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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200180, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1287094

Resumo

Snake venoms are composed of pharmacologically active proteins that are evolutionarily diverse, stable and specific to targets. Hence, venoms have been explored as a source of bioactive molecules in treating numerous diseases. Recent evidences suggest that snake venom proteins may affect the formation of new blood vessels. Excessive angiogenesis has been implicated in several pathologies including tumours, diabetic retinopathy, arthritis, inter alia. In the present study, we have examined the effects of P-I metalloproteinases isolated from Bothrops moojeni (BmMP-1) and Bothrops atrox (BaMP-1) and L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO) isolated from B. moojeni (BmLAAO) and B. atrox (BaLAAO) on biochemical and functional aspects of angiogenesis. Methods: P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO were purified from venom by molecular size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography and subsequently confirmed using mass spectrometry. The P-I metalloproteinases were characterized by azocaseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and gelatinase activity and LAAO activity was assessed by enzyme activity on L-amino acids. Influence of these proteins on apoptosis and cell cycle in endothelial cells was analysed by flow cytometry. The angiogenic activity was determined by in vitro 3D spheroid assay, Matrigel tube forming assay, and in vivo agarose plug transformation in mice. Results: P-I metalloproteinases exhibited azocaseinolytic activity, cleaved α and partially β chain of fibrinogen, and displayed catalytic activity on gelatin. LAAO showed differential activity on L-amino acids. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that both P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO arrested the cells in G0/G1 phase and further induced both necrosis and apoptosis in endothelial cells. In vitro, P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibited significant anti-angiogenic properties in 3D spheroid and Matrigel models by reducing sprout outgrowth and tube formation. Using agarose plug transplants in mice harbouring P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO we demonstrated a marked disruption of vasculature at the periphery. Conclusion: Our research suggests that P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibit anti-angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Oxirredutases , Bothrops/fisiologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Metaloproteases
2.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 27: e20200180, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31907

Resumo

Snake venoms are composed of pharmacologically active proteins that are evolutionarily diverse, stable and specific to targets. Hence, venoms have been explored as a source of bioactive molecules in treating numerous diseases. Recent evidences suggest that snake venom proteins may affect the formation of new blood vessels. Excessive angiogenesis has been implicated in several pathologies including tumours, diabetic retinopathy, arthritis, inter alia. In the present study, we have examined the effects of P-I metalloproteinases isolated from Bothrops moojeni (BmMP-1) and Bothrops atrox (BaMP-1) and L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO) isolated from B. moojeni (BmLAAO) and B. atrox (BaLAAO) on biochemical and functional aspects of angiogenesis. Methods: P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO were purified from venom by molecular size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography and subsequently confirmed using mass spectrometry. The P-I metalloproteinases were characterized by azocaseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and gelatinase activity and LAAO activity was assessed by enzyme activity on L-amino acids. Influence of these proteins on apoptosis and cell cycle in endothelial cells was analysed by flow cytometry. The angiogenic activity was determined by in vitro 3D spheroid assay, Matrigel tube forming assay, and in vivo agarose plug transformation in mice. Results: P-I metalloproteinases exhibited azocaseinolytic activity, cleaved α and partially β chain of fibrinogen, and displayed catalytic activity on gelatin. LAAO showed differential activity on L-amino acids. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that both P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO arrested the cells in G0/G1 phase and further induced both necrosis and apoptosis in endothelial cells. In vitro, P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibited significant anti-angiogenic properties in 3D spheroid and Matrigel models by reducing sprout outgrowth and tube formation. Using agarose plug transplants in mice harbouring P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO we demonstrated a marked disruption of vasculature at the periphery. Conclusion: Our research suggests that P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibit anti-angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Oxirredutases , Bothrops/fisiologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Metaloproteases
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190058, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135137

Resumo

Lack of complete genomic data of Bothrops jararaca impedes molecular biology research focusing on biotechnological applications of venom gland components. Identification of full-length coding regions of genes is crucial for the correct molecular cloning design. Methods: RNA was extracted from the venom gland of one adult female specimen of Bothrops jararaca. Deep sequencing of the mRNA library was performed using Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. De novo assembly of B. jararaca transcriptome was done using Trinity. Annotation was performed using Blast2GO. All predicted proteins after clustering step were blasted against non-redundant protein database of NCBI using BLASTP. Metabolic pathways present in the transcriptome were annotated using the KAAS-KEGG Automatic Annotation Server. Toxins were identified in the B. jararaca predicted proteome using BLASTP against all protein sequences obtained from Animal Toxin Annotation Project from Uniprot KB/Swiss-Pro database. Figures and data visualization were performed using ggplot2 package in R language environment. Results: We described the in-depth transcriptome analysis of B. jararaca venom gland, in which 76,765 de novo assembled isoforms, 96,044 transcribed genes and 41,196 unique proteins were identified. The most abundant transcript was the zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like jararhagin. Moreover, we identified 78 distinct functional classes of proteins, including toxins, inhibitors and tumor suppressors. Other venom proteins identified were the hemolytic lethal factors stonustoxin and verrucotoxin. Conclusion: It is believed that the application of deep sequencing to the analysis of snake venom transcriptomes may represent invaluable insight on their biotechnological potential focusing on candidate molecules.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bothrops , Bothrops/fisiologia , Proteoma , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteases , Transcriptoma , Biologia Molecular , Análise por Conglomerados , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
4.
Acta cir. bras. ; 35(7): e202000707, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-27567

