Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 68
Filtrar
Mais filtros

Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 45: e62671, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436978

Resumo

Water stress can affect all aspects of plant growth and development, compromising its productive potential. The cultivation of fruit species native to the Cerrado and the study of their behavior under conditions of low water availability are necessary activities, in view of their socioeconomic and environmental potential. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of water deficit on growth and biomass production of the cagaita tree (Eugenia dysenterica DC.), a species endemic to the Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah). The experiment was performed in a greenhouse for 120 days in a randomized block design (RBD), with a double factorial arrangement (2x5), corresponding to two cagaita mother plants and five water conditions. We evaluated the growth and leaf, stem and root functional characteristics. The most severe water deficit conditions reduced shoot growth, number of leaves, production of biomass and dry matter and increased the specific and per plant mass root length of cagaita plants. Deficit extension had negative effects on its growth and development. There was a statistical difference between mother plants, with mother plant 2 being more resistant to drought. The application of a severe or longer water deficit affected shoot growth and reduced the appearance of new leaves. The stress caused by water deficiency allowed an increase in root functional characteristics, supporting the hypothesis that plants under adverse conditions focus on higher biomass production and convert a higher amount of dry matter into the roots. Leaf area did not show to be a functional characteristic, explaining the stress effects in E. dysenterica DC plants.(AU)


Assuntos
Solo , Eugenia/fisiologia , Biometria , Umidade do Solo , Desidratação
2.
Sci. agric ; 79(4): e20200253, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1290217

Resumo

Electromagnetic sensors are widely used to monitor soil water content (θ); however, site-specific calibrations are necessary for accurate measurements. This study compares regression models used for calibration of soil moisture sensors and investigates the relation between soil attributes and the adjusted parameters of the specific calibration equations. Undisturbed soil samples were collected in the A and B horizons of two Ultisols and two Inceptisols from the Mantiqueira Range in Southeastern Brazil. After saturation, the Theta Probe ML2X was used to obtain the soil dielectric constant (ε). Several readings were made, ranging from saturation to oven-dry. After each reading, the samples were weighted to calculate θ (m³ m-³). Fourteen regression models (linear, linearized, and nonlinear) were adjusted to the calibration data and checked for their residue distribution. Only the exponential model with three parameters met the regression assumptions regarding residue distribution. The stepwise regression was used to obtain multiple linear equations to estimate the adjusted parameters of the calibration model from soil attributes, with silt and clay contents providing the best relations. Both the specific and the general calibrations performed well, with RMSE values of 0.02 and 0.03 m³ m-³, respectively. Manufacturer calibration and equations from the literature were much less accurate, reinforcing the need to develop specific calibrations.


Assuntos
Análise do Solo , Umidade do Solo , Calibragem , Solos Argilosos/análise
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Agrovet. (Online) ; 21(2): 93-106, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366244

Resumo

Em um campo de produção de sementes de soja, as características relacionadas a qualidade das sementes não são uniformes e apresentam variação dentro da área de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a distribuição espacial da produção, da qualidade e do potencial de armazenamento de sementes de soja obtidas em condições de várzea tropical, na região de Lagoa da Confusão(Tocantins, Brasil). Adotou-se uma amostragem sistemática e malha amostral regular com distância de 100x100 m entre cada ponto (umponto por hectare). Na colheita, as plantas foram trilhadas com as sementes sendo limpas, pesadas, secas e armazenadas até o momento das análises fisiológicas e sanitárias, realizadas à 50, 100, 150 e 200 dias após o armazenamento (DAA). Foi determinada a umidade atual do solo no momento da colheita. Os resultados mostraram que: a produtividade das sementes apresentou variação de 13,03% (195-342 g.m-²); os testes de germinação e do envelhecimentoacelerado apresentaram aumento da variação com o tempo de armazenamento, com maior variabilidade neste último (24% a 96%) a 200 DAA; as propriedades analisadas apresentaram forte grau de dependência espacial, sendo possível identificar regiões com maior e menor qualidade de sementes de soja relacionadas ao vigor e também uma maior variação e distinção na área de estudo de acordo com o período de análises pós-colheita.(AU)


In a soybean seed production field, the characteristics related to seed quality are not uniformsincethey were showing variation within the same production area. The work aimedto identify the spatial distribution of yield, quality and storage potential of soybean seeds obtained under tropical lowlands conditions, in the region of Lagoa da Confusão(Tocantins state, North region of Brazil). It used systematic sampling and regular sampling grid with 100x100 m between each point (onepoint per hectare). At harvest, the plants were threshed with the seeds be cleaned, weighed, dried and stored until the time of physiological and sanitary analyses. They were performed at 50, 100, 150 and 200 days after storage (DAS). Finally, the current soil moisture was also determined when the soybean was harvested. The results had shown that: seed yield varied by 13.03% (195-342 g.m-²);the germination and accelerated aging tests had shownincreased variation with storage time, with greater variability (24% to 96%) at 200 DAS; the traits analyzed had shown a strong degree of spatial dependence and with these it possible to identify regions with higher and lower quality of soybean seeds related to vigor and also a greater variation and distinction in the study area according to the period of post-harvest analysis.(AU)


