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1.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 22(1): eRBCA-2019-1147, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28019

Resumo

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fumaric acid (FA) on the growth performance, hematological parameters and serum biochemistry in broilers under heat stress (HS) condition. A total number of 200 broilers were allocated to five treatments including the thermoneutral group, which was reared at standard ambient temperature and fed basal diet (CONT) and four heat-stressed groups, which were held at 32 ± 1ºC aged from 22 to 42 days and fed the basal diet supplemented with 0, 5, 10 and 15 g/kg FA, respectively. On day 42, body weight and feed intake were measured and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Blood was collected for the estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. HS impaired the growth performance, but the addition of FA made a higher final body weight, average daily gain and European broiler index in comparison with HS group. The hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume of HS broilers were significantly lower than those of the CONT birds. Birds administered 5g/kg FA diet had significantly (p 0.05) higher erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration compared with birds in the HS group fed basal diet. Also, the HS group exhibited significant increase in glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine when compared with CONT group. Dietary 5g/kg FA increased the serum total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HS group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the importance of using FA as feed additives to improve the growth performance of heat-stressed broilers through haematological and biochemical regulation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fumaricum Acidum , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 22(1): eRBCA, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490735

Resumo

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fumaric acid (FA) on the growth performance, hematological parameters and serum biochemistry in broilers under heat stress (HS) condition. A total number of 200 broilers were allocated to five treatments including the thermoneutral group, which was reared at standard ambient temperature and fed basal diet (CONT) and four heat-stressed groups, which were held at 32 ± 1ºC aged from 22 to 42 days and fed the basal diet supplemented with 0, 5, 10 and 15 g/kg FA, respectively. On day 42, body weight and feed intake were measured and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Blood was collected for the estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. HS impaired the growth performance, but the addition of FA made a higher final body weight, average daily gain and European broiler index in comparison with HS group. The hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume of HS broilers were significantly lower than those of the CONT birds. Birds administered 5g/kg FA diet had significantly (p 0.05) higher erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration compared with birds in the HS group fed basal diet. Also, the HS group exhibited significant increase in glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine when compared with CONT group. Dietary 5g/kg FA increased the serum total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HS group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the importance of using FA as feed additives to improve the growth performance of heat-stressed broilers through haematological and biochemical regulation.


Assuntos
Animais , Fumaricum Acidum , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor
3.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(3): eRBCA-2018-0962, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25876

Resumo

High environmental temperature is limiting factor in broiler production. In order to minimize the undesirable consequences of acute or chronic heat stress, the techniques of fixed dietary electrolyte balance and early heat conditioning were evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible interactions and effects of dietary electrolyte balance and early heat conditioning on feed intake, body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality, energy bioeconomic index, fecal moisture, abdominal fat, and breast meat color (L*a*b*) of broilers submitted to chronic or acute heat stress. In total, 1280 chicks, were equally divided in experiment I (chronic heat stress, 6h/day at 32ºC from 35 to 39 d of age) and II (acute heat stress, 36 ºC for 6h at 38 days of age). The data of both experiments were combined and analyzed according to a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (early heat conditioning (ETC) or not; fixed dietary electrolyte balance (EB) or not; and exposure to acute or chronic heat stress). ETC consisted of exposing 5-d-old birds to 36.0 °C for 24 hours. No interaction among the evaluated factors was detected. Birds exposed to acute heat stress presented significantly higher compared with chronic heat stress. Fixed dietary EB resulted in significantly higher fecal moisture. Lower abdominal fat percentage was obtained in birds exposed to chronic relative to acute heat stress. Higher breast meat L* and b* values were observed in birds exposed to acute heat stress than those submitted to chronic heat stress, indicating worse meat quality.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Ciências da Nutrição Animal
4.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(4): eRBCA-2019-0989, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25838