Resumo

Purpose: To analyze gene and protein expression of metalloproteinases 1, 2, 9, 11 and 16 and their correlation with clinicopathological variables in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods: A retrospective study of 114 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma treated surgically in the period 2006 to 2008 in Hospital de Câncer de Barretos - Fundação Pio XII. The evaluation of gene expression was performed by RT-PCR, and protein by immunohistochemistry. The analysis of gene expression was classified as overexpressed genes and poorly expressed (fold change of approximately 2, p 0.05). The positivity of the markers in the immunohistochemical study was performed by semi-quantitative analysis. The tissue of TMA (Tissue Microarray) was done by two independent pathologists. Results: The gene expression validated by immuno - histochemical was MMP-1(p= 0.00 and 1.57 fold change) and MMP 2 (p= 0.01 and 1.84 to fold change) when correlated with the histological types mucinous and adenocarcinoma NOS, MMP9 (p=0.01 and fold change of 1.13) and MMP-16 (p=0.03 and 1.61 fold change) when compared with the histological types villous and adenocarcinoma NOS, MMP - 11 statistically significant in relation to male (p = 0.04 and 1.65 fold change). Conclusions: The MMPs 1, 2, 9, 11 and 16 gene and protein expression with statistical significance in at least one of the clinicopathological variables studied. Thus, we conclude that these MMPs have potential as a prognostic factor in colorectal adenocarcinoma.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Adenocarcinoma , Metaloproteases , Matriz Extracelular
5.
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 41(06,supl. 2): 3165-3176, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1501676

Resumo

Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a lentiviral disease that leads to considerable losses in goat farming. In the acute phase of viral infection, though antiviral antibodies are produced by the host's immune system, they are not sufficient to be detected by serological tests. Acute infections begin with an incubation period, during which the viral genome replicates and host innate responses are initiated. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that play an important role in the physiological and pathological processes of tissue remodeling. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of MMPs and their activity in the blood serum of male goats experimentally infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Five dairy male goats, aged 3-4 years, were intravenously inoculated with CAEV Cork strain (titer: 105-6 TCID50/mL) after being tested negative for CAEV thrice at consecutive intervals of 30 days using western blot analysis and nested-PCR. The study included three stages: S1 or pre-infection stage; S2 or seroconversion stage, corresponding to the occurrence of first seroconversion; and S3 or post-seroconversion stage, corresponding to 23 weeks after seroconversion. Zymography was performed for the samples using gelatin zymography gels (12.5%), which were subjected to electrophoresis at 170V, 1A, and 300W for 50-70 min. The density of MMP-2 was found to be lower at S1 (1456.20 pixels) than that at S2 and S3 (1943.80 and 2104.40 pixels, respectively) (P < 0.05); and the density of MMP-9 was found to be lower at S3 (133.60 pixels) than that at S1 and S2 (359.60 and 370.60 pixels, respectively). The density of proMMP-2 was low at S1 and S3 (130.45 and 145.20 pixels, respectively). On the other hand, the density of proMMP-9 was statistically different between S1 and S3 (89.22 vs. 415.60 pixels). Both proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 were absent at S2. Thus, MMP-2 and MMP9 exhibited opposite behaviors depending on the stage [...].


A encefalite por artrite caprina é uma doença lentiviral que leva a perdas consideráveis na criação de caprinos. Na fase aguda da infecção viral, embora os anticorpos antivirais sejam produzidos pelo sistema imunológico do hospedeiro, eles não são suficientes para serem detectados por testes sorológicos. As infecções agudas começam com um período de incubação, durante o qual o genoma viral se replica e as respostas inatas do hospedeiro são iniciadas. As metaloproteinases da matriz (MMPs) são enzimas que desempenham um papel importante nos processos fisiológicos e patológicos da remodelação tecidual. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a expressão de MMPs e sua atividade no soro sanguíneo de reprodutores caprinos infectados experimentalmente pelo vírus da encefalite por artrite caprina(CAEV). Cinco machos caprinos, com idades entre 3-4 anos, foram inoculadas por via intravenosa com a cepa de CAEV Cork (título: 105-6 TCID50/mL) após serem testados negativamente para CAEV três vezes em intervalos consecutivos de 30 dias usando a análise de western blot e nested-PCR. O estudo incluiu três etapas: estágio S1 ou pré-infecção; S2 ou estágio de soroconversão, correspondente à ocorrência de primeira soroconversão; e S3 ou pós-soroconversão, correspondendo a 23 semanas após a soroconversão. A zimografia foi realizada para as amostras utilizando gel de gelatina (12,5%), que foram submetidos à eletroforese em 170V, 1A e 300W por 50-70 min. Verificou-se que a densidade de MMP-2era menor em S1 (1456,20 pixels) do que em S2 e S3 (1943,80 e 2104,40 pixels, respectivamente) (P <0,05); e a densidade de MMP-9 foi menor em S3 (133,60 pixels) do que em S1 e S2 (359,60 e 370,60 pixels, respectivamente). A densidade do proMMP-2 era baixa em S1 e S3 (130,45 e 145,20 pixels, respectivamente). Por outro lado, a densidade do proMMP-9 foi estatisticamente diferente entre S1 e S3(89,22 vs. 415,60 pixels). ProMMP-2 e proMMP-9 estavam ausentes no S2. Assim, MMP-2 e [...].