Assuntos
Sementes , Glycine max , Produtos Agrícolas , Umidade do Solo
4.
Sci. agric ; 79(6): e20200309, 2022. mapa, tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352261

Resumo

Crop residues left in the field cover and protect the soil surface, and regulate key processes and functions, such as gas and water exchanges. However, the Brazilian sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) sector has begun to use straw as feedstock to produce bioenergy. We conducted a field study to evaluate the effects of sugarcane straw removal in soil temperature and moisture changes at three sites (with different soil textures: Site 1 - clayey Oxisol, Site 2 - medium texture Oxisol, and Site 3 - sandy Ultisol) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four rates of straw removal: i) no removal (NR); ii) moderate removal (MR); iii) substantial removal (SR), and iv) total removal (TR). Soil temperature was measured by sensors in the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm soil layers. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from the 0- to 20- and 20- to 40-cm layers to determine soil moisture. Intensive straw removal (HR and TR) increased the soil temperature between 2 and 3 °C and the thermal amplitude between 5 and 9 °C in the 0- to 5-cm layer, compared to MR and NR. Soil moisture decreased between 0.03 and 0.07 g g-¹ in the 0- to 20-cm layer with intensive straw removal. The sandy soil was more susceptible to straw removal. Therefore, straw maintenance on the soil surface plays an essential role in temperature regulation and preservation of higher soil moisture, especially in regions with severe water deficits and long periods of water stress.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Temperatura , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Umidade do Solo , Solos Argilosos , Saccharum
5.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 44: e60908, mar. 2022. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1391182

Resumo

A 52-year-old pine forest is characterized as an environment with low plant diversity and large accumulation of allelopathic litter with poor nutrient content. Collembola is sensitive to environmental conditions and may have difficulties living in these forests. This study aimed (1) to evaluate the abundance and richness of Collembola in the soil of a 52-year-old pine afforestation with different moisture contents; and (2) to identify the landhopper sampled unintentionally. For sampling, pitfall traps were set up for four days, in areas of a Pinus elliottii afforestation with high and low soil moisture located at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Collembola specimens were counted and identified to family and genus level. The total abundance of springtails was greater in the low soil moisture area. The genera Desoria and Lepidocyrtus, and specimens of the family Onychiuridae were more abundant in low soil moisture, meanwhile, the genus Ceratophysella was more abundant in the high soil moisture. The landhopper Talitroides sylvaticus was sampled unintentionally by traps set up in the soil with higher moisture and calcium content. Six genera of Collembola and the landhopper T. sylvaticus were identified in soil of a P. elliottii afforestation and their distribution is influenced by soil moisture.(AU)


Assuntos
Pinus/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros/parasitologia , Umidade do Solo , Biodiversidade
6.
Sci. agric ; 79(5): e20210084, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341708

Resumo

The use of plastic mulching and high frequency hydroponic drip irrigation (intensive production methods) watering cycle may increase tabasco pepper crop production per unit area. To test this hypothesis, two randomized block experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using a 2 × 4 factorial scheme with two contrasting soil types (sandy loam and loamy soil), two mulching conditions of soil cover (SC), and no soil cover (NC) at four frequencies: 1, 3, 12, and 24 irrigations every three days. The growth and yield pepper components were evaluated and the water use efficiency (WUE) was calculated. Mulching did increase fruit dry mass percentage (FDMP), WUE, and potassium use efficiency (KUE) in sandy loam soil. The greater frequency fertigation did not increase fruit fresh mass (FFM), number of fruits (NF), fruit average mass (FAM), fruit dry mass (FDM), FDMP, or WUE in sandy loam and loamy soils. Tabasco pepper has a permanent shrub growth habit that is somewhat different from horticultural crops, besides it is usually responsive to high frequency irrigation under vegetative intensive growth.


