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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468934

Resumo

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Chenopodium/química , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765511

Resumo

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.(AU)


Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium/química , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468545

Resumo

Mosquito-borne diseases result in the loss of life and economy, primarily in subtropical and tropical countries, and the emerging resistance to insecticides is increasing this threat. Botanical insecticides are promising substitutes for synthetic insecticides. This study evaluated the larvicidal and growth index of Culex pipiens of four solvent extracts of Terminalia chebula, Aloe perryi, and Peganum harmala against Cx. pipiens. None of the 12 extracts exhibited larvicidal potential against third instars except the ethyl acetate extract of P. harmala. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 value was 314.88 ppm, and the LC90 value was 464.19 ppm. At 320 ppm, the hatchability was 25.83%, and it resulted in 100% mortality. In addition, the eggs treated with the EtOAc extract of P. Harmala exhibited a long larval period compared with the control. The larval period continued for 12 days, and the pupal period took three days in the treatment groups. The growth index data also exhibited a decrease (0.00–7.53) in the treated groups compare with 8.5 in the control. The transformation of eggs into adults decreased with increasing concentrations. This paper is the first report on the development and growth index of Cx. pipiens potential using P. harmala seeds.


As doenças transmitidas por mosquitos resultam na perda de vidas e economia, principalmente em países subtropicais e tropicais, e a resistência emergente aos inseticidas está aumentando essa ameaça. Os inseticidas botânicos são substitutos promissores dos inseticidas sintéticos. Este estudo avaliou o índice larvicida e de crescimento de Culex pipiens de quatro extratos solventes de Terminalia chebula, Aloe perryi e Peganum harmala contra Cx. pipiens. Nenhum dos 12 extratos exibiu potencial larvicida contra o terceiro ínstar, exceto o extrato de acetato de etila de P. harmala. Após 24 horas de exposição, o valor LC50 era 314,88 ppm e o valor LC90 era 464,19 ppm. A 320 ppm, a eclodibilidade foi de 25,83% e resultou em 100% de mortalidade. Além disso, os ovos tratados com o extrato de EtOAc de P. harmala exibiram um longo período larval em comparação com o controle. O período larval continuou por 12 dias, e o período pupal durou três dias nos grupos de tratamento. Os dados do índice de crescimento também exibiram uma diminuição (0,00-7,53) nos grupos tratados em comparação com 8,5 no controle. A transformação de ovos em adultos diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações. Este artigo é o primeiro relatório sobre o índice de desenvolvimento e crescimento de Cx. potencial de pipiens usando sementes de P. harmala.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Peganum/efeitos adversos
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-18640

Resumo

Mosquito-borne diseases result in the loss of life and economy, primarily in subtropical and tropical countries, and the emerging resistance to insecticides is increasing this threat. Botanical insecticides are promising substitutes for synthetic insecticides. This study evaluated the larvicidal and growth index of Culex pipiens of four solvent extracts of Terminalia chebula, Aloe perryi, and Peganum harmala against Cx. pipiens. None of the 12 extracts exhibited larvicidal potential against third instars except the ethyl acetate extract of P. harmala. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 value was 314.88 ppm, and the LC90 value was 464.19 ppm. At 320 ppm, the hatchability was 25.83%, and it resulted in 100% mortality. In addition, the eggs treated with the EtOAc extract of P. Harmala exhibited a long larval period compared with the control. The larval period continued for 12 days, and the pupal period took three days in the treatment groups. The growth index data also exhibited a decrease (0.00–7.53) in the treated groups compare with 8.5 in the control. The transformation of eggs into adults decreased with increasing concentrations. This paper is the first report on the development and growth index of Cx. pipiens potential using P. harmala seeds.(AU)


As doenças transmitidas por mosquitos resultam na perda de vidas e economia, principalmente em países subtropicais e tropicais, e a resistência emergente aos inseticidas está aumentando essa ameaça. Os inseticidas botânicos são substitutos promissores dos inseticidas sintéticos. Este estudo avaliou o índice larvicida e de crescimento de Culex pipiens de quatro extratos solventes de Terminalia chebula, Aloe perryi e Peganum harmala contra Cx. pipiens. Nenhum dos 12 extratos exibiu potencial larvicida contra o terceiro ínstar, exceto o extrato de acetato de etila de P. harmala. Após 24 horas de exposição, o valor LC50 era 314,88 ppm e o valor LC90 era 464,19 ppm. A 320 ppm, a eclodibilidade foi de 25,83% e resultou em 100% de mortalidade. Além disso, os ovos tratados com o extrato de EtOAc de P. harmala exibiram um longo período larval em comparação com o controle. O período larval continuou por 12 dias, e o período pupal durou três dias nos grupos de tratamento. Os dados do índice de crescimento também exibiram uma diminuição (0,00-7,53) nos grupos tratados em comparação com 8,5 no controle. A transformação de ovos em adultos diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações. Este artigo é o primeiro relatório sobre o índice de desenvolvimento e crescimento de Cx. potencial de pipiens usando sementes de P. harmala.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peganum/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem
5.
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol. ; 8(1): 55-62, Jan. 2020. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25694