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Infecções por Lentivirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/sangue , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/patogenicidade , Metaloproteases/sangue , Ruminantes/sangue , Ruminantes/virologia
6.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 41(06,supl. 2): 3165-3176, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26736

Resumo

Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a lentiviral disease that leads to considerable losses in goat farming. In the acute phase of viral infection, though antiviral antibodies are produced by the host's immune system, they are not sufficient to be detected by serological tests. Acute infections begin with an incubation period, during which the viral genome replicates and host innate responses are initiated. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that play an important role in the physiological and pathological processes of tissue remodeling. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of MMPs and their activity in the blood serum of male goats experimentally infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Five dairy male goats, aged 3-4 years, were intravenously inoculated with CAEV Cork strain (titer: 105-6 TCID50/mL) after being tested negative for CAEV thrice at consecutive intervals of 30 days using western blot analysis and nested-PCR. The study included three stages: S1 or pre-infection stage; S2 or seroconversion stage, corresponding to the occurrence of first seroconversion; and S3 or post-seroconversion stage, corresponding to 23 weeks after seroconversion. Zymography was performed for the samples using gelatin zymography gels (12.5%), which were subjected to electrophoresis at 170V, 1A, and 300W for 50-70 min. The density of MMP-2 was found to be lower at S1 (1456.20 pixels) than that at S2 and S3 (1943.80 and 2104.40 pixels, respectively) (P < 0.05); and the density of MMP-9 was found to be lower at S3 (133.60 pixels) than that at S1 and S2 (359.60 and 370.60 pixels, respectively). The density of proMMP-2 was low at S1 and S3 (130.45 and 145.20 pixels, respectively). On the other hand, the density of proMMP-9 was statistically different between S1 and S3 (89.22 vs. 415.60 pixels). Both proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 were absent at S2. Thus, MMP-2 and MMP9 exhibited opposite behaviors depending on the stage [...].(AU)


A encefalite por artrite caprina é uma doença lentiviral que leva a perdas consideráveis na criação de caprinos. Na fase aguda da infecção viral, embora os anticorpos antivirais sejam produzidos pelo sistema imunológico do hospedeiro, eles não são suficientes para serem detectados por testes sorológicos. As infecções agudas começam com um período de incubação, durante o qual o genoma viral se replica e as respostas inatas do hospedeiro são iniciadas. As metaloproteinases da matriz (MMPs) são enzimas que desempenham um papel importante nos processos fisiológicos e patológicos da remodelação tecidual. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a expressão de MMPs e sua atividade no soro sanguíneo de reprodutores caprinos infectados experimentalmente pelo vírus da encefalite por artrite caprina(CAEV). Cinco machos caprinos, com idades entre 3-4 anos, foram inoculadas por via intravenosa com a cepa de CAEV Cork (título: 105-6 TCID50/mL) após serem testados negativamente para CAEV três vezes em intervalos consecutivos de 30 dias usando a análise de western blot e nested-PCR. O estudo incluiu três etapas: estágio S1 ou pré-infecção; S2 ou estágio de soroconversão, correspondente à ocorrência de primeira soroconversão; e S3 ou pós-soroconversão, correspondendo a 23 semanas após a soroconversão. A zimografia foi realizada para as amostras utilizando gel de gelatina (12,5%), que foram submetidos à eletroforese em 170V, 1A e 300W por 50-70 min. Verificou-se que a densidade de MMP-2era menor em S1 (1456,20 pixels) do que em S2 e S3 (1943,80 e 2104,40 pixels, respectivamente) (P <0,05); e a densidade de MMP-9 foi menor em S3 (133,60 pixels) do que em S1 e S2 (359,60 e 370,60 pixels, respectivamente). A densidade do proMMP-2 era baixa em S1 e S3 (130,45 e 145,20 pixels, respectivamente). Por outro lado, a densidade do proMMP-9 foi estatisticamente diferente entre S1 e S3(89,22 vs. 415,60 pixels). ProMMP-2 e proMMP-9 estavam ausentes no S2. Assim, MMP-2 e [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Lentivirus/sangue , Infecções por Lentivirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Ruminantes/sangue , Ruminantes/virologia , Metaloproteases/sangue
7.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e148218, 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002496

Resumo

Tityus serrulatus venom (Ts venom) is a complex mixture of several compounds with biotechnological and therapeutical potentials, which highlights the importance of the identification and characterization of these components. Although a considerable number of studies have been dedicated to the characterization of this complex cocktail, there is still a limitation of knowledge concerning its venom composition. Most of Ts venom studies aim to isolate and characterize their neurotoxins, which are small, basic proteins and are eluted with high buffer concentrations on cation exchange chromatography. The first and largest fraction from carboxymethyl cellulose-52 (CMC-52) chromatography of Ts venom, named fraction I (Fr I), is a mixture of proteins of high and low molecular masses, which do not interact with the cation exchange resin, being therefore a probable source of components still unknown of this venom. Thus, the present study aimed to perform the proteome study of Fraction I from Ts venom, by high resolution mass spectrometry, and its biochemical characterization, by the determination of several enzymatic activities. Methods: Fraction I was obtained by a cation exchange chromatography using 50 mg of crude venom. This fraction was subjected to a biochemical characterization, including determination of L-amino acid oxidase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, proteases activities and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Fraction I was submitted to reduction, alkylation and digestion processes, and the tryptic digested peptides obtained were analyzed in a Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Data analysis was performed by PEAKS 8.5 software against NCBI database. Results: Fraction I exhibits proteolytic activity and it was able to inhibit ACE activity. Its proteome analysis identified 8 different classes of venom components, among them: neurotoxins (48%), metalloproteinases (21%), hypotensive peptides (11%), cysteine-rich venom protein (9%), antimicrobial peptides (AMP), phospholipases and other enzymes (chymotrypsin and lysozymes) (3%) and phosphodiesterases (2%). Conclusions: The combination of a proteomic and biochemical characterization strategies leads us to identify new components in the T. serrulatus scorpion venom. The proteome of venom´s fraction can provide valuable direction in the obtainment of components in their native forms in order to perform a preliminary characterization and, consequently, to promote advances in biological discoveries in toxinology.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Venenos de Escorpião , Produtos Biológicos , Proteoma , Metaloproteases , Neurotoxinas , Fosfolipases , Enzimas
8.
Ci. Rural ; 49(7): e20180262, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-22689