Resumo

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Flammulinavelutipes stem base (FVS) on growth performance, microbial flora and volatile fatty acids of growing layers under heat stress condition. A total of 72 ISA Brown hens were randomly divided into six treatments: thermoneutral temperature control group (CON), heat stress control group (HS), heat stress antibiotic group (ANT) as positive control and heat stress FVS groups (20, 40 or 60 g/kg FVS). The experimental period had a duration of 28 d (days 84-112). On day 98, daily gain average was significantly higher (p 0.05) in the FVS groups than in the HS group. The number of bands in the FVS groups were higher (p 0.05) than in the HS group on day 98. The microbial similarity between the 60 g/kg FVS group and the HS group were the lowest on day 98. FVS groups specific bacteria were mainly Coprococcus comes, [Clostridium] papyrosolvens, Butyricicoccuspullicaecorumon day 98. Whereas on day 112, the FVS groups specific bacteria were mainly Parabacteroides distasonis, Coprobacterfastidiosus, Elusimicrobiumminutum. The content of acetic acid and butyric acid were higher (p 0.05) in 20 g/kg FVS group than in the CON group on day 112. In conclusion, FVS can lighten the adverse effect of heat stress by increasing the diversity of intestinal flora in growing layers.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Flora , Flammulina , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor
5.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(4): eRBCA-2019-1059, 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25787

Resumo

The present study was conducted on one-day-old broilers to investigate the effects of methionine deficiency on B lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM) in the cecal tonsil of Cobb broiler chicken. Methods including immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) were used, and the study lasted for 6 weeks. It was found that the IgA+ B lymphocytes mainly existed in the diffuse lymphoid tissues and lymphoid follicles of the cecal tonsil. The data indicated that the number of IgA+ B lymphocytes was decreased in the methionine deficiency group, and the WB and qRT-PCR results suggested that the protein and mRNA expression of CD19 were reduced in the methionine deficiency group. Besides, the contents of sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM determined by ELISA decreased in the methionine deficiency group. It could be concluded that methionine deficiency exerts significantly negative effects on the humoral immune function of the intestinal mucosal immunity.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/fisiologia , Metionina/efeitos adversos , Metionina/análise , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Linfócitos B
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(3): eRBCA, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490658

Resumo

High environmental temperature is limiting factor in broiler production. In order to minimize the undesirable consequences of acute or chronic heat stress, the techniques of fixed dietary electrolyte balance and early heat conditioning were evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible interactions and effects of dietary electrolyte balance and early heat conditioning on feed intake, body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality, energy bioeconomic index, fecal moisture, abdominal fat, and breast meat color (L*a*b*) of broilers submitted to chronic or acute heat stress. In total, 1280 chicks, were equally divided in experiment I (chronic heat stress, 6h/day at 32ºC from 35 to 39 d of age) and II (acute heat stress, 36 ºC for 6h at 38 days of age). The data of both experiments were combined and analyzed according to a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (early heat conditioning (ETC) or not; fixed dietary electrolyte balance (EB) or not; and exposure to acute or chronic heat stress). ETC consisted of exposing 5-d-old birds to 36.0 °C for 24 hours. No interaction among the evaluated factors was detected. Birds exposed to acute heat stress presented significantly higher compared with chronic heat stress. Fixed dietary EB resulted in significantly higher fecal moisture. Lower abdominal fat percentage was obtained in birds exposed to chronic relative to acute heat stress. Higher breast meat L* and b* values were observed in birds exposed to acute heat stress than those submitted to chronic heat stress, indicating worse meat quality.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Ração Animal/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Ciências da Nutrição Animal
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(4): eRBCA, 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490694

Resumo

The present study was conducted on one-day-old broilers to investigate the effects of methionine deficiency on B lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM) in the cecal tonsil of Cobb broiler chicken. Methods including immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) were used, and the study lasted for 6 weeks. It was found that the IgA+ B lymphocytes mainly existed in the diffuse lymphoid tissues and lymphoid follicles of the cecal tonsil. The data indicated that the number of IgA+ B lymphocytes was decreased in the methionine deficiency group, and the WB and qRT-PCR results suggested that the protein and mRNA expression of CD19 were reduced in the methionine deficiency group. Besides, the contents of sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM determined by ELISA decreased in the methionine deficiency group. It could be concluded that methionine deficiency exerts significantly negative effects on the humoral immune function of the intestinal mucosal immunity.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/fisiologia , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Metionina/análise , Metionina/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos B
8.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(4): eRBCA, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490710

