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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(4): e20210208, 2023. ilus, tab, mapa
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1412142

Resumo

Urban expansion has led to the replacement of natural landscapes and environmental degradation, making cities and their urban and peri-urban forests (UPFs) vulnerable to climate change, especially on the formation of heat islands. Using i-Tree Canopy program (v. 7.0), we estimate the ecosystem services provided by UPFs in Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil), through the analysis of the (1) annual removal of atmospheric pollutants, (2) annual removal of atmospheric carbon, (3) total carbon stock in vegetation, and (4) the monetary benefits of sequestered and stocked carbon, based on Future Carbon Credit (CFI2Z1) as a monetary proxy. The results showed an average total amount of removal of 4.45 thousand tons of air pollution annually. The average annual total carbon storage was 158 thousand tons and the equivalent CO2 was 580 thousand tons, with an estimated total value of R$ 173 million per year. Significant values of the gross carbon stock (3.98 million tons) and equivalent CO2 (14.59 million tons) were found, being valued at R$ 4.35 billion. We concluded that the Juiz de Fora UPFs have a great potential for socio-environmental and economic benefits.


A expansão urbana levou à substituição de paisagens naturais por paisagens urbanas e à degradação ambiental, tornando cidades e suas florestas urbanas e peri-urbanas (FUPs) vulneráveis às mudanças climáticas, especialmente à formação de ilhas de calor. Utilizando o software i-Tree Canopy (v.7.0), estimamos os serviços ecossistêmicos promovidos pelas UPFs em Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais, Sudeste do Brasil), por meio da análise de (1) remoção anual de poluentes atmosféricos, (2) remoção anual de carbono atmosférico, (3) estoque de carbono na vegetação e (4) os benefícios monetários do carbono sequestrado anualmente e estocado, utilizando o Mercado de Crédito de Carbono Futuro (CFI2Z1) como um proxy monetário. Os resultados apresentam uma quantidade total média de remoção de 4,45 mil toneladas de poluentes do ar, anualmente. O armazenamento médio anual de carbono total foi de 158 mil toneladas e o de CO2 equivalente foi de 580 mil toneladas, com um valor total estimado anual de R$ 173 milhões. Foram encontrados expressivos valores do estoque bruto de carbono (3,98 milhões de toneladas) e CO2 equivalente (14,59 milhões de toneladas), sendo avaliado em R$ 4,35 bilhões. Concluímos que as FUPs de Juiz de Fora possuem um grande potencial para benefícios socioambientais e econômicos.


Assuntos
Florestas , Área Urbana , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Sequestro de Carbono
2.
Sci. agric ; 74(3): 235-241, mai./jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497636

Resumo

The purpose of this study was to determine the measured and simulated rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) change in Vertisols in short-term experiments when the tillage system is changed from traditional tillage (TT) to conservation tillage (CT). The study was conducted in plots in four locations in the state of Michoacán and two locations in the state of Guanajuato. In the SOC change simulation, the RothC-26.3 carbon model was evaluated with different C inputs to the soil (ET1-ET5). ET was the measured shoot biomass (SB) plus estimated rhizodeposition (RI). RI was tested at values of 10, 15, 18, 36 and 50 % total biomass (TB). The SOC changes were simulated with the best trial where ET3 = SB + (0.18*TB). Values for model efficiency and the coefficient of correlation were in the ranges of 0.56 to 0.75 and 0.79 to 0.92, respectively. The average rate of SOC change, measured and simulated, in the study period was 3.0 and 1.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively; later, in a simulation period of 45 years, SOC change was 1.2 ± 0.8. In particular, without making adjustments in the RothC parameters and with information on measured plant residue C inputs to the soil, it was possible to simulate changes in SOC with RothC and estimate trends over a period of more than 45 years.