Resumo

In healthy cartilage, chondrocytes maintain an expression of collagens and proteoglycans and are sensitive to growth factors and cytokines that either enhance or reduce type II collagen synthesis. In osteoarthritis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, induce overexpression of metalloproteinases (MMP) and decreasing synthesis of aggrecan. Use of chondroprotectors agents, such as Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and triamcinolone (TA) are alternatives to reduce the progression of joint damage. In this study, we used chondrocytes extracted from metacarpophalangeal joints of healthy horses as the experimental model. Cells were treated in vitro with PRP or TA. No differences were observed between these treatments in comparison to the control group when the expressions of MMP9, MMP13, IL-6 and ACAN genes were evaluated (P<0.05). With these results, we can suggest that the treatments were not deleterious to equine cultured chondrocyte, once they did not stimulate MMPs and IL-6 synthesis or caused changes in ACAN.(AU)


Na cartilagem saudável, os condrócitos mantêm a expressão de colágenos e proteoglicanos, sendo sensíveis a fatores de crescimento e citocinas que aumentam ou reduzem a síntese de colágeno tipo II. Na osteoartrite, citocinas pró-inflamatórias, como a IL-6, estimulam a expressão de metaloproteinases (MMP) e reduzem a síntese de agrecano. O uso de condroprotetores, como o Plasma Rico em Plaquetas (PRP) e triancinolona (TA) é uma alternativa para se reduzir a progressão do dano articular. Neste estudo foram usados condrócitos extraídos das articulações metacarpofalangeanas de equinos saudáveis. As células foram tratadas in vitro com TA ou PRP. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos comparando-se com o grupo controle quanto à expressão genética de MMP-9, MMP-13, IL-6 e ACAN (p<0,05). Assim, pode-se sugerir que os tratamentos não foram deletérios ao cultivo de condrócitos, uma vez que não estimularam a síntese de MMP e IL-6 e nem causaram alterações no ACAN.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Interleucina-6 , Metaloproteases , Agrecanas , Técnicas In Vitro
9.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 36, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976026

Resumo

Animal poisons and venoms are sources of biomolecules naturally selected. Rhinella schneideri toads are widespread in the whole Brazilian territory and they have poison glands and mucous gland. Recently, protein from toads' secretion has gaining attention. Frog skin is widely known to present great number of host defense peptides and we hypothesize toads present them as well. In this study, we used a RNA-seq analysis from R. schneideri skin and biochemical tests with the gland secretion to unravel its protein molecules. Methods: Total RNA from the toad skin was extracted using TRizol reagent, sequenced in duplicate using Illumina Hiseq2500 in paired end analysis. The raw reads were trimmed and de novo assembled using Trinity. The resulting sequences were submitted to functional annotation against non-redundant NCBI database and Database of Anuran Defense Peptide. Furthermore, we performed caseinolytic activity test to assess the presence of serine and metalloproteases in skin secretion and it was fractionated by fast liquid protein chromatography using a reverse-phase column. The fractions were partially sequenced by Edman's degradation. Results: We were able to identify several classes of antimicrobial peptides, such as buforins, peroniins and brevinins, as well as PLA2, lectins and galectins, combining protein sequencing and RNA-seq analysis for the first time. In addition, we could isolate a PLA2 from the skin secretion and infer the presence of serine proteases in cutaneous secretion. Conclusions: We identified novel toxins and proteins from R. schneideri mucous glands. Besides, this is a pioneer study that presented the in depth characterization of protein molecules richness from this toad secretion. The results obtained herein showed evidence of novel AMP and enzymes that need to be further explored.(AU)


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Venenos , Metaloproteases , Serina Proteases , Secreções Corporais , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
10.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 39(5): 1981-1992, Sept.-Oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-22757

Resumo

This study evaluated the activity of the ethanolic extract of pequi peel (EEPP) and immunostaining with matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in the myocardium of rats subjected to acute cardiotoxicity using doxorubicin (DOX). Thirty Wistar rats (six groups of five animals) were used as follows: sham group (SG), water and saline; group G1, 16 mg/kg of DOX and 300 mg/kg of EEPP for 17 days; group G2, 16 mg/kg of DOX and 600 mg/kg of EEPP for 17 days; group G3, 16 mg/kg of DOX and 300 mg/kg of EEPP for 10 days; group G4, 16 mg/kg of DOX and 600 mg/kg of EEPP for 10 days; and control group (CG), 16 mg/kg of DOX. Three days after administering DOX (day 17), euthanasia was performed, and samples were collected for anatomopathological analysis. Myocyte vacuolar degeneration, cardiomyocyte disorganization and myofibrillar fragmentation, necrosis, mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, Anitschkow cells, fibrosis, congestion, and edema were observed in the hearts of DOX recipients. In G1 and G2, EEPP attenuated myocyte vacuolar degeneration whereas in G4, EEPP attenuated cardiomyocyte disorganization. The percentage of cells immunoreactive for TIMP1 was higher in G1. It was concluded that EEPP minimizes the deleterious effects of DOX on rat myocardium. Doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg for 17 days attenuate the vacuolar degeneration of myocytes. The dose of 600 mg/kg for 10 days reduced cardiomyocyte disorganization, and the dose of 300 mg/kg for 17 days increased TIMP1 expression in the myocardium of DOX-treated rats.(AU)


