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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48(suppl.1): Pub.521-4 jan. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458348

Resumo

Background: South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus spp.) envenomation is rarely reported in small animals andlivestock in Brazil. Minor swelling at the snakebite site, skeletal muscle, and renal damage, and severe neurological signscharacterize the crotalic envenomation. This case report aims to present epidemiological, clinical, and pathological dataof two cases of Crotalus durissus spp envenomation in dogs in the Northeast of Brazil.Cases: Envenomation by Crotalus durissus spp. was recorded in two dogs in Patos, State of Paraíba, Brazil. In Case 1,the dog presented flaccid paralysis, hyporeflexia, a deficit of cranial nerves, epistaxis, and gingival hemorrhages. Laboratory assay showed proteinuria, myoglobinuria, regenerative thrombocytopenia, and increased serum activities of creatinekinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The dogwas medicated with crotalic antivenom and wholly recovered from local and systemic clinical signs. In Case 2, the dogdied and was detected fang marks at the ventral region of the left mandible (two small parallel perforations spaced 2.0 cmapart) at the snakebite site. Cyanosis of the oral cavity, congestion, and hemorrhages in several organs were observed atnecropsy. Tubular nephrosis, muscular necrosis, hepatocytes swelling were observed. The owners witnessed snakebites,and the rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus spp.) identified by the rattle at the end portion of the tail in both cases.Discussion: Natural South American rattlesnake envenomation presents complex clinical signs that makes diagnosis achallenge for veterinary practitioners. The criteria for the correct diagnosis and observed in the two dogs include witness ofthe snakebite, identification of the snake, detection of fang marks, clinical-pathological findings, and therapeutic responseto treatment with specific anti-venom....


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/patologia , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Brasil , Crotalus
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 48(suppl.1): Pub. 521, July 19, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31873

Resumo

Background: South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus spp.) envenomation is rarely reported in small animals andlivestock in Brazil. Minor swelling at the snakebite site, skeletal muscle, and renal damage, and severe neurological signscharacterize the crotalic envenomation. This case report aims to present epidemiological, clinical, and pathological dataof two cases of Crotalus durissus spp envenomation in dogs in the Northeast of Brazil.Cases: Envenomation by Crotalus durissus spp. was recorded in two dogs in Patos, State of Paraíba, Brazil. In Case 1,the dog presented flaccid paralysis, hyporeflexia, a deficit of cranial nerves, epistaxis, and gingival hemorrhages. Laboratory assay showed proteinuria, myoglobinuria, regenerative thrombocytopenia, and increased serum activities of creatinekinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The dogwas medicated with crotalic antivenom and wholly recovered from local and systemic clinical signs. In Case 2, the dogdied and was detected fang marks at the ventral region of the left mandible (two small parallel perforations spaced 2.0 cmapart) at the snakebite site. Cyanosis of the oral cavity, congestion, and hemorrhages in several organs were observed atnecropsy. Tubular nephrosis, muscular necrosis, hepatocytes swelling were observed. The owners witnessed snakebites,and the rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus spp.) identified by the rattle at the end portion of the tail in both cases.Discussion: Natural South American rattlesnake envenomation presents complex clinical signs that makes diagnosis achallenge for veterinary practitioners. The criteria for the correct diagnosis and observed in the two dogs include witness ofthe snakebite, identification of the snake, detection of fang marks, clinical-pathological findings, and therapeutic responseto treatment with specific anti-venom....(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/patologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Brasil , Crotalus
3.
Revista Brasileira de Zoociências (Online) ; 20(1): 14-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1494744