Assuntos
Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Umidade do Solo , Uso Eficiente da Água/análise , Plásticos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468478

Resumo

Salvia hispanica cultivation is recent in Brazil and occurs in the off-season, when there is lower water availability in the soil. Water deficit is one of the abiotic factors that most limit germination for compromising the sequence of metabolic events that culminate with seedling emergence. Several attenuating substances have been used to mitigate the effects resulting from this stress and give higher tolerance to the species. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of different agents as water stress attenuators in the germination and accumulation of organic compounds in S. hispanica seedlings. The treatments consisted of pre-soaking the seeds for 4 hours in salicylic acid (1 mM.L-¹), gibberellic acid (0.4 mM.L-¹), distilled water and control treatment (without soaking). The seeds were germinated at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa, using PEG 6000 as an osmotic agent. The variables germination percentage, germination speed index, shoot and primary root lengths, total dry mass, proline, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids were analyzed. Salicylic acid and gibberellic acid led to the best results among the attenuators tested, increasing germination, length, dry mass and biochemical components of S. hispanica seedlings under water deficit. Therefore, salicylic and gibberellic acids are efficient in mitigating water stress in S. hispanica seeds up to the potential of -0.4 MPa.


O cultivo da Salvia hispanica é recente no Brasil e se dá no período de entressafra, quando há menor disponibilidade hídrica no solo. O déficit hídrico é um dos fatores abióticos que mais limitam a germinação por comprometer a sequência de eventos metabólicos que culminam com a emergência da plântula. Diversas substâncias atenuadoras têm sido empregadas com a finalidade de mitigar os efeitos resultantes desse estresse e conferir maior tolerância às espécies. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar a ação de diferentes agentes como atenuadores do estresse hídrico na germinação e acúmulo de compostos orgânicos em plântulas de S. hispanica. Os tratamentos consistiram na pré-embebição das sementes durante 4 horas em ácido salicílico (1 mM.L-¹), ácido giberélico (0,4 mM.L-¹), água destilada e o tratamento controle (sem embebição). As sementes foram germinadas sob os potenciais osmóticos 0,0, -0,1, -0,2, -0,3 e -0,4 MPa, utilizando PEG 6000 como agente osmótico. Analisaram-se as variáveis porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz primária, massa seca total, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e aminoácidos livres totais. O ácido salicílico e o ácido giberélico apresentaram os melhores resultados, dentre os atenuadores testados, incrementando a germinação, o comprimento, a massa seca e os componentes bioquímicos de plântulas de S. hispanica sob déficit hídrico. Logo, os ácidos salicílico e giberélico são eficientes na mitigação do estresse hídrico em sementes de S. hispanica até o potencial -0,4 MPa.


Assuntos
Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Soluções para Reidratação/administração & dosagem , Umidade do Solo , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem
8.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-9, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32879

Resumo

Salvia hispanica cultivation is recent in Brazil and occurs in the off-season, when there is lower water availability in the soil. Water deficit is one of the abiotic factors that most limit germination for compromising the sequence of metabolic events that culminate with seedling emergence. Several attenuating substances have been used to mitigate the effects resulting from this stress and give higher tolerance to the species. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of different agents as water stress attenuators in the germination and accumulation of organic compounds in S. hispanica seedlings. The treatments consisted of pre-soaking the seeds for 4 hours in salicylic acid (1 mM.L-¹), gibberellic acid (0.4 mM.L-¹), distilled water and control treatment (without soaking). The seeds were germinated at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa, using PEG 6000 as an osmotic agent. The variables germination percentage, germination speed index, shoot and primary root lengths, total dry mass, proline, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids were analyzed. Salicylic acid and gibberellic acid led to the best results among the attenuators tested, increasing germination, length, dry mass and biochemical components of S. hispanica seedlings under water deficit. Therefore, salicylic and gibberellic acids are efficient in mitigating water stress in S. hispanica seeds up to the potential of -0.4 MPa.(AU)


O cultivo da Salvia hispanica é recente no Brasil e se dá no período de entressafra, quando há menor disponibilidade hídrica no solo. O déficit hídrico é um dos fatores abióticos que mais limitam a germinação por comprometer a sequência de eventos metabólicos que culminam com a emergência da plântula. Diversas substâncias atenuadoras têm sido empregadas com a finalidade de mitigar os efeitos resultantes desse estresse e conferir maior tolerância às espécies. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar a ação de diferentes agentes como atenuadores do estresse hídrico na germinação e acúmulo de compostos orgânicos em plântulas de S. hispanica. Os tratamentos consistiram na pré-embebição das sementes durante 4 horas em ácido salicílico (1 mM.L-¹), ácido giberélico (0,4 mM.L-¹), água destilada e o tratamento controle (sem embebição). As sementes foram germinadas sob os potenciais osmóticos 0,0, -0,1, -0,2, -0,3 e -0,4 MPa, utilizando PEG 6000 como agente osmótico. Analisaram-se as variáveis porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz primária, massa seca total, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e aminoácidos livres totais. O ácido salicílico e o ácido giberélico apresentaram os melhores resultados, dentre os atenuadores testados, incrementando a germinação, o comprimento, a massa seca e os componentes bioquímicos de plântulas de S. hispanica sob déficit hídrico. Logo, os ácidos salicílico e giberélico são eficientes na mitigação do estresse hídrico em sementes de S. hispanica até o potencial -0,4 MPa.(AU)


