foi possível determinar a etiologia, apresentaram autólise acentuada ou foram inconclusivos somaram 194 (46,97%). As doenças metabólicas/nutricionais e lesões traumáticas foram as principais causas de morte de aves silvestres, sendo a ordem mais afetada a Passeriformes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Biópsia/veterinária , Zoonoses
10.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 22(2): eRBCA-2020-1262, out. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-761957

Resumo

Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. It is considered the most frequently reported foodborne illness in the European Union (EU) and one of the most important in the United States (US) (EFSA & ECDC, 2018; CDC, 2019a; WHO, 2019). Poultry is known to be the major reservoir and an important source for pathogen transmission to humans (Kaakoush et al., 2015). Campylobacteriosis is most often associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked poultry or the cross-contamination of other foods by these items (CDC, 2019a). Although Brazil is a leading supplier of the worlds poultry meat (ABPA, 2018), Brazils official data does not report Campylobacter infections.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Anti-Infecciosos/classificação , DNA Girase , Aves/imunologia , Aves/microbiologia
11.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 22(2): eRBCA, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490778

Resumo

Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. It is considered the most frequently reported foodborne illness in the European Union (EU) and one of the most important in the United States (US) (EFSA & ECDC, 2018; CDC, 2019a; WHO, 2019). Poultry is known to be the major reservoir and an important source for pathogen transmission to humans (Kaakoush et al., 2015). Campylobacteriosis is most often associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked poultry or the cross-contamination of other foods by these items (CDC, 2019a). Although Brazil is a leading supplier of the world’s poultry meat (ABPA, 2018), Brazil’s official data does not report Campylobacter infections.


Assuntos
Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/classificação , Aves/imunologia , Aves/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , DNA Girase
12.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(1): eRBCA-2019-0827, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-18928

Resumo

Salmonella spp. remain among the most important agents of foodborne diseases worldwide. The importance of Salmonella spp. in public health is linked to their wide range of antimicrobial resistance and to their pathogenicity and virulence in both human and animal hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns for Salmonella serotypes isolated from poultry sources in Brazil and to detect virulence-associated genes and verify their association with specific serotypes. A total of 163 strains of Salmonella enterica isolated from poultry sources in Southern Brazil were selected, and each belonged to one of 11 different serotypes. They were tested against ten antibiotics and examined for the presence of 26 virulence-associated genes by PCR. S. Typhimurium, S. Bredeney, S. Schwarzengrund and S. Tennessee showed the highest overall resistance rates. Approximately 18% of Salmonella strains were classified as multidrug-resistant strains. Our results indicate associations between antimicrobial resistance and specific serotypes. Most of the investigated genes presented a high frequency and a regular distribution, regardless of the serotype. Eight genes are positively or negatively associated with at least one serotype. The observed associations between antimicrobial resistance and specific serotypes are useful in developing specific control and treatment measures for each serotype. Despite the virulence genes being evenly distributed among the serotypes, some of these genes are associated with specific serotypes, and sefA, sopEand lpfA were selected as possible markers of Salmonella serotypes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo
13.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(1): eRBCA, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490591

Resumo

Salmonella spp. remain among the most important agents of foodborne diseases worldwide. The importance of Salmonella spp. in public health is linked to their wide range of antimicrobial resistance and to their pathogenicity and virulence in both human and animal hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns for Salmonella serotypes isolated from poultry sources in Brazil and to detect virulence-associated genes and verify their association with specific serotypes. A total of 163 strains of Salmonella enterica isolated from poultry sources in Southern Brazil were selected, and each belonged to one of 11 different serotypes. They were tested against ten antibiotics and examined for the presence of 26 virulence-associated genes by PCR. S. Typhimurium, S. Bredeney, S. Schwarzengrund and S. Tennessee showed the highest overall resistance rates. Approximately 18% of Salmonella strains were classified as multidrug-resistant strains. Our results indicate associations between antimicrobial resistance and specific serotypes. Most of the investigated genes presented a high frequency and a regular distribution, regardless of the serotype. Eight genes are positively or negatively associated with at least one serotype. The observed associations between antimicrobial resistance and specific serotypes are useful in developing specific control and treatment measures for each serotype. Despite the virulence genes being evenly distributed among the serotypes, some of these genes are associated with specific serotypes, and sefA, sopEand lpfA were selected as possible markers of Salmonella serotypes.