Resumo

Os casos de envenenamentos aumentaram consideravelmente no Brasil, no entanto, para o estado do Piauí apenas dois estudos foram realizados até o momento. Aqui, investigamos, através dos formulários de notificação, as características epidemiológicas dos casos de envenenamentos ocorridos durante 11 anos na macrorregião de Picos, estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. Além disso, também verificamos se as espécies registradas nos formulários de notificação correspondem às espécies que ocorrem na região. Registramos 1.249 casos de envenenamentos, sendo 41% causados por escorpiões, 35% causados por serpentes e 24% causados por aranhas. Na maioria dos casos (aracnídeos = 99%, escorpiões = 93%, serpentes = 52%) não houve a identificação da espécie causadora do acidente. A maioria das vítimas dos acidentes (66%) eram indivíduos do sexo masculino entre 18 e 24 anos de áreas rurais, picadas durante atividades de campo na estação chuvosa (janeiro a março). Os locais de lesão mais comuns foram os membros inferiores (37%) e a maioria (53%) dos acidentes foi do tipo leve. Este é o primeiro estudo que reporta o perfil epidemiológico de uma série de envenenamentos (incluindo aracnídeos e serpentes) durante 11 anos de ocorrência no estado do Piauí. Além disso, também apresentamos a primeira lista de espécies de aracnídeos e serpentes de importância médica para o estado. Nossos resultados demonstram que houve uma alta incidência de acidentes por animais peçonhentos na região centro-sul do estado, a maioria dos registros não foi notificada no SINAN, a maioria dos registros não apresentou a identificação das espécies responsáveis pelo acidente, e há registros cujas espécies foram identificadas incorretamente.


Cases of poisoning have increased considerably in Brazil, however for state of Piauí only two studies were carried out so far. Here, we investigated, through the notification forms, the epidemiological characteristics of cases of poisoning that occurred during 11 years in a macro-region of Picos, state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil. Furthermore, we also check whether the species recorded in the notification forms correspond to the species that occur in the region. We recorded 1.249 cases of envenomations, being 41% caused by scorpions, 35% caused by snakes and 24% caused by spiders. Most cases (arachnids = 99%, scorpions = 93%, snakes = 52%) there was no identification of species causing the accident. Most of the victims of the accidents (66%) were male individuals between 18 and 24 years from rural areas, stung during field activities in the rainy season (January-March). The most common injury sites were the lower limbs (37%) and the majority (53%) of the accidents was the mild type. This is the first study that reports the epidemiological profile of a series of envenomations (including arachnids and snakes) during 11 years of records in the state of Piauí. Furthermore, we also present the first list of species of arachnids and snakes of medical importance to the state. Our results demonstrate that there was a high incidence of accidents by venomous animals in the Center-South region of the state, most of the records was not notified in SINAN, most records does not present the identification of the species responsible for the accident, and there are records whose species was incorrectly identified.


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Peçonhentos , Intoxicação/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Picada de Aranha/epidemiologia
4.
R. bras. Zoo. ; 20(1): 14, ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-25890

Resumo

Os casos de envenenamentos aumentaram consideravelmente no Brasil, no entanto, para o estado do Piauí apenas dois estudos foram realizados até o momento. Aqui, investigamos, através dos formulários de notificação, as características epidemiológicas dos casos de envenenamentos ocorridos durante 11 anos na macrorregião de Picos, estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. Além disso, também verificamos se as espécies registradas nos formulários de notificação correspondem às espécies que ocorrem na região. Registramos 1.249 casos de envenenamentos, sendo 41% causados por escorpiões, 35% causados por serpentes e 24% causados por aranhas. Na maioria dos casos (aracnídeos = 99%, escorpiões = 93%, serpentes = 52%) não houve a identificação da espécie causadora do acidente. A maioria das vítimas dos acidentes (66%) eram indivíduos do sexo masculino entre 18 e 24 anos de áreas rurais, picadas durante atividades de campo na estação chuvosa (janeiro a março). Os locais de lesão mais comuns foram os membros inferiores (37%) e a maioria (53%) dos acidentes foi do tipo leve. Este é o primeiro estudo que reporta o perfil epidemiológico de uma série de envenenamentos (incluindo aracnídeos e serpentes) durante 11 anos de ocorrência no estado do Piauí. Além disso, também apresentamos a primeira lista de espécies de aracnídeos e serpentes de importância médica para o estado. Nossos resultados demonstram que houve uma alta incidência de acidentes por animais peçonhentos na região centro-sul do estado, a maioria dos registros não foi notificada no SINAN, a maioria dos registros não apresentou a identificação das espécies responsáveis pelo acidente, e há registros cujas espécies foram identificadas incorretamente.(AU)