Assuntos
Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soluções para Reidratação/administração & dosagem , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem , Umidade do Solo
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468472

Resumo

Root deformation (RD) caused by errors in the pricking out process are irreversible and very difficult to detect in container-grown seedlings at the time of planting in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RD on leaf gas exchange, growth, biomass allocation and mineral nutrition of G. americana seedlings during the recovery phase after soil flooding. Four-months-old seedlings, with and without RD, were flooded for 42 days and their recovery was evaluated 28 days after soil drainage. There were no significant interactions between RD and soil flooding for all leaf gas exchange, growth and mineral nutrition after soil drainage, with the exception of leaf P concentrations. In plants with no RD, the P concentration in leaves of non-flooded plants was significantly higher than that of plants with RD. Soil flooding and RD did not influence leaf or root N concentrations or whole-plant N content. RD increased the K concentration in the roots, but not in the leaves. Changes in the nutrient concentrations in leaves and roots indicate that RD may affect physiological performance of seedlings after planting in the field.


A deformação da raiz (RD) causada por erros no processo de repicagem é irreversível e difícil de detectar em mudas produzidas em embalagens no momento do plantio no campo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do RD nas trocas gasosas foliares, crescimento, alocação de biomassa e nutrição mineral de mudas de G. americana na fase de recuperação após o alagamento do solo. Mudas com quatro meses de idade, com e sem RD, foram alagadas por 42 dias e a sua recuperação foi avaliada 28 dias após a drenagem do solo. Não houve interação significativa entre RD e alagamento do solo nas trocas gasosas foliares, crescimento e nutrição mineral após a drenagem, com exceção das concentrações de P foliar. Em plantas sem RD, a concentração de P nas folhas de plantas não alagadas foi significativamente maior que a das plantas com RD. O alagamento do solo e a RD não influenciaram as concentrações de N nas folhas e raízes, e no conteúdo de N na planta inteira. A RD aumentou a concentração de K nas raízes, mas não nas folhas. Alterações nas concentrações de nutrientes nas folhas e raízes indicam que a RD pode afetar o desempenho fisiológico das mudas após o plantio no campo.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Potássio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubiaceae/fisiologia , Umidade do Solo
10.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-9, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-33474

Resumo

Root deformation (RD) caused by errors in the pricking out process are irreversible and very difficult to detect in container-grown seedlings at the time of planting in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RD on leaf gas exchange, growth, biomass allocation and mineral nutrition of G. americana seedlings during the recovery phase after soil flooding. Four-months-old seedlings, with and without RD, were flooded for 42 days and their recovery was evaluated 28 days after soil drainage. There were no significant interactions between RD and soil flooding for all leaf gas exchange, growth and mineral nutrition after soil drainage, with the exception of leaf P concentrations. In plants with no RD, the P concentration in leaves of non-flooded plants was significantly higher than that of plants with RD. Soil flooding and RD did not influence leaf or root N concentrations or whole-plant N content. RD increased the K concentration in the roots, but not in the leaves. Changes in the nutrient concentrations in leaves and roots indicate that RD may affect physiological performance of seedlings after planting in the field.(AU)


A deformação da raiz (RD) causada por erros no processo de repicagem é irreversível e difícil de detectar em mudas produzidas em embalagens no momento do plantio no campo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do RD nas trocas gasosas foliares, crescimento, alocação de biomassa e nutrição mineral de mudas de G. americana na fase de recuperação após o alagamento do solo. Mudas com quatro meses de idade, com e sem RD, foram alagadas por 42 dias e a sua recuperação foi avaliada 28 dias após a drenagem do solo. Não houve interação significativa entre RD e alagamento do solo nas trocas gasosas foliares, crescimento e nutrição mineral após a drenagem, com exceção das concentrações de P foliar. Em plantas sem RD, a concentração de P nas folhas de plantas não alagadas foi significativamente maior que a das plantas com RD. O alagamento do solo e a RD não influenciaram as concentrações de N nas folhas e raízes, e no conteúdo de N na planta inteira. A RD aumentou a concentração de K nas raízes, mas não nas folhas. Alterações nas concentrações de nutrientes nas folhas e raízes indicam que a RD pode afetar o desempenho fisiológico das mudas após o plantio no campo.(AU)


Assuntos
Rubiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubiaceae/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Potássio/análise , Umidade do Solo
11.
Sci. agric ; 78(2): e20190126, 2021. map, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497938

Resumo

Current available soil information allows building baselines to improve research, such as sustainable resource management; however, its use requires analysis of accuracy and precision that describes specific variables on local and global scales. Therefore, this study evaluated differences in the spatial distribution of water retention capacity (WRC) of the soil at a depth of 0.3 m, calculated from local general soil surveys and the global gridded soil information system (SoilGrids), using detailed or semi-detailed soil surveys as a reference, in two regions of Colombia (A and B). The qualitative and statistical analyses evaluated differences in WRC surfaces generated by the information sources. Neither information sources described WRC accurately, achieving correlations between −0.15 and 0.49 and average absolute errors between 9.65 and 19.52 mm for zones A and B, respectively. However, studies on the local scale remain within the ranges observed in the most detailed local studies. The use of products on the global scale is subject to regional analyses; nevertheless, they can be included as a covariate in digital soil mapping studies on more detailed scales.


