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J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol ; 11(2): e2023010, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434788


Compost barn (CB), although recent in Brazil, is increasingly gaining popularity among the intensive breeding systems in the dairy sector. This system promises to offer several advantages to producers and animals: such as providing an environment in which milk production is increased and the physical integrity of cattle is improved, reducing mastitis episodes, and promoting thermal comfort for animals. Another factor that highlights CB concerning other intensive systems is the composting process, generated by the deposition of carbon-rich materials (bedding) with nitrogen sources (urine and feces) from animals. For the full benefits of this composting to be achieved, management, especially of bedding, must be carried out correctly, considering the development requirements of the compost, the use of quality organic material, adequate ventilation, and an ideal rate of animal capacity, so that the generation of heat occurs efficiently. However, there is a general lack of information about the CB system. Hence, there is an increasing need for data surveys of Brazilian regions to compare the diversity of materials used in bedding, assessing energy efficiency and performance over time. Therefore, this bibliographical review addressed the main points of the CB system approach, considering that studies such as this are consistently relevant for rural producers, facilitating decisions regarding the implementation and management of the CB system on their farms.

Animais , Bovinos , Reprodução , Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos , Leite
Braz. j. vet. pathol ; 16(1): 71-77, mar. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1425391


Clinical History: A 5-year-old, Holstein-Friesian dairy cow was evaluated by a veterinary practitioner for a 30-day history of unilateral exophthalmos (Fig. 1). After 15 days, the cow presented lameness followed by progressive weight loss and pelvic limbs paresis, culminating in persistent sternal recumbency (Fig. 2). The superficial inguinal lymph nodes were enlarged. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized and submitted to a postmortem examination. Gross Findings: The cow was in poor body condition with mild amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fat stores. The oral and conjunctival mucous membranes were pale. There was severe exophthalmos in the right eye, caused by a soft, homogenous, white to yellow mass (6 cm in diameter) (Fig. 3) in the retrobulbar space. Similar irregular masses were seen in the left renal pelvis, partially effacing the renal parenchyma, and in the epidural space, circumferentially surrounding the pachymeninges (extradural location) (Fig. 4) of the lumbar segment of the spinal cord. The superficial inguinal lymph nodes (supramammary) were markedly enlarged and, on the cut surface, had homogenous white to yellow discoloration and loss of the corticomedullary junction. Multifocal areas of the abomasum wall were moderately thickened and expanded by a soft, homogenous, white to yellow masses. No significant alterations were observed in other organs. Follow-up questions: Morphologic diagnosis? Etiological agent? Name of the condition? Probable pathogenesis pathways?

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/diagnóstico , Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/patogenicidade
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20210086, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436777


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the qPCR for detection and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae using different milk samplings in comparison to the conventional microbiology. Four dairy herds with a history of subclinical mastitis caused by S. aureus and S. agalactiae were selected. Sampling approach included milk samples from bulk tank (BT), cow level (composite samples, CO), and mammary quarter level (MQ) from 785 lactating cows. Three consecutive monthly milk samplings were carried out, totaling 3347 MQ milk samples, 912 CO, and 12 from BT. All collected milk samples were subjected to conventional microbiology and qPCR for detection and enumeration of S. aureus and S. agalactiae. The qPCR showed 71.5% of diagnostic sensitivity for S. aureus isolated from MQ milk samples, 71.8% for CO, and 50% for BT milk samples compared with conventional microbiology methodology. Taken together, the diagnostic sensitivity for S. agalactiae isolated from MQ milk samples was 90.2, 87.7 for CO, and 90.9% for BT milk samples. In general, the qPCR methodology enabled the detection of S. aureus and S. agalactiae, regardless of the type of milk sampling. The direct use of milk samples to estimate the counting of S. aureus by qPCR demonstrated lower sensitivity than the counting of S. agalactiae, which can be explained by the pathogen infection dynamics and differences in milk sample type.

Animais , Bovinos , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Leite/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: e-74730E, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1447894


This study aimed to assess how maternal nutrition in the final third of gestation affects progeny weight performance and body composition. Forty-one steers were included, born to cows subjected to different nutritional levels during this period: 13 cows without supplementation and under nutritional restriction (RES), 16 cows supplemented to meet 100% of requirements (REQ), and 12 cows supplemented to meet 150% of requirements (HIGH). The study design was completely randomized. Progeny performance was not influenced by maternal nutrition during gestation (P > 0.05). However, RES animals excelled during challenging periods, while REQ and HIGH animals performed better in nutritionally favorable environments. Maternal nutrition in the final third of gestation did not impact the contribution of non-carcass components (16.42%) and internal organs (3.17%). RES and HIGH steers had a higher relative weight of the rumen (2.48%) compared to REQ steers (2.24%), resulting in a greater proportion of the gastrointestinal tract (8.25% vs. 7.63%). Carcass characteristics did not differ significantly between treatments (P > 0.05), with an average hot carcass weight and yield of 304.28 kg and 57.80%, respectively. The primary fore, side, and hind cuts represented 39.22%, 10.64%, and 50.67% of the carcass, respectively. Overall, maternal nutrition during gestation affects fetal development, leading to modifications in body composition and, consequently, the productive potential of the offspring.