Resumo

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Flammulinavelutipes stem base (FVS) on growth performance, microbial flora and volatile fatty acids of growing layers under heat stress condition. A total of 72 ISA Brown hens were randomly divided into six treatments: thermoneutral temperature control group (CON), heat stress control group (HS), heat stress antibiotic group (ANT) as positive control and heat stress FVS groups (20, 40 or 60 g/kg FVS). The experimental period had a duration of 28 d (days 84-112). On day 98, daily gain average was significantly higher (p 0.05) in the FVS groups than in the HS group. The number of bands in the FVS groups were higher (p 0.05) than in the HS group on day 98. The microbial similarity between the 60 g/kg FVS group and the HS group were the lowest on day 98. FVS groups specific bacteria were mainly Coprococcus comes, [Clostridium] papyrosolvens, Butyricicoccuspullicaecorumon day 98. Whereas on day 112, the FVS groups specific bacteria were mainly Parabacteroides distasonis, Coprobacterfastidiosus, Elusimicrobiumminutum. The content of acetic acid and butyric acid were higher (p 0.05) in 20 g/kg FVS group than in the CON group on day 112. In conclusion, FVS can lighten the adverse effect of heat stress by increasing the diversity of intestinal flora in growing layers.


Assuntos
Animais , Flora , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Flammulina , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor
9.
Braz. j. vet. pathol ; 12(1): 15-18, mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469721

Resumo

Squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant epithelial neoplasm originating from the epidermis squamous cells or the digestive mucosa epithelium, was diagnosed in an adult rooster. The rooster was lethargic and presented difficulties in swallowing. Physical examination revealed a large deep mass in the cranial cervical region. Due to poor prognosis, the bird was euthanized and then post mortem examined. Grossly, in the oral portion of the esophagus, there was a mass invading and partially occluding the lumen. Microscopically, the mass had neoplastic cells interconnected by evident desmosomes junctions and keratin pearl formations. Microscopic findings confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. This neoplasia is an important differential diagnosis for esophageal lesions in birds. There are various carcinogens for squamous cell carcinoma such as sunlight, virus, some chemicals and chronic wounds, the last one being a possible cause of the squamous cell carcinoma in this rooster as no evidence of other etiologies were found.


Assuntos
Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/classificação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/veterinária , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/genética
10.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(4): eRBCA-2019-1072, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25856

Resumo

Industrial broilers raised on helminthic medication-free feed were diagnosed with a severe disease caused by Ascaridia galli, characterized by intestinal hemorrhage and obstruction. A. galli was identified based on the morphological features of the nematode. Broilers were raised for a longer period (63 days) for weight recovery, grouped as stunted (n=500), had low body score and had fetid diarrhea. The duodenum-jejunum segment was the most severely affected with obstruction and had localized accumulation of gas. The intestinal mucosa was severely congested with petechial and suffusive hemorrhages. The outbreak resulted in morbidity of about 10% and mortality of up to 4% and was associated to the absence of preventive medication on feed and slack biosecurity. The reemergence of A. galli is discussed in view of the alternative poultry management and raising conditions for drug free and welfare.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/parasitologia , Obstrução Intestinal/parasitologia , Obstrução Intestinal/veterinária , Ascaridia/patogenicidade
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Pathol. ; 12(1): 15-18, mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23727

Resumo

Squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant epithelial neoplasm originating from the epidermis squamous cells or the digestive mucosa epithelium, was diagnosed in an adult rooster. The rooster was lethargic and presented difficulties in swallowing. Physical examination revealed a large deep mass in the cranial cervical region. Due to poor prognosis, the bird was euthanized and then post mortem examined. Grossly, in the oral portion of the esophagus, there was a mass invading and partially occluding the lumen. Microscopically, the mass had neoplastic cells interconnected by evident desmosomes junctions and keratin pearl formations. Microscopic findings confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. This neoplasia is an important differential diagnosis for esophageal lesions in birds. There are various carcinogens for squamous cell carcinoma such as sunlight, virus, some chemicals and chronic wounds, the last one being a possible cause of the squamous cell carcinoma in this rooster as no evidence of other etiologies were found.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/classificação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/veterinária , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia
12.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(4): eRBCA, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490691