Assuntos
Características do Solo/análise , Mapeamento Geográfico , Umidade do Solo , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00552020, 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349007

Resumo

Potato scab caused by different species of phytopathogenic Streptomyces is considered one of the main bacterial diseases of economic crop importance worldwide. Several studies are being carried out in order to control the disease, but until now, there is no efficient way to do this. Some management strategies have been investigated including application of chemical and biological products and utilization of resistant cultivars of potato but there are few reports about the impact of pH and irrigation regimes on the disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of these last two factors on the incidence and severity of potato scab caused by S. scabiei, S. acidiscabies, Streptomyces sp., S. caviscabies and S. europaeiscabiei in assays at pH 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5; and irrigation regimes of once a week, alternate days and daily in greenhouse conditions. The experimental design for the pH tests was randomized blocks arranged in a 5x2 factorial scheme, with 5 replications and 3x2 for the irrigation regimes with 5 replications. The pH tests showed significant differences between the treatments and pH 4,0 - 4,5 presented lower incidence and severity of the disease for the most species tested but no significant differences were observed between the irrigation regimes. The soil acidification is considered a classic strategy for management of the disease and the results obtained herein corroborated this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Streptomyces/patogenicidade , Solanum tuberosum , Umidade do Solo , Infecções Bacterianas , Controle de Pragas , Acidificação
13.
Sci. agric. ; 78(2): e20190126, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28989

Resumo

Current available soil information allows building baselines to improve research, such as sustainable resource management; however, its use requires analysis of accuracy and precision that describes specific variables on local and global scales. Therefore, this study evaluated differences in the spatial distribution of water retention capacity (WRC) of the soil at a depth of 0.3 m, calculated from local general soil surveys and the global gridded soil information system (SoilGrids), using detailed or semi-detailed soil surveys as a reference, in two regions of Colombia (A and B). The qualitative and statistical analyses evaluated differences in WRC surfaces generated by the information sources. Neither information sources described WRC accurately, achieving correlations between −0.15 and 0.49 and average absolute errors between 9.65 and 19.52 mm for zones A and B, respectively. However, studies on the local scale remain within the ranges observed in the most detailed local studies. The use of products on the global scale is subject to regional analyses; nevertheless, they can be included as a covariate in digital soil mapping studies on more detailed scales.(AU)


Assuntos
Umidade do Solo , Características do Solo/análise , Mapeamento Geográfico , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
14.
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 42(3,supl. 1): 1567-1578, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1501944

Resumo

The objective of this work was to evaluate the retention of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients, as well as pH and electrical conductivity in Oxisols. Soil samples were placed into columns, with addition of humic substances (soil with and without liming). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and the columns consisted of PVC tubes with 40 cm height x 5 cm diameter. The humic substances used were humic acid and fulvic acid, applied at rates of 0, 60, 120 and 240 L ha-¹, in soil with or without lime. Ten irrigation events were performed, simulating 32 mm rainfall. After that, samples were collected from the columns, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, to identify the residual effect of the addition of humic substances. A completely randomized design was used for this experiment, with 2×2×4 factorial statistical model and 3 replications. The results showed that, under acidic soil conditions, the use of fulvic acid provides more significant P release (up to 40%) in soil when compared to humic acid. When the rate of 240 L ha-¹ is applied, the fulvic acid can release up to 83% of P in the soil.


Neste trabalho avaliou-se a retenção dos nutrientes P, K, Ca e Mg, além do pH e condutividade elétrica em Latossolos, inseridos em colunas e adicionados de substâncias húmicas (na ausência e presença de calagem). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as colunas foram compostas por colunas de PVC de 40 cm de altura e 5 cm de diâmetro. As substâncias húmicas utilizadas foram o ácido húmico e o ácido fúlvico aplicados nas doses 0, 60, 120 e 240 L ha-¹ em solo com ou sem calcário. Dez eventos de irrigação foram realizados simulando chuvas de 32 mm. Em seguida, amostras das colunas foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-20 e 20-40 cm para identificar o efeito residual da adição de substâncias húmicas. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com modelo estatístico fatorial 2×2×4 com 3 repetições. Os resultados mostraram que em condições de solo ácido, o uso do ácido fúlvico é mais expressivo na liberação de P (até 40% de liberação) no solo quando comparado ao ácido húmico. E, quando utilizada a taxa de 240 L ha-¹, o ácido fúlvico pode liberar até 83% de P no solo.