Cases of poisoning have increased considerably in Brazil, however for state of Piauí only two studies were carried out so far. Here, we investigated, through the notification forms, the epidemiological characteristics of cases of poisoning that occurred during 11 years in a macro-region of Picos, state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil. Furthermore, we also check whether the species recorded in the notification forms correspond to the species that occur in the region. We recorded 1.249 cases of envenomations, being 41% caused by scorpions, 35% caused by snakes and 24% caused by spiders. Most cases (arachnids = 99%, scorpions = 93%, snakes = 52%) there was no identification of species causing the accident. Most of the victims of the accidents (66%) were male individuals between 18 and 24 years from rural areas, stung during field activities in the rainy season (January-March). The most common injury sites were the lower limbs (37%) and the majority (53%) of the accidents was the mild type. This is the first study that reports the epidemiological profile of a series of envenomations (including arachnids and snakes) during 11 years of records in the state of Piauí. Furthermore, we also present the first list of species of arachnids and snakes of medical importance to the state. Our results demonstrate that there was a high incidence of accidents by venomous animals in the Center-South region of the state, most of the records was not notified in SINAN, most records does not present the identification of the species responsible for the accident, and there are records whose species was incorrectly identified.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Peçonhentos , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Picada de Aranha/epidemiologia , Intoxicação/epidemiologia
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2146-2149, Nov. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976401

Resumo

Snakebites are included in the group of emergencies for domestic animals, and these consultations demand technical knowledge as well as careful clinical evaluation of patients. Because of the importance of this theme and the higher prevalence of snakebites caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, this study aimed to address the epidemiological and clinical aspects of these accidents in dogs in the state, in addition to establishing their incidence. Clinical records of dogs, with a diagnosis of ophidian bothropic accident, assisted at the Toxicological Information Center of Rio Grande do Sul (CIT-RS) were revised from 2014 to 2016. These data were collected at the Toxicological Information Center, Statistics and Evaluation Center, State Secretary of Health. Data on the incidence of accidents and epidemiological and clinical information were obtained for each case. A total of 53 records were revised. In the records that included animal sex (n=49), 53% were female and 46.9% were male. As for animal age (n=47), the dogs ranged from one to 14 years, and most of them (46.9%) were in the 1-4-year age group. Over half of the cases occurred in the rural area (60.7%), and the head and neck were the main venom inoculation sites (76.3%). Diseases were characterized by clinical courses varying from hyperacute (<30 min to 6h), acute (6-24h), to subacute (4-5 days). Severe accidents accounted for 40% of the cases, with edema as the most frequent clinical sign (88.7%) followed by hemorrhagic manifestations (41.5%). Associations of epidemiological and clinical aspects coupled with history of exposure are important characteristics to assist with suspicion and definitive diagnosis of bothropic accidents in dogs.(AU)


Os acidentes ofídicos se enquadram no grupo de emergências para animais domésticos e esses atendimentos demandam conhecimento técnico, aliado a uma criteriosa avaliação clínica do paciente. Devido à importância do tema e a maior frequência de acidentes ofídicos provocados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops no Rio Grande do Sul, esse estudo teve como objetivo abordar os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos desses acidentes em cães nesse estado, além de estabelecer a frequência em que ocorrem. Foram revisados os protocolos de atendimentos clínicos de cães realizados pelo Centro de Informações Toxicológicas do Rio Grande do Sul (CIT-RS) com diagnóstico de acidente ofídico botrópico, entre o período de 2014 e 2016. Esses dados fazem parte do Centro de informação Toxicológica, Secretaria da Saúde, RS, Núcleo de Estatística e Avaliação. Foram obtidos dados relacionados à frequência dos acidentes e informações referentes à epidemiologia e à clínica de cada caso. Totalizaram-se 53 registros de atendimentos. Dos protocolos que informaram o sexo (n=49), 53% corresponderam a fêmeas e 46,9%, a machos. Em relação à idade (n=47), houve uma variação entre um e 14 anos, com maior concentração dos casos entre 1-4 anos (46,9%). Mais da metade dos atendimentos ocorreu em zona rural (60,7%) e a cabeça e o pescoço foram os principais locais de inoculação do veneno botrópico (76,3%). Observou-se uma doença com um curso que variou de hiperagudo (<30 min à 6h), agudo (6-24h) a subagudo (4-5 dias). Acidentes graves representaram 40% dos casos, no qual edema foi o sinal clínico mais frequente (88,7%), seguido por manifestações hemorrágicas (41,5%). A associação dos aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos, aliados ao histórico de exposição, constituem características importantes que auxiliam na suspeita e no diagnóstico definitivo do acidente botrópico em animais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Bothrops , Cães/lesões
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2146-2149, Nov. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19336

