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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50: Pub. 1892, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1401102

Resumo

Background: Pelvic limb claudication is a common problem in dogs. However, determining the location of the lesion can be challenging. Diagnostic imaging is essential for identifying and evaluating muscle injuries. Ultrasonographic evaluation is frequently performed to identify muscle injuries. Although some muscle changes have already been described as ultrasonography findings in veterinary studies, little is known about the standardization of these muscle structures, especially in hip muscles. The objective of this study was to describe the normal ultrasound anatomy of the lateral and medial muscles of the pelvic limb and establish an unprecedented protocol for the evaluation of these structures. Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 4 lateral and 4 medial musculatures of the pelvic limb of dogs were evaluated using ultrasound. An initial ex vivo study (1st phase) was performed to delineate anatomical and ultrasonographic assessments. The 2nd experimental phase proceeded with the application of in vivo scanning. The same operator performed all anatomical and ultrasonographic assessments. The gluteus medius, vastus lateralis, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, pectineus, gracilis, adductor, and rectus femoris muscles were evaluated in longitudinal and transverse planes. Ten paired hips from 5 cadavers consisting of 3 females (60%) and 2 males (40%) were evaluated during the exvivo phase. The average age and weight of the dogs were 3.6 ± 0.87 years and 21.9 ± 5.2 kg, respectively. The invivo study included 4 females (40%) and 6 males (60%), for a total of 10 healthy animals consisting of 20 hips; the mean weight was 30.11 ± 7.45 kg and the average age was 4.5 ± 2.75 years. All muscles maintained the same ultrasound pattern when compared with each other and between different groups in the invivo study. The longitudinal section presented a hypoechoic structure permeated by thin hyperechoic longitudinal striations. The hypoechoic aspect was maintained, with striae identified as hyperechogenic points in the cross-sectional view. Discussion: B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation with a high-frequency transducer has facilitated the identification of the lateral and medial muscles of the pelvic limbs of medium and large dogs exvivo and invivo. This approach is an effective and safe way to access these muscles, and aids in the establishment of an unprecedented protocol for ultrasound evaluation of this region. Understanding the normal ultrasonographic anatomy is essential to identify muscle injuries such as contractures, tumors, ruptures, and stretch, which can lead to loss of muscle echogenicity and echotexture. Furthermore, ultrasound standardization reduces inter-observer error, facilitates technique reproducibility, assists in a more assertive assessment, and directs the patient's most appropriate therapy. In addition, anatomical dissection with the aid of acoustic gel injection into the evaluated musculature is essential to guide the examination because it allows the confirmation of the structures. In this study, the ultrasound scans of 6 fundamental muscles (gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gracilis, adductor, pectineus, and rectus femoris) for hip mobility and 2 knee muscles (sartorius and vastus lateralis) were standardized. Exvivo evaluations facilitated the application of invivo techniques, and no difficulties were found during these evaluations.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Pelve/patologia , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49(supl.1): 720, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366277

Resumo

Background: Osteosarcomas are malignant neoplasms of bone tissue, with a high prevalence in dogs, especially in large and giant breeds. More commonly, such alterations affect the appendicular skeleton and, to a lesser extent, the axial skeleton. In order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to combine cytological and histopathological findings with clinical parameters, imaging exams and macroscopic findings. In the present study, we report a rare case of combined-type pelvic osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis in a dog. Case: A 5-year-old intact large male dog of mixed breed, was submitted to clinical care because of an increase in volume of the left perineal region. The cytological evaluation, performed without imaging exams, indicated that it was an undifferentiated sarcoma. An incisional biopsy defined the diagnosis as telangiectatic osteosarcoma, and with progressive clinical worsening, the patient died. Necroscopic examination revealed multiple nodules in the lungs and an irregular mass with a hard to friable consistency. The mass was intensely vascularised and extended craniodorsally from the left ischial tuberosity to the base of the renal fossa. Microscopically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as combined osteosarcoma, consisting of the osteoblastic, chondroblastic, and telangiectatic subtypes. Metastases with a predominance of the chondroblastic subtype were observed in the lungs. Discussion: This is the first report of combined-type canine osteosarcoma in the ischium. The case reported here is unusual, as there are few reports of canine osteosarcoma in the pelvic bones, and there is no concrete information regarding its histological appearance. Osteosarcoma is the most common bone neoplasm in dogs, representing up to 80% of the tumours found in such organs. In the present case, the dog was a large young adult with a higher probability of neoplasm development. A cytopathological examination is a diagnostic method with good sensitivity and specificity that can confirm osteosarcomas. However, in this case, the cytological diagnosis, performed without the information from the imaging exam, indicated that it was an undifferentiated sarcoma, given the impossibility of the architectural assessment of the lesion. Biopsy samples sent for histology may not be representative of the entire tumour, leading to misclassification of the histological type. Therefore, the evaluation of fragments from various sites of the lesions is recommended. Regarding the morphology of osteosarcomas, such neoplasms have the osteoblastic, chondroblastic, fibroblastic, telangiectatic, large cell, and poorly differentiated subtypes. With regard to tumours located in the axial skeleton, no studies have assessed the predominance of a particular morphological type, as well as the incidence of combined-type masses in dogs in this particular location. Such neoplasms are locally aggressive and have a high metastatic potential, with the lungs being the main location for implantation of neoplastic cells. There is no proven evidence of the correlation between morphological presentations and the presence of metastases from osteosarcomas in dogs. The histological type is not a predictive factor for the behaviour of the neoplasm. However, the anatomical location is considered as one of the factors with the greatest influence on the prognosis and metastatic potential. Rib masses are associated with a higher rate of metastases compared to others. The definitive diagnosis of osteosarcomas and its correct subclassification are of great importance in the prognosis of affected patients. These require an approach that considers the clinical findings, imaging examinations, and macroscopic and microscopic alterations.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cães , Neoplasias Pélvicas/veterinária , Pelve/patologia , Osteossarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Ósseas/veterinária , Metástase Neoplásica
3.
Ars vet ; 26(1): 1-5, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396760

Resumo

Neste trabalho, descreve-se a ocorrência de hidronefrose iatrogênica em rim esquerdo, comprimindo artéria aorta abdominal em gato persa e provocando paralisia de membros pélvicos. O animal apresentava discreta desidratação, mucosas hipocoradas, extremidades frias e cianóticas, ausência bilateral de pulso da artéria femoral, bem como insensibilidade superficial e profunda, e presença de massa de consistência firme com seis centímetros de diâmetro, à palpação abdominal. Realizada celiotomia exploratória, verificou-se rim esquerdo aumentado comprimindo artéria aorta abdominal e a dilatação cranial do ureter esquerdo fixado ao corno uterino por meio de ligadura com fio não absorvível. Após nefrectomia, observou-se a restauração da circulação local. O animal foi a óbito, após oito horas.


This study describes the occurrence of iatrogenic hydronephrosis in left kidney with compression of the abdominal aorta in persian cat and paralysis of hind limbs. The animal had slight dehydration, pale mucous membranes, cold extremities and cyanotic, absence of bilateral femoral artery pulse, and absence of superficial and deep pain, and presence of a mass of firm consistency with six centimeters in diameter, on abdominal palpation. Performed exploratory celiotomy, there was increased left kidney compressing the abdominal aorta and dilation of the cranial left ureter attached to the uterine horn by means of ligation with nonabsorbable. After nephrectomy, it was observed the restoration of local circulation. The animal died after eight hours.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Pelve/patologia , Hidronefrose/veterinária , Rim/patologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Nefrectomia/veterinária
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