Assuntos
Análise do Solo , Cálcio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Magnésio/análise , Potássio/análise , Química do Solo , Umidade do Solo
15.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 42(3,supl. 1): 1567-1578, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765824

Resumo

The objective of this work was to evaluate the retention of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients, as well as pH and electrical conductivity in Oxisols. Soil samples were placed into columns, with addition of humic substances (soil with and without liming). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and the columns consisted of PVC tubes with 40 cm height x 5 cm diameter. The humic substances used were humic acid and fulvic acid, applied at rates of 0, 60, 120 and 240 L ha-¹, in soil with or without lime. Ten irrigation events were performed, simulating 32 mm rainfall. After that, samples were collected from the columns, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, to identify the residual effect of the addition of humic substances. A completely randomized design was used for this experiment, with 2×2×4 factorial statistical model and 3 replications. The results showed that, under acidic soil conditions, the use of fulvic acid provides more significant P release (up to 40%) in soil when compared to humic acid. When the rate of 240 L ha-¹ is applied, the fulvic acid can release up to 83% of P in the soil.(AU)


Neste trabalho avaliou-se a retenção dos nutrientes P, K, Ca e Mg, além do pH e condutividade elétrica em Latossolos, inseridos em colunas e adicionados de substâncias húmicas (na ausência e presença de calagem). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as colunas foram compostas por colunas de PVC de 40 cm de altura e 5 cm de diâmetro. As substâncias húmicas utilizadas foram o ácido húmico e o ácido fúlvico aplicados nas doses 0, 60, 120 e 240 L ha-¹ em solo com ou sem calcário. Dez eventos de irrigação foram realizados simulando chuvas de 32 mm. Em seguida, amostras das colunas foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-20 e 20-40 cm para identificar o efeito residual da adição de substâncias húmicas. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com modelo estatístico fatorial 2×2×4 com 3 repetições. Os resultados mostraram que em condições de solo ácido, o uso do ácido fúlvico é mais expressivo na liberação de P (até 40% de liberação) no solo quando comparado ao ácido húmico. E, quando utilizada a taxa de 240 L ha-¹, o ácido fúlvico pode liberar até 83% de P no solo.(AU)


Assuntos
Análise do Solo , Química do Solo , Umidade do Solo , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Cálcio/análise , Magnésio/análise
16.
Sci. agric ; 77(5): e20180349, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1497879

Resumo

There is an increasing interest in the application of geophysical surveys to assess the soil water content (SWC) variation in both spatial and temporal scales. In this work, a geophysical survey was carried out at an experimental farm in dry and wet conditions. We determined the SWC data measured with the gravimetric method, apparent electrical conductivity by electromagnetic induction (EMI) and amplitude of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data at different frequencies. Geophysical sensors are an efficient tool for soil mapping at high resolution; however; there is a need to improve the knowledge on their capabilities and limitations under field conditions, especially for GPR. The geophysical survey provides an example of the application of these techniques to evaluate the spatial variability of SWC in two different water conditions. The contribution of geophysical data in understanding the spatial variability of SWC was investigated applying both the traditional analysis and spatial techniques. The results indicated that the geophysical data captured the spatial variation of SWC in non-invasively way especially in dry condition. However, they also showed the complex interplay between factors controlling SWC and geophysical responses and the drawbacks of geophysical sensors under inhomogeneous water conditions. Our findings also highlighted that EMI survey provides the potential to map the SWC variability within a relatively short time. The results obtained in this research are important from the agronomical viewpoint, since they allow increasing efficiency of irrigation practices, which is important in times characterized by climate change.


Assuntos
Análise do Solo , Monitoramento do Solo , Umidade do Solo , Irrigação Agrícola
17.
Sci. agric. ; 77(5): e20180349, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24811

Resumo

There is an increasing interest in the application of geophysical surveys to assess the soil water content (SWC) variation in both spatial and temporal scales. In this work, a geophysical survey was carried out at an experimental farm in dry and wet conditions. We determined the SWC data measured with the gravimetric method, apparent electrical conductivity by electromagnetic induction (EMI) and amplitude of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data at different frequencies. Geophysical sensors are an efficient tool for soil mapping at high resolution; however; there is a need to improve the knowledge on their capabilities and limitations under field conditions, especially for GPR. The geophysical survey provides an example of the application of these techniques to evaluate the spatial variability of SWC in two different water conditions. The contribution of geophysical data in understanding the spatial variability of SWC was investigated applying both the traditional analysis and spatial techniques. The results indicated that the geophysical data captured the spatial variation of SWC in non-invasively way especially in dry condition. However, they also showed the complex interplay between factors controlling SWC and geophysical responses and the drawbacks of geophysical sensors under inhomogeneous water conditions. Our findings also highlighted that EMI survey provides the potential to map the SWC variability within a relatively short time. The results obtained in this research are important from the agronomical viewpoint, since they allow increasing efficiency of irrigation practices, which is important in times characterized by climate change.(AU)