Resumo

Industrial broilers raised on helminthic medication-free feed were diagnosed with a severe disease caused by Ascaridia galli, characterized by intestinal hemorrhage and obstruction. A. galli was identified based on the morphological features of the nematode. Broilers were raised for a longer period (63 days) for weight recovery, grouped as stunted (n=500), had low body score and had fetid diarrhea. The duodenum-jejunum segment was the most severely affected with obstruction and had localized accumulation of gas. The intestinal mucosa was severely congested with petechial and suffusive hemorrhages. The outbreak resulted in morbidity of about 10% and mortality of up to 4% and was associated to the absence of preventive medication on feed and slack biosecurity. The reemergence of A. galli is discussed in view of the alternative poultry management and raising conditions for drug free and welfare.


Assuntos
Animais , Ascaridia/patogenicidade , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/parasitologia , Obstrução Intestinal/parasitologia , Obstrução Intestinal/veterinária
13.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(2): 1-6, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23250

Resumo

Brazilian processing plants have identified the so-calledspaghetti breast myopathy characterized by muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology. This study aimed at estimating the incidence of spaghetti breast myopathyin broilers from three commercial genetic strains (Ross, Cobb, Hubbard) reared in two different housing systems (DH, Dark house, and TS, Tunnel system), presenting different controlled ventilation systems and light availability. Breast meat samples (n=5,580) were collected and macroscopically evaluated for spaghetti breast myopathy according to a 0-2 scale, as 0 = normal, 1 = intermediate or moderate, and 2 = severe. A higher number of broilers reared in DH presented normal breasts and moderate myopathy relative to TS-reared birds. Ross broilers presented a higher incidence of normal breasts compared with Cobb and Hubbard broilers. The risk of presenting spaghetti breast myopathy was higher in broilers reared in DH than those in reared in TS, indicating that the exposure to DH environmental conditions may increase the chance of myopathy incidence. Broilers reared in dark houses presented 26% higher chance and 13% higher risk of showing spaghetti-breast myopathy the than those reared in tunnel-ventilated systems.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Carne/análise , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Doenças Musculares/genética , Distrofia Muscular Animal , Distrofia Muscular Animal/genética , Ambiente Controlado
14.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 21(2): 1-6, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490624

Resumo

Brazilian processing plants have identified the so-calledspaghetti breast myopathy characterized by muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology. This study aimed at estimating the incidence of spaghetti breast myopathyin broilers from three commercial genetic strains (Ross, Cobb, Hubbard) reared in two different housing systems (DH, Dark house, and TS, Tunnel system), presenting different controlled ventilation systems and light availability. Breast meat samples (n=5,580) were collected and macroscopically evaluated for spaghetti breast myopathy according to a 0-2 scale, as 0 = normal, 1 = intermediate or moderate, and 2 = severe. A higher number of broilers reared in DH presented normal breasts and moderate myopathy relative to TS-reared birds. Ross broilers presented a higher incidence of normal breasts compared with Cobb and Hubbard broilers. The risk of presenting spaghetti breast myopathy was higher in broilers reared in DH than those in reared in TS, indicating that the exposure to DH environmental conditions may increase the chance of myopathy incidence. Broilers reared in dark houses presented 26% higher chance and 13% higher risk of showing spaghetti-breast myopathy the than those reared in tunnel-ventilated systems.