Assuntos
Agricultura Sustentável , Carbono , Características do Solo , Sequestro de Carbono
3.
Sci. agric. ; 74(3): 235-241, mai./jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-686517

Resumo

The purpose of this study was to determine the measured and simulated rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) change in Vertisols in short-term experiments when the tillage system is changed from traditional tillage (TT) to conservation tillage (CT). The study was conducted in plots in four locations in the state of Michoacán and two locations in the state of Guanajuato. In the SOC change simulation, the RothC-26.3 carbon model was evaluated with different C inputs to the soil (ET1-ET5). ET was the measured shoot biomass (SB) plus estimated rhizodeposition (RI). RI was tested at values of 10, 15, 18, 36 and 50 % total biomass (TB). The SOC changes were simulated with the best trial where ET3 = SB + (0.18*TB). Values for model efficiency and the coefficient of correlation were in the ranges of 0.56 to 0.75 and 0.79 to 0.92, respectively. The average rate of SOC change, measured and simulated, in the study period was 3.0 and 1.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively; later, in a simulation period of 45 years, SOC change was 1.2 ± 0.8. In particular, without making adjustments in the RothC parameters and with information on measured plant residue C inputs to the soil, it was possible to simulate changes in SOC with RothC and estimate trends over a period of more than 45 years.(AU)


Assuntos
Carbono , Agricultura Sustentável , Sequestro de Carbono , Características do Solo
4.
Sci. agric ; 72(2): 147-156, Mar.-Apr. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497477

Resumo

The large volume of sewage sludge (SS) generated with high carbon (C) and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L.) was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer), 1SS (recommended rate) and 2SS (double rate). Carbon stocks (0-40 cm) were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Poluentes do Solo , Sequestro de Carbono
5.
Sci. agric. ; 72(2): 147-156, Mar.-Apr. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30042

Resumo

The large volume of sewage sludge (SS) generated with high carbon (C) and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L.) was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer), 1SS (recommended rate) and 2SS (double rate). Carbon stocks (0-40 cm) were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.(AU)


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Sequestro de Carbono , Poluentes do Solo
6.
Sci. agric ; 71(4): 292-301, Jul-Ago. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497423

Resumo

The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C) is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM), the suspension ( 53 µm) was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively) in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively). Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm). The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.


Assuntos
Argila , Características do Solo , Matéria Orgânica , Sequestro de Carbono , Brasil , Mineração
7.
Sci. Agric. ; 71(4): 292-301, Jul-Ago. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-27176

Resumo

The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C) is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM), the suspension ( 53 µm) was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively) in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively). Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm). The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.(AU)


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Argila , Características do Solo , Matéria Orgânica , Brasil , Mineração
8.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 44(11): 1962-1965, Nov. 2014. graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1479540

Resumo

Estoques de carbono em macroagregados do solo possuem relação com a taxa de sequestro de C no solo em sistema plantio direto. Objetivou-se avaliar os estoques de carbono em macroagregados (12,5-19,0mm) em função do revolvimento ocasional e/ou da calagem de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico típico textura muito argilosa, sob sistema plantio direto há 17 anos em Pato Branco, sudoeste do Paraná. A partir de outubro de 2009, foi avaliado um experimento em parcelas sub-subdivididas, tendo como parcelas, épocas de amostragens após 6, 12 e 20 meses do revolvimento do solo e/ou calagem; nas subparcelas, manejos de solo, sem e com revolvimento do solo com uma aração e uma gradagem; e, nas sub-subparcelas, níveis de calagem, sem e com calcário para elevar o índice de saturação por bases para 70%. Dos 6 aos 12 meses, a aplicação de calcário em superfície ou incorporado aumentou os estoques de C dos macroagregados na camada de 0,10-0,20m. Após 20 meses, a incorporação de calcário em solo reduziu os estoques de C dos macroagregados somente na camada de 0-0,10m. Assim, a calagem na superfície é fundamental para a manutenção e aumento dos estoques de C em macroagregados de solo sob sistema plantio direto, mantendo-o consolidado.