Assuntos
Análise do Solo , Monitoramento do Solo , Umidade do Solo , Irrigação Agrícola
18.
Colloq. Agrar ; 16(3): 104-114, maio-jun. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1481567

Resumo

A expansão de sistema silvipastoril poderia ser realizada por meio da reforma do sistema monocultivo de pastagem em solo com a camada superficial arenosa, mas os agropecuaristas receiam que possa haver competição pela água no solo entre a pastagem e o eucalipto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a umidade e a água disponível em sistema silvipastoril e monocultivo de pastagem em diferentes estações do ano, distância dos troncos de eucaliptos ou dos terraços a 1 m de profundidade em um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico. A reforma de pastagem foi realizada em 12 ha com o cultivo de mandioca (2008-2010), tendo sido as mudas de eucalipto plantadas simultaneamente ao plantio das manivas de mandioca em agosto de 2008. Avaliaram-se dois sistemas entre terraços espaçados em 20 m: a) sistema de monocultivo de pastagem grama-estrela roxa (Cynodon nlemfuensis) e b) sistema silvipastoril (2x3)+20 com grama-estrela roxa e eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis). A umidade gravimétrica no solo () foi determinada nas quatro estações do ano para eucaliptos com 2 a 3 anos de idade, entre julho/2010 a março/2011. Utilizaram-se as seguintes posições de amostragem: 2,5, 5 e 10 m do tronco do eucalipto a jusante dos terraços. Amostras deformadas de solo foram coletadas a 0-0,2 m (horizonte A areia-franca), 0,2-0,4 (horizonte Bw1 franco-arenosa), e 0,4-0,6, 0,6-0,8 e 0,8-1,0 m (horizonte Bw2...


The expansion of silvopastoral system could be achieved through reform of forage grass monoculture system in soil with a sandy surface layer, but ranchers are concerned that there may be competition for soil water between the pasture and eucalyptus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the moisture and water available in silvopastoral system and forage grass monoculture in different seasons, distance of eucalyptus trunks or terraces at 1 m depth in a Hapludox soil. Reclamation forage grass monoculture was held with cassava (2008-2010), being the eucalyptus seedlings planted simultaneously to the planting of cassava in August 2008. Two systems of terraces spaced 20 m were evaluated: a) forage grass monoculture stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) system and b) silvopastoral system (2x3) +20 with stargrass forage and eucalypt tree (Eucalyptus grandis). Gravimetric moisture in the soil () was determined in four seasons for eucalyptus tree had 2-3-year-old, from July/2010 to March/2011. Use the following sampling positions: 2.5, 5 and 10 m away from the stem of eucalyptus trees downstream of the terraces. Disturbed soil samples were collected at 0-0.2 m (A horizon sandy texture), 0.2-0.4 (Bw1 sandy loam texture), and 0.4-0.6, 0.6-0.8 and 0.8-1.0 m (Bw2 sandy clay cloam). Field capacity and permanent wilting point waters contents was determined. The silvopastoral system...


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Pastagens , Umidade do Solo
19.
Colloq. agrar. ; 16(3): 104-114, maio-jun. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-27851

Resumo

A expansão de sistema silvipastoril poderia ser realizada por meio da reforma do sistema monocultivo de pastagem em solo com a camada superficial arenosa, mas os agropecuaristas receiam que possa haver competição pela água no solo entre a pastagem e o eucalipto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a umidade e a água disponível em sistema silvipastoril e monocultivo de pastagem em diferentes estações do ano, distância dos troncos de eucaliptos ou dos terraços a 1 m de profundidade em um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico. A reforma de pastagem foi realizada em 12 ha com o cultivo de mandioca (2008-2010), tendo sido as mudas de eucalipto plantadas simultaneamente ao plantio das manivas de mandioca em agosto de 2008. Avaliaram-se dois sistemas entre terraços espaçados em 20 m: a) sistema de monocultivo de pastagem grama-estrela roxa (Cynodon nlemfuensis) e b) sistema silvipastoril (2x3)+20 com grama-estrela roxa e eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis). A umidade gravimétrica no solo () foi determinada nas quatro estações do ano para eucaliptos com 2 a 3 anos de idade, entre julho/2010 a março/2011. Utilizaram-se as seguintes posições de amostragem: 2,5, 5 e 10 m do tronco do eucalipto a jusante dos terraços. Amostras deformadas de solo foram coletadas a 0-0,2 m (horizonte A areia-franca), 0,2-0,4 (horizonte Bw1 franco-arenosa), e 0,4-0,6, 0,6-0,8 e 0,8-1,0 m (horizonte Bw2...(AU)