Resumo

Snakebites are included in the group of emergencies for domestic animals, and these consultations demand technical knowledge as well as careful clinical evaluation of patients. Because of the importance of this theme and the higher prevalence of snakebites caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, this study aimed to address the epidemiological and clinical aspects of these accidents in dogs in the state, in addition to establishing their incidence. Clinical records of dogs, with a diagnosis of ophidian bothropic accident, assisted at the Toxicological Information Center of Rio Grande do Sul (CIT-RS) were revised from 2014 to 2016. These data were collected at the Toxicological Information Center, Statistics and Evaluation Center, State Secretary of Health. Data on the incidence of accidents and epidemiological and clinical information were obtained for each case. A total of 53 records were revised. In the records that included animal sex (n=49), 53% were female and 46.9% were male. As for animal age (n=47), the dogs ranged from one to 14 years, and most of them (46.9%) were in the 1-4-year age group. Over half of the cases occurred in the rural area (60.7%), and the head and neck were the main venom inoculation sites (76.3%). Diseases were characterized by clinical courses varying from hyperacute (<30 min to 6h), acute (6-24h), to subacute (4-5 days). Severe accidents accounted for 40% of the cases, with edema as the most frequent clinical sign (88.7%) followed by hemorrhagic manifestations (41.5%). Associations of epidemiological and clinical aspects coupled with history of exposure are important characteristics to assist with suspicion and definitive diagnosis of bothropic accidents in dogs.(AU)


Os acidentes ofídicos se enquadram no grupo de emergências para animais domésticos e esses atendimentos demandam conhecimento técnico, aliado a uma criteriosa avaliação clínica do paciente. Devido à importância do tema e a maior frequência de acidentes ofídicos provocados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops no Rio Grande do Sul, esse estudo teve como objetivo abordar os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos desses acidentes em cães nesse estado, além de estabelecer a frequência em que ocorrem. Foram revisados os protocolos de atendimentos clínicos de cães realizados pelo Centro de Informações Toxicológicas do Rio Grande do Sul (CIT-RS) com diagnóstico de acidente ofídico botrópico, entre o período de 2014 e 2016. Esses dados fazem parte do Centro de informação Toxicológica, Secretaria da Saúde, RS, Núcleo de Estatística e Avaliação. Foram obtidos dados relacionados à frequência dos acidentes e informações referentes à epidemiologia e à clínica de cada caso. Totalizaram-se 53 registros de atendimentos. Dos protocolos que informaram o sexo (n=49), 53% corresponderam a fêmeas e 46,9%, a machos. Em relação à idade (n=47), houve uma variação entre um e 14 anos, com maior concentração dos casos entre 1-4 anos (46,9%). Mais da metade dos atendimentos ocorreu em zona rural (60,7%) e a cabeça e o pescoço foram os principais locais de inoculação do veneno botrópico (76,3%). Observou-se uma doença com um curso que variou de hiperagudo (<30 min à 6h), agudo (6-24h) a subagudo (4-5 dias). Acidentes graves representaram 40% dos casos, no qual edema foi o sinal clínico mais frequente (88,7%), seguido por manifestações hemorrágicas (41,5%). A associação dos aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos, aliados ao histórico de exposição, constituem características importantes que auxiliam na suspeita e no diagnóstico definitivo do acidente botrópico em animais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Bothrops , Cães/lesões
7.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 22: [1-6], Abril 29, 2016. mapas, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-15812

Resumo

Although considered a public health issue in Senegal, the actual incidence and mortality from snakebite are not known. In the present study, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Kédougou region, southeastern Senegal, where envenomations, particularly by Echisocellatus, are frequent and severe. Methods Three sources of data were used: records from health centers and reports by health professionals; traditional healers; and household surveys. Results The annual incidence and mortality provided by health centers were 24.4 envenomations and 0.24 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively. The annual incidence recorded by traditional healers was 250 bites per 100,000 inhabitants, but the number of deaths was unknown. Finally, the household surveys reported an annual incidence of 92.8 bites per 100,000 inhabitants and an annual mortality rate of 2.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The differences in incidence and mortality between the different methods were explained by significant bias, resulting in particular from the complex patient's healthcare-seeking behavior. The incidence provided by health records should be used to specify the immediate quantitative requirements of antivenoms and places where they should be available first. Conclusion Mandatory reporting of cases would improve the management of envenomation by simplifying epidemiological surveys. Patients' preference for traditional medicine should prompt health authorities to urge traditional healers to refer patients to health centers according to defined clinical criteria (mainly edema and bleeding or neurotoxic symptoms). Finally, household surveys were likely to reflect the actual epidemiological situation. Poison Control Center of Senegal should continue its work to sensitize stakeholders and train health staff.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/mortalidade , /análise , /métodos
8.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 22: [1-3], Abril 29, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-15500

Resumo

During the 6th International Conference on Envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa held in Abidjan, from 1 to 5 June 2015, the measures for the management of envenomation were discussed and new recommendations were adopted by the participants. The high incidence and severity of this affliction were confirmed by several studies conducted in African countries. The poor availability of antivenom, particularly because of the cost, was also highlighted. Some experiences have been reported, mainly those regarding the financial support of antivenom in Burkina Faso (more than 90 %) and Togo (up to 60 %) or the mandatory reporting of cases in Cameroon. Key recommendations concerned: improvement of epidemiological information based on case collection; training of health workers in the management of envenomation; policy to promote the use of effective and safe antivenom; and antivenom funding by sharing its costs with stakeholders in order to improve antivenom accessibility for low-income patients.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Intoxicação/veterinária , Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto/tendências
9.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484689

Resumo

During the 6th International Conference on Envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa held in Abidjan, from 1 to 5 June 2015, the measures for the management of envenomation were discussed and new recommendations were adopted by the participants. The high incidence and severity of this affliction were confirmed by several studies conducted in African countries. The poor availability of antivenom, particularly because of the cost, was also highlighted. Some experiences have been reported, mainly those regarding the financial support of antivenom in Burkina Faso (more than 90 %) and Togo (up to 60 %) or the mandatory reporting of cases in Cameroon. Key recommendations concerned: improvement of epidemiological information based on case collection; training of health workers in the management of envenomation; policy to promote the use of effective and safe antivenom; and antivenom funding by sharing its costs with stakeholders in order to improve antivenom accessibility for low-income patients.


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Intoxicação/veterinária
10.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 22: [1-6], abril 29, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-684488

Resumo

Snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. In 2008, the Centre Anti Poison et de Parmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) started to set up a specific strategy for the control of snakebites that was formalized in 2012. The aim of the present study is to describe and update the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites notified to CAPM between 2009 and 2013. Methods This retrospective five-year study included all cases of snakebites notified to CAPM by mail or phone. Results During the study period, 873 snakebite cases were reported to CAPM, an average incidence of 2.65 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with 218 cases each year. The highest incidence was found in Tangier-Tetouan region with 357 cases (40.9 %) followed by Souss Massa Draa region with 128 cases (14.6 %). The average age of patients was 26.8 ± 17.2 years. The male to female sex ratio was 1.67:1 and 77 % of cases occurred in rural areas. The bites occurred mainly in spring (44 %) followed by summer (42 %). Snake species was identified in 54 cases (6.2 %): colubrids represented 31 % (n = 18) and vipers 67 % (n = 36), mainly Daboia mauritanica, Bitis arietans and Cerastes cerastes. In 311 cases (35.6 %), the patients showed viper syndrome. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 23.5 % of viper syndrome cases, whereas, compartment syndrome was observed in 7.6 % patients. FAV-Afrique® was administered in 41 patients (5 %). In patients treated with antivenom, 38 patients recovered and three died. Twenty-seven deaths were reported (3.9 %). Conclusion Despite specific efforts to better understand the epidemiology of snakebites in Morocco (incidence, severity, snake species involved), it remains underestimated. Therefore, further work is still necessary to ensure accessibility of appropriate antivenom against venomous species and to improve the management of envenomation in Morocco.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/classificação
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 22: [1-6], 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484680

Resumo

Snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. In 2008, the Centre Anti Poison et de Parmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) started to set up a specific strategy for the control of snakebites that was formalized in 2012. The aim of the present study is to describe and update the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites notified to CAPM between 2009 and 2013. Methods This retrospective five-year study included all cases of snakebites notified to CAPM by mail or phone. Results During the study period, 873 snakebite cases were reported to CAPM, an average incidence of 2.65 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with 218 cases each year. The highest incidence was found in Tangier-Tetouan region with 357 cases (40.9 %) followed by Souss Massa Draa region with 128 cases (14.6 %). The average age of patients was 26.8 ± 17.2 years. The male to female sex ratio was 1.67:1 and 77 % of cases occurred in rural areas. The bites occurred mainly in spring (44 %) followed by summer (42 %). Snake species was identified in 54 cases (6.2 %): colubrids represented 31 % (n = 18) and vipers 67 % (n = 36), mainly Daboia mauritanica, Bitis arietans and Cerastes cerastes. In 311 cases (35.6 %), the patients showed viper syndrome. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 23.5 % of viper syndrome cases, whereas, compartment syndrome was observed in 7.6 % patients. FAV-Afrique® was administered in 41 patients (5 %). In patients treated with antivenom, 38 patients recovered and three died. Twenty-seven deaths were reported (3.9 %). Conclusion Despite specific efforts to better understand the epidemiology of snakebites in Morocco (incidence, severity, snake species involved), it remains underestimated. Therefore, further work is still necessary to ensure accessibility of appropriate antivenom against venomous species and to improve the management of envenomation in Morocco.


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/classificação , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/prevenção & controle
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 22: [1-6], 2016. map, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484681

Resumo

Although considered a public health issue in Senegal, the actual incidence and mortality from snakebite are not known. In the present study, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Kédougou region, southeastern Senegal, where envenomations, particularly by Echisocellatus, are frequent and severe. Methods Three sources of data were used: records from health centers and reports by health professionals; traditional healers; and household surveys. Results The annual incidence and mortality provided by health centers were 24.4 envenomations and 0.24 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively. The annual incidence recorded by traditional healers was 250 bites per 100,000 inhabitants, but the number of deaths was unknown. Finally, the household surveys reported an annual incidence of 92.8 bites per 100,000 inhabitants and an annual mortality rate of 2.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The differences in incidence and mortality between the different methods were explained by significant bias, resulting in particular from the complex patient's healthcare-seeking behavior. The incidence provided by health records should be used to specify the immediate quantitative requirements of antivenoms and places where they should be available first. Conclusion Mandatory reporting of cases would improve the management of envenomation by simplifying epidemiological surveys. Patients' preference for traditional medicine should prompt health authorities to urge traditional healers to refer patients to health centers according to defined clinical criteria (mainly edema and bleeding or neurotoxic symptoms). Finally, household surveys were likely to reflect the actual epidemiological situation. Poison Control Center of Senegal should continue its work to sensitize stakeholders and train health staff.


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/mortalidade
13.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 21: 1-8, Sept. 29, 2015. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28680

Resumo

Background Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions.Methods This study was performed to identify types of snakes and some of the characteristics of snakebite cases in two communities, an agricultural and a pastoralist, in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. A total of 30 field visits were carried out in areas considered by local inhabitants to be potential microhabitats for snakes. Direct observation of snake types based on morphological features and a structured questionnaire were employed for data collection.Results A total of 25 live and 14 dead snakes were encountered. Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis). The frequency of snake encounters was significantly higher (2 = 4.6; p= 0.03) in the pastoral than in the agricultural area; there were more snakebite cases in the former, but the differences were not statistically significant (p= 0.7). A total of 242 snakebite victims attended at the Meserani Clinic, located in the study area, between the years 2007 to 2012. Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively. As for age distribution, 59.1 % of snakebite victims were from the economically active age groups between 15 and 55 years.Conclusion Snakebites are a threat to rural communities and public health in general. The burden of snakebites in Tanzania presents an epidemiologically similar picture to other tropical countries. Livestock keeping and agriculture are the major economic activities associated with snakebites. Community-based public education is required to create awareness on venomous snakes and predisposing factors to snakebites. These tasks demand integration of diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal of reducing the impact of human suffering from these envenomings in Tanzania.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Peçonhentos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Venenos Elapídicos , Venenos de Víboras
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 1-8, 31/03/2015. map, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484632

Resumo

Background Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions.Methods This study was performed to identify types of snakes and some of the characteristics of snakebite cases in two communities, an agricultural and a pastoralist, in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. A total of 30 field visits were carried out in areas considered by local inhabitants to be potential microhabitats for snakes. Direct observation of snake types based on morphological features and a structured questionnaire were employed for data collection.Results A total of 25 live and 14 dead snakes were encountered. Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis). The frequency of snake encounters was significantly higher (2 = 4.6; p= 0.03) in the pastoral than in the agricultural area; there were more snakebite cases in the former, but the differences were not statistically significant (p= 0.7). A total of 242 snakebite victims attended at the Meserani Clinic, located in the study area, between the years 2007 to 2012. Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively. As for age distribution, 59.1 % of snakebite victims were from the economically active age groups between 15 and 55 years.Conclusion Snakebites are a threat to rural communities and public health in general. The burden of snakebites in Tanzania presents an epidemiologically similar picture to other tropical countries. Livestock keeping and agriculture are the major economic activities associated with snakebites. Community-based public education is required to create awareness on venomous snakes and predisposing factors to snakebites. These tasks demand integration of diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal of reducing the impact of human suffering from these envenomings in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Peçonhentos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Venenos Elapídicos , Venenos de Víboras
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 18(2): 217-224, 2012. graf, tab, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-639481

Resumo

All snakebites registered in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Of these, the snake species involved was identified in 2,431 cases, most of which were caused by Bothrops (2,347). Most victims were male (78.4%) and the age group most frequently attacked was between 20 and 39 years (38.4%). As for severity, 1,118 (45.9%) were classified as minor, 748 (30.7%) as moderate, and 209 (8.6%) as severe. Progression towards complete cure occurred in 1,567 patients; 39 had sequelae; three died; and clinical outcomes were not monitored in 822 cases. The time between bite and first medical attention was less than three hours in 74.6% of cases. Most occurred in municipalities with vast areas of preserved Atlantic Forest: Angra dos Reis (208), Rio de Janeiro (197), Parati (186), Teresópolis (134), and Petrópolis (110). Accident frequency was highest between November and April, in which the daily average is practically twice that observed in other months. Although results show that Rio de Janeiro state has a good level of medical care, it could be improved by creating multidisciplinary teams that include doctors, biologists, and nurses. The Vital Network for Brazil helps to promote a stimulating environment for this type of training, with both traditional courses and distance learning. Training hours must be increased to improve the skills of professionals responsible for victim care.(AU)


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Perfil de Saúde , Mordeduras e Picadas , Bothrops , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde
16.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 18(2): 217-224, 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-8045

Resumo

All snakebites registered in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Of these, the snake species involved was identified in 2,431 cases, most of which were caused by Bothrops (2,347). Most victims were male (78.4%) and the age group most frequently attacked was between 20 and 39 years (38.4%). As for severity, 1,118 (45.9%) were classified as minor, 748 (30.7%) as moderate, and 209 (8.6%) as severe. Progression towards complete cure occurred in 1,567 patients; 39 had sequelae; three died; and clinical outcomes were not monitored in 822 cases. The time between bite and first medical attention was less than three hours in 74.6% of cases. Most occurred in municipalities with vast areas of preserved Atlantic Forest: Angra dos Reis (208), Rio de Janeiro (197), Parati (186), Teresópolis (134), and Petrópolis (110). Accident frequency was highest between November and April, in which the daily average is practically twice that observed in other months. Although results show that Rio de Janeiro state has a good level of medical care, it could be improved by creating multidisciplinary teams that include doctors, biologists, and nurses. The Vital Network for Brazil helps to promote a stimulating environment for this type of training, with both traditional courses and distance learning. Training hours must be increased to improve the skills of professionals responsible for victim care.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/prevenção & controle , Acesso à Informação
17.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 15(4): 653-666, 2009. ilus, tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-532751

Resumo

The present work aims to find the epidemiological profile of snakebites in Morocco through a retrospective study of 1,423 snakebite cases that occurred between 1992 and 2007. Data were obtained from medical charts of envenomation at the Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco. Results revealed that 86 percent of the snakebites had occurred in rural areas and that males were significantly more affected than females at a sex ratio of 23:20. Furthermore, 35 percent of the bites happened during the summer, with a peak of 215 cases in June (15.1 percent). We also discovered that 67.3 percent of the patients were bitten during the day. The age group that comprised the most agriculturally active persons, from 20 to 44 years old, was the most affected by snakebites (551 cases). In terms of evolution, patients who were at least 60 years of age (8.89 percent) as well as those who were less than 10 years old (7.50 percent) presented higher mortality. According to clinical severity grades, the data revealed a 70 percent predominance of grade 2 cases (430). Deaths had occurred only in patients with grades 3 and 4. Furthermore, grade 4 patients presented 100 percent mortality whereas grade 3 registered 10.7 percent. The distribution of snakebites according to administrative regions in Morocco showed a predominance of the Souss-Massa-Daraa region both in terms of frequency (32 percent) and mortality (72.1 percent). Our study clearly displayed the severity and extent of the snakebite problem in the country, thus revealing that public health authorities should give more attention to this serious situation.(AU)


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 28(12): 643-648, Dec. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-509324

Resumo

Relata-se a ocorrência de um acidente ofídico em um rebanho de ovinos, mestiços da raça Bergamascia, no município de Miguel Pereira, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quatro ovelhas adultas, com cerca 35 kg de peso, foram picados na cabeça por um exemplar de Bothrops jararaca dentro de curto espaço de tempo. Os animais apresentaram a cabeça muito tumefeita, mas o estado geral era bom. Um ovino foi eutanasiado. Verificou-se que a tumefação da cabeça era causada por hemorragia embaixo da pele, que se estendia ao pescoço. Histologicamente foi verificada na face, hemorragia maciça, principalmente no tecido subcutâneo, com infiltração de hemácias no tecido muscular adjacente, que em áreas onde era mais intensa, provocou afastamento entre as fibras musculares, algumas com aspecto hialinizado. Discute-se a causa das diferenças sobre a ocorrência de edema/hemorragia e necrose no envenenamento causado pelas diversas serpentes do gênero Bothrops nas diferentes espécies animais.(AU)


The occurrence of a snake bite accident in a herd of mixed Bergamascia sheep in the county of Miguel Pereira, State of Rio de Janeiro, is reported. Four adult sheep were bitten in the head by Bothrops jararaca within a short period of time. Their head was severely swollen, but the general state of them was good. One of the sheep was euthanasied. Masssive hemorrhages were found beneath the skin, which extended to the neck. Histologically, the subcutaneous hemorrhages infiltrated the adjacent muscles. In areas where the hemorrhages were more intense they caused separation of muscle fibers, some of which had a hyaline aspect. Differences in the occurrence of edema/hemorraghes and necrosis in snake bite accidents, caused by various snake species in different animal species, are discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Bothrops
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 28(12): 643-648, 2008. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-401

Resumo

Relata-se a ocorrência de um acidente ofídico em um rebanho de ovinos, mestiços da raça Bergamascia, no município de Miguel Pereira, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quatro ovelhas adultas, com cerca 35 kg de peso, foram picados na cabeça por um exemplar de Bothrops jararaca dentro de curto espaço de tempo. Os animais apresentaram a cabeça muito tumefeita, mas o estado geral era bom. Um ovino foi eutanasiado. Verificou-se que a tumefação da cabeça era causada por hemorragia embaixo da pele, que se estendia ao pescoço. Histologicamente foi verificada na face, hemorragia maciça, principalmente no tecido subcutâneo, com infiltração de hemácias no tecido muscular adjacente, que em áreas onde era mais intensa, provocou afastamento entre as fibras musculares, algumas com aspecto hialinizado. Discute-se a causa das diferenças sobre a ocorrência de edema/hemorragia e necrose no envenenamento causado pelas diversas serpentes do gênero Bothrops nas diferentes espécies animais.(AU)


The occurrence of a snake bite accident in a herd of mixed Bergamascia sheep in the county of Miguel Pereira, State of Rio de Janeiro, is reported. Four adult sheep were bitten in the head by Bothrops jararaca within a short period of time. Their head was severely swollen, but the general state of them was good. One of the sheep was euthanasied. Masssive hemorrhages were found beneath the skin, which extended to the neck. Histologically, the subcutaneous hemorrhages infiltrated the adjacent muscles. In areas where the hemorrhages were more intense they caused separation of muscle fibers, some of which had a hyaline aspect. Differences in the occurrence of edema/hemorraghes and necrosis in snake bite accidents, caused by various snake species in different animal species, are discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Bothrops , Ovinos
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