Avaliou-se a ação do extrato etanólico da casca do pequi (EECP) e a imunomarcação de metaloproteinases de matriz 2 e 9 (MMP2 e MMP9), e inibidores teciduais das metaloproteinases de matriz 1 e 2 (TIMP1 e TIMP2), no miocárdio de ratos submetidos à cardiotoxicidade aguda pela doxorrubicina (DOX). Utilizaram-se 30 ratos Wistar, em seis grupos de cinco animais, sendo Grupo Sham (GS) água e salina; (G1) 16 mg/kg de DOX e 300 mg/kg de EECP por 17 dias; (G2) 16 mg/kg de DOX e 600 mg/kg de EECP por 17 dias; (G3) 16 mg/kg de DOX e 300 mg/kg de EECP por 10 dias; (G4) 16 mg/kg de DOX e 600 mg/kg de EECP por 10 dias; e grupo controle (GC) 16 mg/kg de DOX. Três dias após a aplicação da DOX, no dia 17, realizaram-se a eutanásia e colheita de amostras para análises antomopatológicas. No coração dos ratos que receberam DOX observaram-se degeneração vacuolar miocítica, desorganização dos cardiomiócitos e fragmentação das miofibrilas, necrose, infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear, células de Anitschkow, fibrose, congestão e edema. Nos grupos G1 e G2 o EECP atenuou a degeneração vacuolar miocítica e no G4 atenuou a desorganização dos cardiomiócitos. TIMP1 foi constatada em maior porcentagem de células marcadas no grupo de ratos que recebeu 300 mg/kg do EECP por 17 dias. Conclui-se que o EECP minimiza os efeitos deletérios da DOX no miocárdio de ratos. Nas doses de 300 e 600 mg/kg por 17 dias atenua a degeneração vacuolar miocítica, a 600 mg/kg por 10 dias reduz a desorganização dos cardiomiócitos e a 300 mg/kg por 17 dias aumenta a expressão de TIMP1 no miocárdio de ratos tratados com DOX.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cobaias , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Ericales , Ratos Wistar , Metaloproteases , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976031

Resumo

Lachesis muta rhombeata (Lmr) is the largest venomous snake in Latin America and its venom contains mainly enzymatic components, such as serine and metalloproteases, L-amino acid oxidase and phospholipases A2. Metalloproteases comprise a large group of zinc-dependent proteases that cleave basement membrane components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV. These enzymes are responsible for local and systemic changes, including haemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation. This study aimed the isolation and enzymatic characterization of the first metalloprotease (Lmr-MP) from Lmr venom (LmrV). Methods and results: Lmr-MP was purified through two chromatographic steps and submitted to enzymatic characterization. It showed proteolytic activity on azocasein with maximum activity at pH 7.0-9.0. It was inhibited by EDTA (a metal chelator that removes zinc, which is essential for enzymatic activity) and no effect was observed with PMSF, iodoacetic acid or pepstatin (inhibitors of serine, cysteine and aspartyl proteases, respectively). Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ba2+ ions increased its activity, while Al3+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ inhibited it. Additionally, ZnCl2 showed a dose dependent inhibition of the enzyme. Lmr-MP activity was also evaluated upon chromogenic substrates for plasma kallikrein (S-2302), plasmin and streptokinase-activated plasminogen (S-2251) and Factor Xa (S-2222) showing the highest activity on S-2302. The activity in different solutions (5 mM or 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 7.8; 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid + 50% acetonitrile; phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.4; 50 mM sodium acetate, pH 4.0 or ammonium acetate pH 4.5) was also evaluated and the results showed that its activity was abolished at acidic pHs. Its molecular mass (22,858 Da) was determined by MALDI-TOF and about 90% of its primary structure was verified by high-resolution mass spectrometry using HCD and ETD fragmentations and database search against the sequence of closely related species. It is a novel enzyme which shared high identity with other snake venom metalloproteases (svMPs) belonging to the P-I group. Conclusion: The purification procedure achieved a novel pure highly active metalloprotease from LmrV. This new molecule can help to understand the metalloproteases mechanisms of action, the Lachesis envenoming, as well as to open new perspectives for its use as therapeutic tools.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Venenos de Serpentes , Lachesis muta , Metaloproteases , Ácido Aspártico Proteases
12.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 24: 32, Dec. 17, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19373

Resumo

Background: Lachesis muta rhombeata (Lmr) is the largest venomous snake in Latin America and its venom contains mainly enzymatic components, such as serine and metalloproteases, L-amino acid oxidase and phospholipases A2. Metalloproteases comprise a large group of zinc-dependent proteases that cleave basement membrane components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV. These enzymes are responsible for local and systemic changes, including haemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation. This study aimed the isolation and enzymatic characterization of the first metalloprotease (Lmr-MP) from Lmr venom (LmrV). Methods and results: Lmr-MP was purified through two chromatographic steps and submitted to enzymatic characterization. It showed proteolytic activity on azocasein with maximum activity at pH 7.0-9.0. It was inhibited by EDTA (a metal chelator that removes zinc, which is essential for enzymatic activity) and no effect was observed with PMSF, iodoacetic acid or pepstatin (inhibitors of serine, cysteine and aspartyl proteases, respectively). Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ba2+ ions increased its activity, while Al3+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ inhibited it. Additionally, ZnCl2 showed a dose dependent inhibition of the enzyme. Lmr-MP activity was also evaluated upon chromogenic substrates for plasma kallikrein (S-2302), plasmin and streptokinase-activated plasminogen (S-2251) and Factor Xa (S-2222) showing the highest activity on S-2302. The activity in different solutions (5 mM or 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 7.8; 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid + 50% acetonitrile; phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.4; 50 mM sodium acetate, pH 4.0 or ammonium acetate pH 4.5) was also evaluated and the results showed that its activity was abolished at acidic pHs. Its molecular mass (22,858 Da) was determined by MALDI-TOF and about 90% of its primary structure was verified by high-resolution mass spectrometry... (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Viperidae , Venenos de Víboras/análise , Venenos de Víboras/química , Enzimas , Metaloproteases/química
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 45-52, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888079