The expansion of silvopastoral system could be achieved through reform of forage grass monoculture system in soil with a sandy surface layer, but ranchers are concerned that there may be competition for soil water between the pasture and eucalyptus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the moisture and water available in silvopastoral system and forage grass monoculture in different seasons, distance of eucalyptus trunks or terraces at 1 m depth in a Hapludox soil. Reclamation forage grass monoculture was held with cassava (2008-2010), being the eucalyptus seedlings planted simultaneously to the planting of cassava in August 2008. Two systems of terraces spaced 20 m were evaluated: a) forage grass monoculture stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) system and b) silvopastoral system (2x3) +20 with stargrass forage and eucalypt tree (Eucalyptus grandis). Gravimetric moisture in the soil () was determined in four seasons for eucalyptus tree had 2-3-year-old, from July/2010 to March/2011. Use the following sampling positions: 2.5, 5 and 10 m away from the stem of eucalyptus trees downstream of the terraces. Disturbed soil samples were collected at 0-0.2 m (A horizon sandy texture), 0.2-0.4 (Bw1 sandy loam texture), and 0.4-0.6, 0.6-0.8 and 0.8-1.0 m (Bw2 sandy clay cloam). Field capacity and permanent wilting point waters contents was determined. The silvopastoral system...(AU)


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Umidade do Solo , Pastagens
20.
Ci. Rural ; 50(6): e20190831, May 11, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29107

Resumo

The lowland soils are characterized by high susceptibility to water saturation. This anaerobic condition is usually reported in paddy fields and alters the decomposition process of soil organic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil microbial and enzymatic activity of a lowland soil at different soil moisture contents. A poorly drained Albaqualf cultivated with irrigated rice was used to evaluate microbial and enzymatic activity in treatments with different levels of soil moisture, being: i) 60% of field capacity (FC) (60%FC); ii) 100% of FC (100%FC); iii) flooded soil with a 2 cm water layer above soil surface, and iv) soil kept at 60%FC with late flood after 29 days the incubation. The greater soil microbial activity was observed in the 100%FC treatment, being 41% greater than 60%FC treatment and only 2% higher than flooded treatment. The enzymatic activity data by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis corroborated the higher CO2 release in treatments with higher soil moisture content. Differently from the results reported, the main methodologies to evaluate microbial activity still recommend maintenance of the soil with a moisture content close to 60% of the FC. However, in lowland soil with history of frequent paddy fields, the maintenance of moisture close to 60% of the FC can limit the microbial activity. The soil respiration technique can be used to evaluate the microbial activity in flooded soil conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to understand the effect of the cultivation history on the microbial community of these environments.(AU)


Os solos de várzea são caracterizados pela alta suscetibilidade à saturação por água. Esta condição anaeróbica é geralmente encontrada em solos arrozeiros e altera o processo de decomposição dos compostos orgânicos do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade microbiana e enzimática de um solo de várzea sob diferentes teores de umidade no solo. Um Planossolo historicamente cultivado com arroz irrigado foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade microbiana e enzimática em tratamentos com diferentes níveis de umidade do solo, sendo: i) 60% de capacidade de campo (CC) (60%CC); ii) 100% da CC (100%CC); iii) solo inundado com uma camada de água de 2 cm acima da superfície do solo; e iv) solo mantido a 60%CC com inundação após 29 dias da incubação. A maior atividade microbiana do solo foi observada no tratamento 100%CC, sendo 41% maior que o tratamento 60%CC e 2% maior que tratamento inundado. Os dados da atividade enzimática pela hidrólise do diacetato de fluoresceína (FDA) corroboraram a maior liberação de CO2 nos tratamentos com maior umidade do solo. Diferentemente dos resultados encontrados, as principais metodologias para avaliação da atividade microbiana ainda recomendam manter o solo com umidade próxima a 60% da CC. No entanto, em solos de várzea com históricos de cultivos de arroz, a manutenção de umidade próxima a 60% da CC pode limitar a atividade microbiana. A técnica de respiração do solo pode ser usada para avaliar a atividade microbiana em condições de solo inundado. No entanto, mais estudos devem ser realizados para entender o efeito do histórico de cultivo na comunidade microbiana nesses ambientes.(AU)


Assuntos
Oryza/microbiologia , Umidade do Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA