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1.
Acta amaz ; 51(4): 298-310, 2021. map, graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1455410

Resumo

Hydroelectric dams represent an important threat to seasonally flooded environments in the Amazon basin. We aimed to evaluate how a dam in the Madeira River, one of the largest tributaries of the Amazonas River, affected floodplain avifauna. Bird occurrence was recorded through simultaneous passive acoustic monitoring in early successional vegetation and floodplain forest downstream from the dam and upstream in sites impacted by permanent flooding after dam reservoir filling. Species were identified through manual inspection and semi-automated classification of the recordings. To assess the similarity in vegetation between downstream and upstream sites, we used Landsat TM/ETM+ composite images from before (2009-2011) and after (2016-2018) reservoir filling. Downstream and upstream floodplain forest sites were similar before, but not after dam construction. Early successional vegetation sites were already different before dam construction. We recorded 195 bird species. While species richness did not differ between upstream and downstream sites, species composition differed significantly. Ten species were indicators of early successional vegetation upstream, and four downstream. Ten species were indicators of floodplain forest upstream, and 31 downstream. Seven of 24 floodplain specialist species were detected by the semi-automated classification only upstream. While we found some bird species characteristic of early successional vegetation in the upstream sites, we did not find most species characteristic of tall floodplain forest. Predominantly carnivorous, insectivorous, and nectarivorous species appear to have been replaced by generalist and widely distributed species.


Barragens hidroelétricas representam uma importante ameaça a ambientes sazonalmente alagados na Amazônia. Avaliamos como uma barragem no Rio Madeira, um dos maiores tributários do Rio Amazonas, afetou a comunidade de aves de várzea. A ocorrência de aves foi registrada através de monitoramento acústico passivo simultâneo em vegetação em estágio sucessional inicial e floresta de várzea a jusante e em áreas a montante alagadas permanentemente após a formação do reservatório. Espécies foram identificadas por inspeção manual e classificação semi-automática das gravações. Para acessar a similaridade entre a vegetação a jusante e montante, utilizamos composições de imagens Landsat TM/ETM+ de antes (2009-2011) e após (2016-2018) a formação do reservatório. Sítios de floresta de várzea foram similares antes, mas não após o reservatório. Sítios de vegetação sucessional inicial já diferiam antes do reservatório. Registramos 195 espécies de aves. A riqueza de espécies não diferiu entre os sítios a jusante e montante, mas a composição de espécies diferiu significativamente. Dez espécies foram indicadoras de vegetação sucessional inicial a montante e quatro a jusante. Dez espécies foram indicadoras de floresta de várzea a montante e 31 a jusante. Sete de 24 espécies especialistas de várzea foram detectadas apenas a montante pelas classificações semi-automáticas. Encontramos algumas espécies típicas de vegetação sucessional inicial a montante, porém não encontramos a maioria de espécies típicas the floresta alta de várzea. Predominantemente, aves carnívoras, insetívoras e nectarívoras aparentam ter sido substituídas por espécies generalistas e amplamente distribuídas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Barragens/análise , Corrente Jusante , Fauna
2.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e54931, 2021. map, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460999

Resumo

Some organisms, such as aquatic insects, are transported from the upstream to downstream region of streams through a process called drift. This process occurs in passive and active ways and can be variable throughout the day, mainly between the nocturnal and diurnal periods. Here, we evaluate the periodicity of the drift of aquatic insects in two streams of the Middle Iguaçu basin, southern region of Brazil. We predicted that the drift of aquatic insects brings the highest richness, diversity and abundance during the nocturnal period, compared to the diurnal period. In addition, we expected that the composition of species is different between these periods. In each stream, aquatic insect sampling was carried out 10 times, for 24 hours, using drift nets. A total of 2,114 aquatic insect specimens were recorded, distributed in 26 families. Of these families, 20 were recorded during the diurnal period and 24 during the nocturnal period. Our results showed an increase in the diversity and abundance of aquatic insect drift in the nocturnal period. However, only abundance was significantly different between the periods. We attribute the higher abundance in nocturnal drift possibly to biological interactions. Thus, nocturnal drift can be a strategy of some aquatic insects to avoid visual predation by other invertebrates and/or vertebrates, in Neotropical streams. We highlight the importance of our study, because it can be used for comparison in surveys of lotic environments that have been impacted by human activity (e.g. by dam construction), which can alter the water flow, and consequently the pattern of insect drift.


Assuntos
Animais , Cinturão Ecológico , Corrente Jusante , Entomologia , Estações do Ano , Insetos
3.
Acta Sci. Biol. Sci. ; 43: e54931, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764608

Resumo

Some organisms, such as aquatic insects, are transported from the upstream to downstream region of streams through a process called drift. This process occurs in passive and active ways and can be variable throughout the day, mainly between the nocturnal and diurnal periods. Here, we evaluate the periodicity of the drift of aquatic insects in two streams of the Middle Iguaçu basin, southern region of Brazil. We predicted that the drift of aquatic insects brings the highest richness, diversity and abundance during the nocturnal period, compared to the diurnal period. In addition, we expected that the composition of species is different between these periods. In each stream, aquatic insect sampling was carried out 10 times, for 24 hours, using drift nets. A total of 2,114 aquatic insect specimens were recorded, distributed in 26 families. Of these families, 20 were recorded during the diurnal period and 24 during the nocturnal period. Our results showed an increase in the diversity and abundance of aquatic insect drift in the nocturnal period. However, only abundance was significantly different between the periods. We attribute the higher abundance in nocturnal drift possibly to biological interactions. Thus, nocturnal drift can be a strategy of some aquatic insects to avoid visual predation by other invertebrates and/or vertebrates, in Neotropical streams. We highlight the importance of our study, because it can be used for comparison in surveys of lotic environments that have been impacted by human activity (e.g. by dam construction), which can alter the water flow, and consequently the pattern of insect drift.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Insetos , Estações do Ano , Corrente Jusante , Cinturão Ecológico , Entomologia
4.
Acta amaz. ; 51(4): 298-310, 2021. mapas, graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-33246

Resumo

Hydroelectric dams represent an important threat to seasonally flooded environments in the Amazon basin. We aimed to evaluate how a dam in the Madeira River, one of the largest tributaries of the Amazonas River, affected floodplain avifauna. Bird occurrence was recorded through simultaneous passive acoustic monitoring in early successional vegetation and floodplain forest downstream from the dam and upstream in sites impacted by permanent flooding after dam reservoir filling. Species were identified through manual inspection and semi-automated classification of the recordings. To assess the similarity in vegetation between downstream and upstream sites, we used Landsat TM/ETM+ composite images from before (2009-2011) and after (2016-2018) reservoir filling. Downstream and upstream floodplain forest sites were similar before, but not after dam construction. Early successional vegetation sites were already different before dam construction. We recorded 195 bird species. While species richness did not differ between upstream and downstream sites, species composition differed significantly. Ten species were indicators of early successional vegetation upstream, and four downstream. Ten species were indicators of floodplain forest upstream, and 31 downstream. Seven of 24 floodplain specialist species were detected by the semi-automated classification only upstream. While we found some bird species characteristic of early successional vegetation in the upstream sites, we did not find most species characteristic of tall floodplain forest. Predominantly carnivorous, insectivorous, and nectarivorous species appear to have been replaced by generalist and widely distributed species.(AU)


Barragens hidroelétricas representam uma importante ameaça a ambientes sazonalmente alagados na Amazônia. Avaliamos como uma barragem no Rio Madeira, um dos maiores tributários do Rio Amazonas, afetou a comunidade de aves de várzea. A ocorrência de aves foi registrada através de monitoramento acústico passivo simultâneo em vegetação em estágio sucessional inicial e floresta de várzea a jusante e em áreas a montante alagadas permanentemente após a formação do reservatório. Espécies foram identificadas por inspeção manual e classificação semi-automática das gravações. Para acessar a similaridade entre a vegetação a jusante e montante, utilizamos composições de imagens Landsat TM/ETM+ de antes (2009-2011) e após (2016-2018) a formação do reservatório. Sítios de floresta de várzea foram similares antes, mas não após o reservatório. Sítios de vegetação sucessional inicial já diferiam antes do reservatório. Registramos 195 espécies de aves. A riqueza de espécies não diferiu entre os sítios a jusante e montante, mas a composição de espécies diferiu significativamente. Dez espécies foram indicadoras de vegetação sucessional inicial a montante e quatro a jusante. Dez espécies foram indicadoras de floresta de várzea a montante e 31 a jusante. Sete de 24 espécies especialistas de várzea foram detectadas apenas a montante pelas classificações semi-automáticas. Encontramos algumas espécies típicas de vegetação sucessional inicial a montante, porém não encontramos a maioria de espécies típicas the floresta alta de várzea. Predominantemente, aves carnívoras, insetívoras e nectarívoras aparentam ter sido substituídas por espécies generalistas e amplamente distribuídas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Barragens/análise , Corrente Jusante , Fauna , Aves
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200025, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135152

Resumo

Antivenoms are the only validated treatment against snakebite envenoming. Numerous drawbacks pertaining to their availability, safety and efficacy are becoming increasingly evident due to low sustainability of current productions. Technological innovation of procedures generating therapeutics of higher purity and better physicochemical characteristics at acceptable cost is necessary. The objective was to develop at laboratory scale a compact, feasible and economically viable platform for preparation of equine F(ab')2 antivenom against Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom and to support it with efficiency data, to enable estimation of the process cost-effectiveness. Methods: The principle of simultaneous caprylic acid precipitation and pepsin digestion has been implemented into plasma downstream processing. Balance between incomplete IgG breakdown, F(ab')2 over-digestion and loss of the active drug's protective efficacy was achieved by adjusting pepsin to a 1:30 substrate ratio (w/w) and setting pH at 3.2. Precipitation and digestion co-performance required 2 h-long incubation at 21 °C. Final polishing was accomplished by a combination of diafiltration and flow-through chromatography. In vivo neutralization potency of the F(ab')2 product against the venom's lethal toxicity was determined. Results: Only three consecutive steps, performed under finely tuned conditions, were sufficient for preservation of the highest process recovery with the overall yield of 74%, comparing favorably to others. At the same time, regulatory requirements were met. Final product was aggregate- and pepsin-free. Its composition profile was analyzed by mass spectrometry as a quality control check. Impurities, present in minor traces, were identified mostly as IgG/IgM fragments, contributing to active drug. Specific activity of the F(ab')2 preparation with respect to the plasma was increased 3.9-fold. Conclusion: A highly streamlined mode for production of equine F(ab')2 antivenom was engineered. In addition to preservation of the highest process yield and fulfillment of the regulatory demands, performance simplicity and rapidity in the laboratory setting were demonstrated. Suitability for large-scale manufacturing appears promising.(AU)


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Antivenenos , Cromatografia , Corrente Jusante , Plasma , Imunoterapia
6.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 26: e20200025, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32211

Resumo

Antivenoms are the only validated treatment against snakebite envenoming. Numerous drawbacks pertaining to their availability, safety and efficacy are becoming increasingly evident due to low sustainability of current productions. Technological innovation of procedures generating therapeutics of higher purity and better physicochemical characteristics at acceptable cost is necessary. The objective was to develop at laboratory scale a compact, feasible and economically viable platform for preparation of equine F(ab')2 antivenom against Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom and to support it with efficiency data, to enable estimation of the process cost-effectiveness. Methods: The principle of simultaneous caprylic acid precipitation and pepsin digestion has been implemented into plasma downstream processing. Balance between incomplete IgG breakdown, F(ab')2 over-digestion and loss of the active drug's protective efficacy was achieved by adjusting pepsin to a 1:30 substrate ratio (w/w) and setting pH at 3.2. Precipitation and digestion co-performance required 2 h-long incubation at 21 °C. Final polishing was accomplished by a combination of diafiltration and flow-through chromatography. In vivo neutralization potency of the F(ab')2 product against the venom's lethal toxicity was determined. Results: Only three consecutive steps, performed under finely tuned conditions, were sufficient for preservation of the highest process recovery with the overall yield of 74%, comparing favorably to others. At the same time, regulatory requirements were met. Final product was aggregate- and pepsin-free. Its composition profile was analyzed by mass spectrometry as a quality control check. Impurities, present in minor traces, were identified mostly as IgG/IgM fragments, contributing to active drug. Specific activity of the F(ab')2 preparation with respect to the plasma was increased 3.9-fold. Conclusion: A highly streamlined mode for production of equine F(ab')2 antivenom was engineered. In addition to preservation of the highest process yield and fulfillment of the regulatory demands, performance simplicity and rapidity in the laboratory setting were demonstrated. Suitability for large-scale manufacturing appears promising.(AU)


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Corrente Jusante , Imunoterapia , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
Braz. J. Microbiol. ; 47(supl.1): 51-63, Dez. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24792

Resumo

The use of biopharmaceuticals dates from the 19th century and within 5-10 years, up to 50% of all drugs in development will be biopharmaceuticals. In the 1980s, the biopharmaceutical industry experienced a significant growth in the production and approval of recombinant proteins such as interferons (IFN , , and ) and growth hormones. The production of biopharmaceuticals, known as bioprocess, involves a wide range of techniques. In this review, we discuss the technology involved in the bioprocess and describe the available strategies and main advances in microbial fermentation and purification process to obtain biopharmaceuticals.(AU)


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Biofarmácia , Biotecnologia , Fermentação , Corrente Jusante
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 279-291, Apr.-June 2016. ilus, graf, tab, map
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25501

Resumo

Abstract This study evaluated changes in the community of rotifers and microcrustaceans associated with the construction of a large and dendritic reservoir in Iguaçu River (Brazil), as the last reservoir of a sequence of five cascading systems. Differences were clear between pre-filling and post-filling phases for organisms and some of environmental variables. In the pre-filling phase, the community was more homogeneous along the downstream river gradient, and spatial compartmentalization in the new reservoir was common during the post-filling phase. From 140 identified taxa, 10 species occurred exclusively in the pre-filling phase and 32 in the post-filling phase. After completion of the fifth reservoir filling-up, opportunistic, pioneer and fast-developing species quickly dominated, and downstream of the fourth reservoir the pre-filling decreasing gradient of richness, diversity and evenness disappeared. Richness of rotifers and cladocerans, cladocerans diversity, and evenness of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods were generally higher in the post-filling phase. A non-metric multidimensional analysis based on a presence/absence matrix depicted a homogeneous and dense group of species associated to the pre-filling phase and a second, dispersed group related to the post-filling phase. Spearman correlations pointed out significant positive effects of transparency on rotifer species richness in the post-filling phase, and negative effects on the microcrustacean richness in the pre-filling phase. Dam construction caused disruption of the downstream lotic gradient along the series of dams, leading to the development of distinct species in lentic spatial compartments.(AU)


Resumo Esse estudo analisou os efeitos da construção de um reservatório largo e dendrítico no Brasil sobre a comunidade de rotíferos e microcrustáceos, sendo o último reservatório de uma cascata de cinco. Houve claras diferenças entre as fases pré e pós-enchimento para os organismos e para algumas variáveis ambientais. Na fase pré-enchimento, a comunidade foi mais homogênea no gradiente longitudinal no rio a jusante, e na fase pós-enchimento houve compartimentalização espacial no novo reservatório. Dos 140 táxons identificados, dez espécies ocorreram exclusivamente na fase pré-enchimento e 32 na fase pós-enchimento. Após o enchimento, espécies oportunistas, pioneiras e de rápido desenvolvimento foram dominantes, e desapareceu o gradiente de decréscimo a jusante do quarto reservatório para a riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade durante a fase pré-enchimento. A riqueza de rotíferos e cladóceros, a diversidade de cladóceros, e a equitabilidade de rotíferos, cladóceros e copépodes foram elevadas na fase pós-enchimento. A análise de escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico sobre a matriz de presença e ausência mostrou um grupo homogêneo e denso de espécies e meses de amostragem na fase pré-enchimento, e outro grupo disperso na fase pós-enchimento. Correlações de Spearman apontaram efeitos significativos da transparência sobre a riqueza de rotíferos na fase pós-enchimento, e efeitos negativos sobre a riqueza de microcrustáceos na outra fase. Os efeitos da construção do reservatório causaram rompimento no gradiente lótico contínuo a jusante do quarto reservatório observado na fase pré-enchimento, permitindo o desenvolvimento de espécies em compartimentos espaciais lênticos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cladocera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cladocera/fisiologia , Rotíferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rotíferos/fisiologia , Corrente Jusante , Reservatórios de Água
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