Resumo

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão das MMP-2 e MMP-9 no tecido laminar do casco e o perfil leucocitário de equinos submetidos à obstrução intraluminal do cólon menor. Realizaram-se laparotomia e obstrução do cólon menor de oito equinos hígidos, utilizando-se uma bola inserida no lúmem intestinal. A bola foi inflada à pressão de 80mmHg e a obstrução foi mantida por quatro horas. Foram realizadas coletas sanguíneas antes da obstrução (M0), imediatamente após a desobstrução (M4) e a cada 12 horas após M4, até completar 72 horas (M12, M24, M36, M48, M60 e M72). As biópsias de casco foram realizadas em M0, M4 e M72, e as amostras foram submetidas à análise zimográfica. Foi observado aumento nos leucócitos em M12 e M24, decorrente do aumento de neutrófilos segmentados e bastonetes, os quais diminuíram a partir de M36. Segundo a técnica zimográfica, não se observaram alterações nos valores de MMP-2 e -9, possivelmente devido à baixa intensidade das lesões ocasionadas no cólon menor. Com isso, conclui-se que as alterações inflamatórias decorrentes da obstrução do cólon menor não foram suficientes para ocasionar alterações na expressão das MMP-2 e -9 no tecido laminar podal.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood leukocytes and the MMP-2 and -9 expression in the hoof laminar tissue of horses undergoing intraluminal small colon obstruction. Laparotomy and the small colon obstruction was performed in eight healthy horses, inserting a ball in the intestinal lumen. The ball was inflated to 80 mmHg pressure and the occlusion was maintained for 4 hours. The blood was collectedBlood samples were taken before the obstruction (M0), immediately after intestinal clearance (M4), and every 12 hours until completeuntil 72 hours (M12, M24, M36, M48, M60 and M72). The hoof biopsies were performed at M0, M4, and M72 and the samples were subjected to zymography analysis. There was an increase in leukocytes in M12 and M24, due to the increase in segmented neutrophils and band neutrophils, which decreased as of M36. According to zymography technique not observed changes were not not observed in MMP-2 and -9, possibly due to the low intensity of the small colon lesions. Wherefore, it is concludedIn conclusion, that the inflammatory changes resulting from small colon obstruction were not enough to cause changes in the expression of MMP-2 and -9 in the hoof laminar tissue.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Biópsia , Metaloproteases/análise , Cavalos/anormalidades , Inflamação/classificação , Claudicação Intermitente/classificação
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 45-52, jan.-fev. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19249

Resumo

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão das MMP-2 e MMP-9 no tecido laminar do casco e o perfil leucocitário de equinos submetidos à obstrução intraluminal do cólon menor. Realizaram-se laparotomia e obstrução do cólon menor de oito equinos hígidos, utilizando-se uma bola inserida no lúmem intestinal. A bola foi inflada à pressão de 80mmHg e a obstrução foi mantida por quatro horas. Foram realizadas coletas sanguíneas antes da obstrução (M0), imediatamente após a desobstrução (M4) e a cada 12 horas após M4, até completar 72 horas (M12, M24, M36, M48, M60 e M72). As biópsias de casco foram realizadas em M0, M4 e M72, e as amostras foram submetidas à análise zimográfica. Foi observado aumento nos leucócitos em M12 e M24, decorrente do aumento de neutrófilos segmentados e bastonetes, os quais diminuíram a partir de M36. Segundo a técnica zimográfica, não se observaram alterações nos valores de MMP-2 e -9, possivelmente devido à baixa intensidade das lesões ocasionadas no cólon menor. Com isso, conclui-se que as alterações inflamatórias decorrentes da obstrução do cólon menor não foram suficientes para ocasionar alterações na expressão das MMP-2 e -9 no tecido laminar podal.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood leukocytes and the MMP-2 and -9 expression in the hoof laminar tissue of horses undergoing intraluminal small colon obstruction. Laparotomy and the small colon obstruction was performed in eight healthy horses, inserting a ball in the intestinal lumen. The ball was inflated to 80 mmHg pressure and the occlusion was maintained for 4 hours. The blood was collectedBlood samples were taken before the obstruction (M0), immediately after intestinal clearance (M4), and every 12 hours until completeuntil 72 hours (M12, M24, M36, M48, M60 and M72). The hoof biopsies were performed at M0, M4, and M72 and the samples were subjected to zymography analysis. There was an increase in leukocytes in M12 and M24, due to the increase in segmented neutrophils and band neutrophils, which decreased as of M36. According to zymography technique not observed changes were not not observed in MMP-2 and -9, possibly due to the low intensity of the small colon lesions. Wherefore, it is concludedIn conclusion, that the inflammatory changes resulting from small colon obstruction were not enough to cause changes in the expression of MMP-2 and -9 in the hoof laminar tissue.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Metaloproteases/análise , Biópsia , Inflamação/classificação , Claudicação Intermitente/classificação , Cavalos/anormalidades
15.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954849

Resumo

Background: Snake venoms are a complex mixture of proteins, organic and inorganic compounds. Some of these proteins, enzymatic or non-enzymatic ones, are able to interact with platelet receptors, causing hemostatic disorders. The possible therapeutic potential of toxins with antiplatelet properties may arouse interest in the pharmacological areas. The present study aimed to purify and characterize an antiplatelet DC protein from Bothrops alternatus snake venom. Methods: The protein, called BaltDC (DC protein from B. alternatus snake venom), was purified by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel column and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. The molecular mass was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE). The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region was carried out by Edman degradation method. Platelet aggregation assays were performed in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used in order to elucidate the interactions between BaltDC and platelet membrane. Results: BaltDC ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE and showed apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa under reducing or non-reducing conditions. The N-terminal region of the purified protein revealed the amino acid sequence IISPPVCGNELLEVGEECDCGTPENCQNECCDA, which showed identity with other snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). BaltDC was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic, defibrinating or coagulant activities, but it showed a specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin and epinephrine in PRP. IR analysis spectra strongly suggests that PO 3 2 − groups, present in BaltDC, form hydrogen bonds with the PO 2 − groups present in the non-lipid portion of the membrane platelets. Conclusions: BaltDC may be of medical interest since it was able to inhibit platelet aggregation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Venenos de Serpentes , Análise Espectral , Agregação Plaquetária , Bothrops , Transtornos Hemostáticos , Metaloproteases , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
16.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32121

Resumo

Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins). Recently, toxins with low levels of expression have also been found in Loxosceles venom, such as serine proteases, protease inhibitors (serpins), hyaluronidases, allergen-like toxins and histamine-releasing factors. The toxin belonging to the phospholipase-D family (also known as the dermonecrotic toxin) is the most studied class of brown spider toxins. This class of toxins single-handedly can induce inflammatory response, dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. The functional role of the hyaluronidase toxin as a spreading factor in loxoscelism has also been demonstrated. However, the biological characterization of other toxins remains unclear and the mechanism by which Loxosceles toxins exert their noxious effects is yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into brown spider venom toxins and toxicology, including a description of historical data already available in the literature. In this review article, the identification processes of novel Loxosceles toxins by molecular biology and proteomic approaches, their biological characterization and structural description based on x-ray crystallography and putative biotechnological uses are described along with the future perspectives in this field.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Venenos de Aranha , Fosfolipase D , Metaloproteases , Inseticidas , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Aranhas
17.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31762

Resumo

Background: Snake venoms are a complex mixture of proteins, organic and inorganic compounds. Some of these proteins, enzymatic or non-enzymatic ones, are able to interact with platelet receptors, causing hemostatic disorders. The possible therapeutic potential of toxins with antiplatelet properties may arouse interest in the pharmacological areas. The present study aimed to purify and characterize an antiplatelet DC protein from Bothrops alternatus snake venom. Methods: The protein, called BaltDC (DC protein from B. alternatus snake venom), was purified by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel column and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. The molecular mass was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE). The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region was carried out by Edman degradation method. Platelet aggregation assays were performed in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used in order to elucidate the interactions between BaltDC and platelet membrane. Results: BaltDC ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE and showed apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa under reducing or non-reducing conditions. The N-terminal region of the purified protein revealed the amino acid sequence IISPPVCGNELLEVGEECDCGTPENCQNECCDA, which showed identity with other snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). BaltDC was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic, defibrinating or coagulant activities, but it showed a specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin and epinephrine in PRP. IR analysis spectra strongly suggests that PO 3 2 − groups, present in BaltDC, form hydrogen bonds with the PO 2 − groups present in the non-lipid portion of the membrane platelets. Conclusions: BaltDC may be of medical interest since it was able to inhibit platelet aggregation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Venenos de Serpentes , Análise Espectral , Agregação Plaquetária , Bothrops , Transtornos Hemostáticos , Metaloproteases , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(1): 123-129, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-690986

Resumo

As proteases fibrinolíticas são capazes de degradar coágulos de fibrina formados dentro dos vasos sanguíneos, evitando a trombose intravascular. Em animais, a tromboflebite, que acomete frequentemente os equinos, ocasiona, em seus casos graves, a obstrução jugular e também um edema de laringe, derivando a obstrução das vias aéreas, o que possibilita um edema cerebral, ocorrendo o óbito do animal. Devido ao fato de o tratamento ser de custo elevado, faz-se necessária a investigação de outras fontesde proteases fibrinolíticas com custos menores e com menos efeitos colaterais. Diante disso, este estudo tem como objetivo produzir e caracterizar proteases fibrinolíticas obtidas de Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573. Para produção da enzima, foi utilizado um planejamento fatorial 24 avaliando a concentração da farinha de soja (0,5, 1,0 e 1,5%) e da glicose (0, 0,5 e 1,0g/L), temperatura (28, 32 e 37ºC) e agitação (150, 200 e 250rpm) sobre a biomassa e a atividade fibrinolítica. Pode-se verificar que a protease fibrinolítica apresentou atividade máxima (835U/mL) nas condições de concentração de 1,5% de soja, 1g/L de glicose, 28°C e 150rpm com 48 horas de fermentação. A protease fibrinolítica obtida teve temperatura e pH ótimos de 55°C e pH 9,0, respectivamente. A atividade enzimática foi inibida pelo EDTA, pelo íon Fe2+ e pelo SDS, o que indicou a enzima ser uma metaloprotease. A linhagem Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573 foi capaz de produzir protease fibrinolítica, possuindo características bioquímicas favoráveis à aplicação na medicina veterinária e possivelmente humana.(AU)


Fibrinolytic proteases are able to degrade fibrin clot formed in the blood vessel, avoiding intravascular thrombosis. In animals, thrombophlebitis often affects horses, and in severe cases causes obstruction of the jugular and laryngeal edema leading to airway obstruction allowing cerebral edema resulting in the death of the animal. Since treatment is costly, the investigation of other sources of fibrinolytic proteases at lower cost and with fewer side effects is needed. Thus, this study aims to produce and characterize fibrinolytic proteases from Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573. For enzyme production, a factorial design was performed to evaluate 24 soybean flour concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) and glucose (0, 0.5 and 1.0g/L), temperature (28, 32 and 37°C) and agitation (150, 200 and 250rpm) on biomass and fibrinolytic activity. Fibrinolytic protease showed maximum activity (835 U/mL) under these conditions: 1.5% soybean flour, 1g/L glucose, 28°C, and 150rpm 48 hours of fermentation. The optimal temperature was 55°C and optimal pH was 9.0. Fibrinolytic protease activity was inhibited by EDTA, the ion Fe2+, and by SDS, which indicated that the enzyme is a metallo-protease. The strain Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573 was able to produce fibrinolytic protease with biochemical characteristics favorable for application in veterinary and human medicine.(AU)


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases/análise , Streptomyces , Fermentação , Fibrinolíticos , Metaloproteases
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 123-129, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-834162

Resumo

As proteases fibrinolíticas são capazes de degradar coágulos de fibrina formados dentro dos vasos sanguíneos, evitando a trombose intravascular. Em animais, a tromboflebite, que acomete frequentemente os equinos, ocasiona, em seus casos graves, a obstrução jugular e também um edema de laringe, derivando a obstrução das vias aéreas, o que possibilita um edema cerebral, ocorrendo o óbito do animal. Devido ao fato de o tratamento ser de custo elevado, faz-se necessária a investigação de outras fontesde proteases fibrinolíticas com custos menores e com menos efeitos colaterais. Diante disso, este estudo tem como objetivo produzir e caracterizar proteases fibrinolíticas obtidas de Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573. Para produção da enzima, foi utilizado um planejamento fatorial 24 avaliando a concentração da farinha de soja (0,5, 1,0 e 1,5%) e da glicose (0, 0,5 e 1,0g/L), temperatura (28, 32 e 37ºC) e agitação (150, 200 e 250rpm) sobre a biomassa e a atividade fibrinolítica. Pode-se verificar que a protease fibrinolítica apresentou atividade máxima (835U/mL) nas condições de concentração de 1,5% de soja, 1g/L de glicose, 28°C e 150rpm com 48 horas de fermentação. A protease fibrinolítica obtida teve temperatura e pH ótimos de 55°C e pH 9,0, respectivamente. A atividade enzimática foi inibida pelo EDTA, pelo íon Fe2+ e pelo SDS, o que indicou a enzima ser uma metaloprotease. A linhagem Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573 foi capaz de produzir protease fibrinolítica, possuindo características bioquímicas favoráveis à aplicação na medicina veterinária e possivelmente humana.(AU)


Fibrinolytic proteases are able to degrade fibrin clot formed in the blood vessel, avoiding intravascular thrombosis. In animals, thrombophlebitis often affects horses, and in severe cases causes obstruction of the jugular and laryngeal edema leading to airway obstruction allowing cerebral edema resulting in the death of the animal. Since treatment is costly, the investigation of other sources of fibrinolytic proteases at lower cost and with fewer side effects is needed. Thus, this study aims to produce and characterize fibrinolytic proteases from Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573. For enzyme production, a factorial design was performed to evaluate 24 soybean flour concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) and glucose (0, 0.5 and 1.0g/L), temperature (28, 32 and 37°C) and agitation (150, 200 and 250rpm) on biomass and fibrinolytic activity. Fibrinolytic protease showed maximum activity (835 U/mL) under these conditions: 1.5% soybean flour, 1g/L glucose, 28°C, and 150rpm 48 hours of fermentation. The optimal temperature was 55°C and optimal pH was 9.0. Fibrinolytic protease activity was inhibited by EDTA, the ion Fe2+, and by SDS, which indicated that the enzyme is a metallo-protease. The strain Streptomyces parvulus DPUA 1573 was able to produce fibrinolytic protease with biochemical characteristics favorable for application in veterinary and human medicine.(AU)


Assuntos
Fermentação , Fibrinolíticos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/análise , Streptomyces , Metaloproteases
20.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954813

Resumo

Abstract Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins). Recently, toxins with low levels of expression have also been found in Loxosceles venom, such as serine proteases, protease inhibitors (serpins), hyaluronidases, allergen-like toxins and histamine-releasing factors. The toxin belonging to the phospholipase-D family (also known as the dermonecrotic toxin) is the most studied class of brown spider toxins. This class of toxins single-handedly can induce inflammatory response, dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. The functional role of the hyaluronidase toxin as a spreading factor in loxoscelism has also been demonstrated. However, the biological characterization of other toxins remains unclear and the mechanism by which Loxosceles toxins exert their noxious effects is yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into brown spider venom toxins and toxicology, including a description of historical data already available in the literature. In this review article, the identification processes of novel Loxosceles toxins by molecular biology and proteomic approaches, their biological characterization and structural description based on x-ray crystallography and putative biotechnological uses are described along with the future perspectives in this field.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Venenos de Aranha , Aranhas , Toxicologia , Metaloproteases , Serina Proteases
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