Assuntos
Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Aves/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo
14.
Ci. Rural ; 49(4): e20180811, Apr. 8, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19311

Resumo

Wild animals are hosts and reservoirs to many infectious agents, often unknown to the Scientific Community, which leads to serious health implications for natural and domestic environments. We conducted this research with the objective of diagnosing the occurrence of parasites of medical and veterinary interest in “coleirinhos” captured in the eastern region of the state of Acre, Brazil. We captured the specimens in August and September of 2017 using ornithological nets at the margins of Caeté river. We visually inspected the birds to evaluate the ectoparasites. Subsequently, we collected blood through a brachial vein puncture and rested the individuals in a cloth bag for 30 minutes to collect feces, after which we released them. Results of the visual inspection to detect and identify the ectoparasites were negative. Blood samples revealed the protozoan Haemoproteus sp., and the feces revealed cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and E. coli, oocysts of coccidia and eggs of Davaineidae. Coccidia was the most prevalent (69.2%) and abundant (34.15%) parasite reported. Parasites diagnosed in this study can promote the emergence of secondary infections in S. caerulescens individuals or other animals that are contaminated with these etiological agents, since, when migrating through different biomes of South America, other animal species can come into contact with these agents.(AU)


Os animais silvestres são hospedeiros e reservatórios de vários agentes infecciosos, muitas vezes desconhecidos para a comunidade científica, o que leva a sérias implicações na saúde dos ambientes naturais e domésticos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo diagnosticar a ocorrência de parasitos de interesse médico e veterinário em “coleirinhos” capturados no leste do Estado do Acre, Brasil. Os espécimes foram capturados nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2017 em redes ornitológicas as margens do Rio Caeté. Para a pesquisa de ectoparasitos, as aves foram inspecionadas visualmente. Após a inspeção, o sangue foi coletado por meio de punção da veia braquial e para coletas das fezes os indivíduos foram postos em descanso em saco de pano por 30min e depois foram soltos na natureza. As fezes, quando presentes, foram coletadas e acondicionadas em recipientes de plástico estéreis. A inspeção visual dos espécimes para detectar e identificar ectoparasitos resultou negativo. Nas amostras sanguíneas foi identificado o protozoário Haemoproteus sp.. Nas fezes foram encontrados os seguintes endoparasitos: cisto de Entamoeba histolytica e E. coli, oocisto de coccídeos e ovos de Davaineidae. Coccideos foram os endoparasitos mais prevalentes (69,2%) e os mais abundantes (34,15%). Os parasitos diagnosticados neste estudo podem propiciar o aparecimento de infecções secundárias nos indivíduos de S. caerulescens ou em outros animais que venham se contaminar com esses agentes etiológicos, pois com a migração dos mesmos, por diferentes biomas da América do Sul outras espécies de animais podem se infectar com esses agentes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Apicomplexa/virologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Brasil , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia
15.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(3): eRBCA-2019-0981, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25702

Resumo

Avian cellulitis causes significant losses to the poultry industry. Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the etiological agent of that disease. This microorganism has zoonotic potential and may act as reservoir of antimicrobial-resistance genes. In this context, the production of extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) is one of the main antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine the production of ESBL in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain isolated from avian cellulitis lesions. Twenty-two E. Coli isolates were harvested from cellulitis lesions in chicken carcasses in a commercial processing plant. Isolates were then submitted to virulence genotypic profile (iutA, hlyF, iss, ironN, ompT) analysis, antimicrobial susceptibility test, and detection of ESBL production. The results showed that 22.7% of the isolates presented five virulence genes, 9.1% four genes, 36.4% three genes, 13.6% two genes, and 18.2% one gene. The tested isolates showed resistance to ampicillin (90.9%), ceftiofur (54.5%), gentamicin (45.5%), tetracycline (72.1%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (54.5%), and enrofloxacin (54.5%). Furthermore, 77.3% of the isolates presented multidrug resistance (MDR) profile and 72.7% were positive for ESBL production. This study is the first description of ESBL-producing APEC isolated from avian cellulitis lesions, which suggests the need to establish efficient APEC control measures and programs to prevent flock productivity losses due to colibacillosis and public health risks.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Penicilinase/administração & dosagem , Penicilinase/análise , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Celulite , Fatores de Virulência
16.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(3): eRBCA, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490657