Carbon stocks in soil macroaggregates are related to the rate of soil C sequestration in no-tillage system. This study aimed to evaluate carbon stocks in macroaggregates (12.5 to 19.0mm) as a function of the occasional tillage and/or liming of a Hapludox loamy clayey under no-tillage for 17 years in Pato Branco, Paraná southwest, Brazil. Starting from October 2009, it was evaluated an experiment with split-split plots, with plots as sampling dates after 6, 12 and 20 months of the occasional tillage and/or liming; the subplots as soil management, with and without occasional soil tillage with plowing and disking; and as sub-subplots, liming levels, with and without limestone to raise the base saturation index to 70%. From 6 to 12 months, the limestone application on surface or incorporated increased C stocks of macroaggregates in the 0.10-0.20m layer. After 20 months, the incorporation of limestone in soil reduced C stocks in macroaggregates only in the 0-0.10m layer. Thus, the surface liming is essential for the maintenance and enhancement of C stocks in macroaggregates of no-tillage system, keeping it consolidated.


Assuntos
Características do Solo , Matéria Orgânica , Sequestro de Carbono
9.
Ci. Rural ; 44(11): 1962-1965, Nov. 2014. graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-27414

Resumo

Estoques de carbono em macroagregados do solo possuem relação com a taxa de sequestro de C no solo em sistema plantio direto. Objetivou-se avaliar os estoques de carbono em macroagregados (12,5-19,0mm) em função do revolvimento ocasional e/ou da calagem de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico típico textura muito argilosa, sob sistema plantio direto há 17 anos em Pato Branco, sudoeste do Paraná. A partir de outubro de 2009, foi avaliado um experimento em parcelas sub-subdivididas, tendo como parcelas, épocas de amostragens após 6, 12 e 20 meses do revolvimento do solo e/ou calagem; nas subparcelas, manejos de solo, sem e com revolvimento do solo com uma aração e uma gradagem; e, nas sub-subparcelas, níveis de calagem, sem e com calcário para elevar o índice de saturação por bases para 70%. Dos 6 aos 12 meses, a aplicação de calcário em superfície ou incorporado aumentou os estoques de C dos macroagregados na camada de 0,10-0,20m. Após 20 meses, a incorporação de calcário em solo reduziu os estoques de C dos macroagregados somente na camada de 0-0,10m. Assim, a calagem na superfície é fundamental para a manutenção e aumento dos estoques de C em macroagregados de solo sob sistema plantio direto, mantendo-o consolidado.(AU)


Carbon stocks in soil macroaggregates are related to the rate of soil C sequestration in no-tillage system. This study aimed to evaluate carbon stocks in macroaggregates (12.5 to 19.0mm) as a function of the occasional tillage and/or liming of a Hapludox loamy clayey under no-tillage for 17 years in Pato Branco, Paraná southwest, Brazil. Starting from October 2009, it was evaluated an experiment with split-split plots, with plots as sampling dates after 6, 12 and 20 months of the occasional tillage and/or liming; the subplots as soil management, with and without occasional soil tillage with plowing and disking; and as sub-subplots, liming levels, with and without limestone to raise the base saturation index to 70%. From 6 to 12 months, the limestone application on surface or incorporated increased C stocks of macroaggregates in the 0.10-0.20m layer. After 20 months, the incorporation of limestone in soil reduced C stocks in macroaggregates only in the 0-0.10m layer. Thus, the surface liming is essential for the maintenance and enhancement of C stocks in macroaggregates of no-tillage system, keeping it consolidated.(AU)


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Matéria Orgânica , Características do Solo
10.
Sci. agric. ; 70(2): 83-101, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-2498

Resumo

In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha - 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa) or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha - 1 year - 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.(AU)


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , 24444 , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biomassa , Solo/análise
11.
Sci. agric ; 70(2): 83-101, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497329

Resumo

In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha - 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa) or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha - 1 year - 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , 24444 , Sequestro de Carbono , Biomassa , Solo/análise
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