Resumo

Usually, Culex mosquitoes are responsible for spreading several human diseases such as malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, filariasis, and Zika. Lymphatic filariasis and Zika cases are increasing in Thailand with more prevalent in southern Thailand. In this study, our aim is to examine how seasons and water container types affect Culex spp. larvae numbers in Lansaka district, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand. This study was conducted in five sub-districts (Lansaka, Khaokaew, Thadi, Kamlon, and Khunthale) in Lansaka district. In each subdistrict, 120 houses were randomly selected to study the breeding sites of Culex mosquito in dry (March-May, 2018) and wet (October-December, 2018) seasons. Mosquito larvae were collected from indoor, outdoor, natural, artificial, darkcoloured, light-coloured, with lid, and without lid containers. It was observed that in all sub-districts, Culex larvae numbers were higher in dry season compared to wet season. In both seasons, outdoor, without lid, dark-coloured, and artificial containers contained more Culex larvae than inside, with lid, light-coloured, and natural containers, respectively. This study shows that seasons and water container types affect Culex mosquito larvae. Since the larvae numbers are higher in dry season, as well as in outdoor, without lid, dark-coloured, and artificial containers, people should reduce the usage of these containers, especially in the dry season, to prevent Culex borne diseases.(AU)


Assuntos
Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estação Seca , Estação Chuvosa
6.
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol ; 8(1): 55-62, Jan. 2020. map, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484296

Resumo

Usually, Culex mosquitoes are responsible for spreading several human diseases such as malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, filariasis, and Zika. Lymphatic filariasis and Zika cases are increasing in Thailand with more prevalent in southern Thailand. In this study, our aim is to examine how seasons and water container types affect Culex spp. larvae numbers in Lansaka district, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand. This study was conducted in five sub-districts (Lansaka, Khaokaew, Thadi, Kamlon, and Khunthale) in Lansaka district. In each subdistrict, 120 houses were randomly selected to study the breeding sites of Culex mosquito in dry (March-May, 2018) and wet (October-December, 2018) seasons. Mosquito larvae were collected from indoor, outdoor, natural, artificial, darkcoloured, light-coloured, with lid, and without lid containers. It was observed that in all sub-districts, Culex larvae numbers were higher in dry season compared to wet season. In both seasons, outdoor, without lid, dark-coloured, and artificial containers contained more Culex larvae than inside, with lid, light-coloured, and natural containers, respectively. This study shows that seasons and water container types affect Culex mosquito larvae. Since the larvae numbers are higher in dry season, as well as in outdoor, without lid, dark-coloured, and artificial containers, people should reduce the usage of these containers, especially in the dry season, to prevent Culex borne diseases.


Assuntos
Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estação Chuvosa , Estação Seca
7.
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol. ; 08(04): 250-256, Oct. 2020. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-763898

Resumo

This study investigated spatial and temporal variations on the coexistence of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex larvae in five subdistricts in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. We tested two main hypotheses on the spatial and temporal coexistence of mosquito larvae: (1) condition-specific competition and (2) spatial variation among the five subdistricts. We compared the number of positive houses, positive containers, mosquito coexistence during both the wet and dry seasons. The results showed that from a total of 1,072 positive containers collected in both seasons, Ae. albopictus larvae were found in the highest number of containers (745 containers), followed by containers with Ae. aegypti larvae (283 containers) and containers with Culex larvae (254 containers). During the wet season, there were higher numbers of positive houses, positive containers, and containers with only Ae. albopictus larvae than during the dry season. On the other hand, during the dry season when the water containers were very scarce, there were higher numbers of containers with Culex larvae, and containers held more than one type of mosquito larvae. This indicates that both temporal and spatial variations may contribute to the local coexistence of Aedes and Culex mosquito larvae species in Lansaka District areas in Thailand.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Estação Chuvosa
8.
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol ; 8(4): 250-256, Oct. 2020. map, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484327

Resumo

This study investigated spatial and temporal variations on the coexistence of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex larvae in five subdistricts in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. We tested two main hypotheses on the spatial and temporal coexistence of mosquito larvae: (1) condition-specific competition and (2) spatial variation among the five subdistricts. We compared the number of positive houses, positive containers, mosquito coexistence during both the wet and dry seasons. The results showed that from a total of 1,072 positive containers collected in both seasons, Ae. albopictus larvae were found in the highest number of containers (745 containers), followed by containers with Ae. aegypti larvae (283 containers) and containers with Culex larvae (254 containers). During the wet season, there were higher numbers of positive houses, positive containers, and containers with only Ae. albopictus larvae than during the dry season. On the other hand, during the dry season when the water containers were very scarce, there were higher numbers of containers with Culex larvae, and containers held more than one type of mosquito larvae. This indicates that both temporal and spatial variations may contribute to the local coexistence of Aedes and Culex mosquito larvae species in Lansaka District areas in Thailand.


Assuntos
Animais , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Estação Chuvosa
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