Resumo

Avian cellulitis causes significant losses to the poultry industry. Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the etiological agent of that disease. This microorganism has zoonotic potential and may act as reservoir of antimicrobial-resistance genes. In this context, the production of extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) is one of the main antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine the production of ESBL in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain isolated from avian cellulitis lesions. Twenty-two E. Coli isolates were harvested from cellulitis lesions in chicken carcasses in a commercial processing plant. Isolates were then submitted to virulence genotypic profile (iutA, hlyF, iss, ironN, ompT) analysis, antimicrobial susceptibility test, and detection of ESBL production. The results showed that 22.7% of the isolates presented five virulence genes, 9.1% four genes, 36.4% three genes, 13.6% two genes, and 18.2% one gene. The tested isolates showed resistance to ampicillin (90.9%), ceftiofur (54.5%), gentamicin (45.5%), tetracycline (72.1%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (54.5%), and enrofloxacin (54.5%). Furthermore, 77.3% of the isolates presented multidrug resistance (MDR) profile and 72.7% were positive for ESBL production. This study is the first description of ESBL-producing APEC isolated from avian cellulitis lesions, which suggests the need to establish efficient APEC control measures and programs to prevent flock productivity losses due to colibacillosis and public health risks.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Penicilinase/administração & dosagem , Penicilinase/análise , Celulite , Fatores de Virulência
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 225-231, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989388

Resumo

As aves silvestres podem ser reservatório de bactérias patogênicas e atuar como veiculadoras desses microrganismos para o ambiente, os animais domésticos e o homem. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica e Salmonella enterica em aves silvestres capturadas nas áreas próximas de aviários e em frangos de corte alojados nesses estabelecimentos, além de verificar a presença dos genes cdtA, cdtB e cdtC nos isolados de Campylobacter e identificar os sorotipos de Salmonella encontrados. Amostras de fezes de 189 aves silvestres capturadas com redes de neblina nas áreas próximas de 10 aviários e de 200 frangos de corte foram processadas para pesquisa de Campylobacter spp., S. enterica e Y. enterocolitica. Duas espécies de aves silvestres, Sicalis flaveola (canário-da-terra) e Zonotrichia capensis (tico-tico), foram positivas para Salmonella e Campylobacter, respectivamente. Foram isolados Campylobacter spp., S. enterica e Y. enterocolitica de frangos. Todos os isolados de Campylobacter analisados apresentaram os genes cdt. Em dois aviários, Campylobacter foi isolado tanto de frangos como de aves silvestres, entretanto a contaminação mútua entre essas aves não foi comprovada. Este foi o primeiro relato de isolamento de Campylobacter de Z. capensis e de Salmonella do sorotipo Derby de S. flaveola.(AU)


Wild birds can be reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria and act as carriers of these microorganisms to the environment, domestic animals, and humans. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica in wild birds captured in the surroundings of the aviaries and in the broilers housed in these establishments. The presence of the cdtA, cdtB and cdtC genes in Campylobacter isolates was also investigated and Salmonella serotypes were identified. Stool samples from 189 wild birds captured with mist nets in around 10 aviaries and from 200 broilers were processed for Campylobacter spp., S. enterica and Y. enterocolitica research. Two species of wild birds, Sicalis flaveola (Saffron Finch) and Zonotrichia capensis (Rufous-collared Sparrow) were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter, respectively. Campylobacter spp., S. enterica and Y. enterocolitica were isolated from broilers. The cdt genes were found in all Campylobacter isolates. In two aviaries, Campylobacter was isolated from both broilers and wild birds, however the mutual contamination among these birds has not been shown. This was the first report of Campylobacter isolation from Z. capensis and of Derby Salmonella serotype isolation from S. flaveola.(AU)


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 225-231, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-21384

Resumo

As aves silvestres podem ser reservatório de bactérias patogênicas e atuar como veiculadoras desses microrganismos para o ambiente, os animais domésticos e o homem. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica e Salmonella enterica em aves silvestres capturadas nas áreas próximas de aviários e em frangos de corte alojados nesses estabelecimentos, além de verificar a presença dos genes cdtA, cdtB e cdtC nos isolados de Campylobacter e identificar os sorotipos de Salmonella encontrados. Amostras de fezes de 189 aves silvestres capturadas com redes de neblina nas áreas próximas de 10 aviários e de 200 frangos de corte foram processadas para pesquisa de Campylobacter spp., S. enterica e Y. enterocolitica. Duas espécies de aves silvestres, Sicalis flaveola (canário-da-terra) e Zonotrichia capensis (tico-tico), foram positivas para Salmonella e Campylobacter, respectivamente. Foram isolados Campylobacter spp., S. enterica e Y. enterocolitica de frangos. Todos os isolados de Campylobacter analisados apresentaram os genes cdt. Em dois aviários, Campylobacter foi isolado tanto de frangos como de aves silvestres, entretanto a contaminação mútua entre essas aves não foi comprovada. Este foi o primeiro relato de isolamento de Campylobacter de Z. capensis e de Salmonella do sorotipo Derby de S. flaveola.(AU)