Assuntos
Animais , Ambiente Controlado , Carne/análise , Distrofia Muscular Animal , Distrofia Muscular Animal/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Galinhas/anormalidades
15.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-733709

Resumo

The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal comfort and performance of broilers in their initial stage of development utilizing two different heating systems. The experiment was conducted in two sheds placed on a commercial farm. The heating systems were: indirect heating furnace and radiation heating drums. At the beginning of the heating phase the birds were confined in an area corresponding to 360 m² in shed 1 and 180 m² in shed 2, delimited by polyurethane curtains, allowing a density of 58.8 birds m-². The variables: dry bulb temperature (Tdb), relative humidity (RH%) and temperature and humidity index (THI) were calculated. Measurements were performed using continuous reading data loggers at 15-minute intervals throughout the experimental period, which was a complete productive cycle for males. Differences were detected in the environmental variables during the period evaluated, as well as differences in performance were found as a function of the two heating systems. The heating system of the furnace presented UR ranging from 47-59% in relation to the drum system (51-57%), besides providing a more constant temperature and providing a greater distribution of heating. On the other hand, the drum system provided greater weight gain in the animals.(AU)


Objetivou-se comeste estudo avaliar o conforto térmico e desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte em seu estágio inicial de desenvolvimento em função utilizando dois sistemas de aquecimento distintos. O experimento foi conduzido em dois galpões localizados numa propriedade comercial. Os sistemas de aquecimento foram: fornalha de aquecimento indireto e tambores de aquecimento por radiação. No início da fase de aquecimento as aves foram confinadas numa área correspondente a 360 m2 no galpão 1 e 180 m2 no galpão 2, delimitada por cortinas de poliuretano, possibilitando uma densidade de 58,8 aves m-2. Foram avaliadas as variáveis Temperatura de bulbo seco (Tbs), umidade relativa do ar (UR%) e calculado o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU). As medições foram realizadas com o uso de dataloggers de leitura contínua da marca Hobbo em intervalos de 15 minutos, durante todo o período experimental, que foi de um ciclo produtivo completo para machos. Foram detectadas diferenças nas variáveis ambientais durante o período avaliado como também foram encontradas diferenças no desempenho zootécnico em função dos dois sistemas de aquecimento. O sistema de aquecimento por fornalha apresentou UR variando de 47-59% em relação ao sistema de tambores (51-57%), além de proporcionar temperatura mais constante e proporcionar maior distribuição de aquecimento. Por outro lado, o sistema de tambores proporcionou maior ganho de peso nos animais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sensação Térmica , Bem-Estar do Animal
16.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1459801

Resumo

The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal comfort and performance of broilers in their initial stage of development utilizing two different heating systems. The experiment was conducted in two sheds placed on a commercial farm. The heating systems were: indirect heating furnace and radiation heating drums. At the beginning of the heating phase the birds were confined in an area corresponding to 360 m² in shed 1 and 180 m² in shed 2, delimited by polyurethane curtains, allowing a density of 58.8 birds m-². The variables: dry bulb temperature (Tdb), relative humidity (RH%) and temperature and humidity index (THI) were calculated. Measurements were performed using continuous reading data loggers at 15-minute intervals throughout the experimental period, which was a complete productive cycle for males. Differences were detected in the environmental variables during the period evaluated, as well as differences in performance were found as a function of the two heating systems. The heating system of the furnace presented UR ranging from 47-59% in relation to the drum system (51-57%), besides providing a more constant temperature and providing a greater distribution of heating. On the other hand, the drum system provided greater weight gain in the animals.


Objetivou-se comeste estudo avaliar o conforto térmico e desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte em seu estágio inicial de desenvolvimento em função utilizando dois sistemas de aquecimento distintos. O experimento foi conduzido em dois galpões localizados numa propriedade comercial. Os sistemas de aquecimento foram: fornalha de aquecimento indireto e tambores de aquecimento por radiação. No início da fase de aquecimento as aves foram confinadas numa área correspondente a 360 m2 no galpão 1 e 180 m2 no galpão 2, delimitada por cortinas de poliuretano, possibilitando uma densidade de 58,8 aves m-2. Foram avaliadas as variáveis Temperatura de bulbo seco (Tbs), umidade relativa do ar (UR%) e calculado o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU). As medições foram realizadas com o uso de dataloggers de leitura contínua da marca Hobbo em intervalos de 15 minutos, durante todo o período experimental, que foi de um ciclo produtivo completo para machos. Foram detectadas diferenças nas variáveis ambientais durante o período avaliado como também foram encontradas diferenças no desempenho zootécnico em função dos dois sistemas de aquecimento. O sistema de aquecimento por fornalha apresentou UR variando de 47-59% em relação ao sistema de tambores (51-57%), além de proporcionar temperatura mais constante e proporcionar maior distribuição de aquecimento. Por outro lado, o sistema de tambores proporcionou maior ganho de peso nos animais.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sensação Térmica , Bem-Estar do Animal
17.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(1): 153-159, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-18957

Resumo

This study has the objective of investigating the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on serum lipid, abdominal and hepatic fat percentage, cholesterol content in eggs, and mRNA expression of genes apoA I and apoB100. One hundred and thirty five healthy (300-day-old) layers were randomly assigned to three treatments. The hens in control group were fed with the basal diet. The hens in the experimental groups (TCM 1 and TCM 2) were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 1% TCM 1 and 1% TCM 2 respectively over a period of 60 days. Laying performance and the serum parameters relevant to fat metabolism were measured. The results showed that no significant differences were found in average daily feed intake and egg weight among three treatments. Average daily laying rate in TCM treatments was increased, and the cholesterol content in eggs was decreased. The serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in experimental treatments were decreased (p<0.05), while the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was increased (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Additionally, abdominal fat percentage decreased in TCM 1 treatment (p<0.05), and hepatic fat percentage decreased in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). The expression of apolipoproteinA I (apoA I) and apolipoproteinB100 (apoB100) mRNA in the liver increased in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). These results suggest that the diet supplemented with TCM could increase the expression of apoA I and apoB100 mRNA in the liver, and decrease lipid content in the serum, and reduce egg cholesterol in layers.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Colesterol
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 20(1): 153-159, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490476

Resumo

This study has the objective of investigating the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on serum lipid, abdominal and hepatic fat percentage, cholesterol content in eggs, and mRNA expression of genes apoA I and apoB100. One hundred and thirty five healthy (300-day-old) layers were randomly assigned to three treatments. The hens in control group were fed with the basal diet. The hens in the experimental groups (TCM 1 and TCM 2) were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 1% TCM 1 and 1% TCM 2 respectively over a period of 60 days. Laying performance and the serum parameters relevant to fat metabolism were measured. The results showed that no significant differences were found in average daily feed intake and egg weight among three treatments. Average daily laying rate in TCM treatments was increased, and the cholesterol content in eggs was decreased. The serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in experimental treatments were decreased (p<0.05), while the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was increased (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Additionally, abdominal fat percentage decreased in TCM 1 treatment (p<0.05), and hepatic fat percentage decreased in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). The expression of apolipoproteinA I (apoA I) and apolipoproteinB100 (apoB100) mRNA in the liver increased in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). These results suggest that the diet supplemented with TCM could increase the expression of apoA I and apoB100 mRNA in the liver, and decrease lipid content in the serum, and reduce egg cholesterol in layers.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Colesterol
19.
Acta Sci. Anim. Sci. ; 39(1): 91-96, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-691106

Resumo

This study evaluated the effect of multienzyme complexes (EC1 and EC2) in low nutritional density diets on performance and economic viability of broilers. A total of 840 day-old chicks were assigned to 7 treatments, distributed in a completely randomized design: (1) PC: positive control, basal diet formulated to meet nutritional requirements; (2) NC1: negative control, reduced energy and nutrient density diet without enzymes; (3) NC1+EC1; (4) NC2: negative control, diet formulated with 7% over-estimated crude protein and amino acids of soybean meal without enzymes; (5) NC2+EC2; (6) NC3: negative control, reduced energy and nutrient density diet and over-estimation of crude protein and amino acids of soybean meal; (7) NC3+EC1+EC2. Feeding NC1 or NC3 impaired feed conversion ratio at 7, 21 and 42 days, and NC2 at 21 days. Inclusion of EC2 in NC2 diet improved feed conversion ratio and kept it similar to basal diets from 1 to 21 days. Association of EC1 with EC2 in NC3 diet did not improve performance. In summary, inclusion of EC2 in diets with reduced nutrient density keep feed conversion ratio similar to basal diets from 1 to 21 days but does not improve performance of broiler chicken from 1 to 42 days post-hatch.(AU)


Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de complexos enzimáticos (CE1 e CE2) em dietas com níveis reduzidos sobre desempenho e viabilidade econômica de frangos. Foram utilizados 840 pintos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições: 1) controle positivo (CP), dieta formulada para atender às exigências nutricionais; 2) controle negativo 1 (CN1), dieta com níveis nutricionais reduzidos; 3) CN1+CE1; 4) CN2: dieta com proteína e aminoácidos do farelo de soja valorizados em 7%; 5) CN2+CE2; 6) CN3: dieta com níveis reduzidos, e farelo de soja valorizado em 7% para proteína e aminoácidos; 7) CN3+CE1+CE2. A conversão alimentar foi maior em aves que receberam dietas CN1 ou CN3 aos sete, 21 e 42 dias, e CN2 aos 21 dias. A inclusão de CE2 na dieta CN2 melhorou a conversão alimentar em relação a CN2, tornando-a semelhante à de aves alimentadas com dieta CP aos 21 dias. A associação de CE1+CE2 na dieta CN3 não favoreceu o desempenho. Portanto, o uso de complexo enzimático (CE2) em dieta com níveis reduzidos mantém a conversão alimentar similar à de aves recebendo dieta-padrão no período de um a 21 dias, porém, no período de um a 42 dias, não melhora o desempenho de frangos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/metabolismo , Inquéritos sobre Dietas
20.
Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 39(1): 91-96, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1459702

Resumo

This study evaluated the effect of multienzyme complexes (EC1 and EC2) in low nutritional density diets on performance and economic viability of broilers. A total of 840 day-old chicks were assigned to 7 treatments, distributed in a completely randomized design: (1) PC: positive control, basal diet formulated to meet nutritional requirements; (2) NC1: negative control, reduced energy and nutrient density diet without enzymes; (3) NC1+EC1; (4) NC2: negative control, diet formulated with 7% over-estimated crude protein and amino acids of soybean meal without enzymes; (5) NC2+EC2; (6) NC3: negative control, reduced energy and nutrient density diet and over-estimation of crude protein and amino acids of soybean meal; (7) NC3+EC1+EC2. Feeding NC1 or NC3 impaired feed conversion ratio at 7, 21 and 42 days, and NC2 at 21 days. Inclusion of EC2 in NC2 diet improved feed conversion ratio and kept it similar to basal diets from 1 to 21 days. Association of EC1 with EC2 in NC3 diet did not improve performance. In summary, inclusion of EC2 in diets with reduced nutrient density keep feed conversion ratio similar to basal diets from 1 to 21 days but does not improve performance of broiler chicken from 1 to 42 days post-hatch.


Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de complexos enzimáticos (CE1 e CE2) em dietas com níveis reduzidos sobre desempenho e viabilidade econômica de frangos. Foram utilizados 840 pintos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições: 1) controle positivo (CP), dieta formulada para atender às exigências nutricionais; 2) controle negativo 1 (CN1), dieta com níveis nutricionais reduzidos; 3) CN1+CE1; 4) CN2: dieta com proteína e aminoácidos do farelo de soja valorizados em 7%; 5) CN2+CE2; 6) CN3: dieta com níveis reduzidos, e farelo de soja valorizado em 7% para proteína e aminoácidos; 7) CN3+CE1+CE2. A conversão alimentar foi maior em aves que receberam dietas CN1 ou CN3 aos sete, 21 e 42 dias, e CN2 aos 21 dias. A inclusão de CE2 na dieta CN2 melhorou a conversão alimentar em relação a CN2, tornando-a semelhante à de aves alimentadas com dieta CP aos 21 dias. A associação de CE1+CE2 na dieta CN3 não favoreceu o desempenho. Portanto, o uso de complexo enzimático (CE2) em dieta com níveis reduzidos mantém a conversão alimentar similar à de aves recebendo dieta-padrão no período de um a 21 dias, porém, no período de um a 42 dias, não melhora o desempenho de frangos.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anormalidades , Galinhas/metabolismo , Inquéritos sobre Dietas
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