Wild birds can be reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria and act as carriers of these microorganisms to the environment, domestic animals, and humans. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica in wild birds captured in the surroundings of the aviaries and in the broilers housed in these establishments. The presence of the cdtA, cdtB and cdtC genes in Campylobacter isolates was also investigated and Salmonella serotypes were identified. Stool samples from 189 wild birds captured with mist nets in around 10 aviaries and from 200 broilers were processed for Campylobacter spp., S. enterica and Y. enterocolitica research. Two species of wild birds, Sicalis flaveola (Saffron Finch) and Zonotrichia capensis (Rufous-collared Sparrow) were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter, respectively. Campylobacter spp., S. enterica and Y. enterocolitica were isolated from broilers. The cdt genes were found in all Campylobacter isolates. In two aviaries, Campylobacter was isolated from both broilers and wild birds, however the mutual contamination among these birds has not been shown. This was the first report of Campylobacter isolation from Z. capensis and of Derby Salmonella serotype isolation from S. flaveola.(AU)


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade
19.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 49(3): 559-563, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-734812

Resumo

The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/diagnóstico , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Ilhas Atlânticas/epidemiologia , Brasil , Saúde Pública
20.
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 19: 51676, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1473634

Resumo

Wild birds are important for public health because of their potential to transmit pathogenic microorganisms to humans. The waterbird scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) forages and breeds near urban areas and if they settle near polluted waters, the viability of adults and their young can be negatively affected. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cloacal aerobic bacteria profile of nestling scarlet ibis in a mixed colony in Jarivatuba Island, in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Cloacal swab samples were collected from clinically normal scarlet ibis nestlings during the breeding season of 2015/2016 (n=16) and 2016/2017 (n=34), and plated onto blood, MacConkey, and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus spp., Klebsiella sp., Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were isolated and may be representative of the normal microbiota of E. ruber, although the normal profile is unknown for the species. However, the location of this colony in an area without adequate sewage treatment, which receives domestic effluents, may indicate a modified bacterial profile. Further studies are needed, to better understand the host's natural microbiome, as well as on the bacterial isolates, in order to characterize any association with the contaminated water. These results lay the foundation for successful species conservation projects in the area by providing insights that will help improve the viability of nestlings in each reproductive season.


Aves silvestres são importantes para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial de transmissão de microrganismos patogênicos aos seres humanos. As aves aquáticas, como o guará (Eudocimus ruber), forrageiam e se reproduzem próximo de áreas antropizadas e estas, quando contaminadas, podem transmitir bactérias patogênicas às aves. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o perfil de bactérias aeróbicas cloacais em filhotes de guará na colônia mista da Ilha Jarivatuba, em Joinville, Santa Catarina. Foram coletados swabs cloacais de filhotes de guará na estação reprodutiva de 2015/2016 (n=16) e 2016/2017 (n=34), todos de aves de aspecto clínico normal, e plaqueados em ágar sangue, MacConkey e Salmonella-Shigella em aerobiose. Foram isolados os seguintes microrganismos: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus spp., Klebsiella sp. Enterococcus spp. e Staphylococcus spp. A ocorrência de E. coli, Enterococcus spp. e P. vulgaris podem ser representantes da microbiota natural da espécie, uma informação desconhecida. Entretanto, a localização da colônia de aves aquáticas, na foz do rio Cachoeira, com o aporte de efluentes domésticos e industriais da cidade de Joinville sem tratamento adequado, pode indicar modificação dos perfis bacterianos. Torna-se evidente a necessidade de avançar com a sua tipificação fenotípica e genotípica dos isolados, para análises comparativas com estirpes presentes nos efluentes sanitários da região. Os resultados poderão contribuir para a conservação da espécie e outras aves aquáticas da área, permitindo a elaboração de projetos de conservação, gestão do ambiente costeiro e marinho, além de subsidiar medidas preventivas efetivas no combate as perdas de filhotes e potenciais epidemias zoonóticas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella , Proteus vulgaris , Staphylococcus
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