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da nutrição materna no terço final da gestação sobre o desempenho ponderal e a composição corporal da progênie. Foram utilizados 41 novilhos de vacas submetidas a diferentes níveis nutricionais durante o terço final de gestação: 13 vacas sem suplementação sob restrição nutricional (RES); 16 vacas suplementadas para atender 100% das exigências (REQ); 12 vacas suplementadas para atender 150% das exigências (HIGH). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado. O desempenho da progênie não foi influenciado pela nutrição materna na gestação (P > 0,05), porém, animais RES se sobresaem em períodos desafiadores, enquanto que os REQ e HIGH desempenharam melhor em ambientes nutricionalmente favoráveis. A nutrição materna no terço final da gestação não influenciou a participação dos componentes não carcaça (16,42%) e órgãos internos (3,17%). O peso relativo do rúmen foi maior nos novilhos RES e HIGH (2,48%) em relação aos novilhos REQ (2,24%), resultando em maior participação do trato gastrointestinal (8,25 vs 7,63%, respectivamente). As características quantitativas da carcaça foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos (P > 0,05), com peso médio de carcaça quente e rendimento equivalente a 304,28 kg e 57,80%. A participação dos cortes primários dianteiro, lateral e traseiro foi de 39,22, 10,64 e 50,67%, respectivamente. Diante do exposto, concluímos que a nutrição materna na gestação afeta a formação fetal de modo a modificar a composição corporal e consequentemente o potencial produtivo dos descendentes.

Animais , Bovinos , Gravidez , Bovinos , Nutrição Materna
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 75(4): 599-599, July-Aug. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1447359


Monitoring the movements of ruminant animals is one of the most challenging tasks. In animals that act according to their habits, it is difficult to label such movements and transfer them to farmers. Monitoring and recording the movement and behavior of animals on a farm is an adopted method for successfully determining the duration of the estrus cycle in ruminant animals. The Internet is a technology that offers remarkable solutions for such applications. The aim of this study is to determine the hourly step counts and to find the estrus period in the most accurate way with a circuit design applied to the ankles of animals using an IoT-supported microcontroller. The data is transferred to the web environment wirelessly and monitored via wi-fi communication signals. This wireless wearable and network equipment determines the step count and monitors the animal's abnormal body temperature. An IoT-supported microcontroller provides wireless communication, high-speed data transmission, and low power consumption. Insemination was ensured by testing different animals on the application farm. The data is monitored in real-time, and the system gives an alert. Low cost, high reliability, and being able to be watched over the internet are the advantages of the system. This study helped develop new techniques and provided a low-cost proposition for testing wearable technologies on animals.

A monitorização dos movimentos dos animais ruminantes é uma das tarefas mais difíceis. Em animais que agem de acordo com os seus hábitos, é difícil rotular esses movimentos e transferi-los para os agricultores. A monitorização e o registo dos movimentos e do comportamento dos animais numa exploração é um método adoptado para determinar com êxito a duração do ciclo de cio em animais ruminantes. A Internet é uma tecnologia que oferece soluções notáveis para tais aplicações. O objectivo deste estudo é determinar as contagens horárias de passos e encontrar o período de cio da forma mais precisa possível com um design de circuito aplicado aos tornozelos dos animais utilizando um microcontrolador suportado pela IoT. Os dados são transferidos para o ambiente Web sem fios e monitorizados através de sinais de comunicação wi-fi. Este equipamento vestível e de rede sem fios determina a contagem de passos e monitoriza a temperatura corporal anormal do animal. Um microcontrolador suportado pela IoT fornece comunicação sem fios, transmissão de dados a alta velocidade e baixo consumo de energia. A inseminação foi assegurada através de testes com diferentes animais na quinta de aplicação. Os dados são monitorizados em tempo real e o sistema emite um alerta. O baixo custo, a elevada fiabilidade e a possibilidade de ser observado através da Internet são as vantagens do sistema. Este estudo ajudou a desenvolver novas técnicas e forneceu uma proposta de baixo custo para testar tecnologias vestíveis em animais.

Animais , Bovinos , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Internet
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol ; 11(2): e2023013, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434778


This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of F1 Holstein × Zebu cows grazing on deferred pasture receiving different supplementation strategies. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3×4 factorial, with three supplementation strategies and four evaluation periods. The ingestive behavior of 24 cows divided into three groups of supplementation provided at milking was observed, and two of these groups received protein in the pasture. Ingestive behavior was monitored every 10 minutes for 24 hours and analyzed in the form of periods (morning, afternoon, night, and dawn) and total time. The animals remained longer grazing during the afternoon when the BGHI presented values of 83.8. Protein consumption did not influence grazing time but interfered with forage consumption. For the total grazing time, the animals in group 2 spent less time grazing. The groups of animals presented no difference concerning the time spent on rumination and idleness. During night and dawn, when the climate was characterized as thermal comfort, the animals spent more time ruminating. The climatic conditions did not influence the ingestive behavior, as the grazing peak was observed at times of higher BGHI. However, supplementation of the animals in group 2 modified the ingestive behavior of F1 H × Z cows.

Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(1): 1-7, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1410644


Bovine rabies is endemic in most Brazilian States, including Rio Grande do Sul (RS), which has faced an unprecedented rabies outbreak between 2011 and 2018. We described a real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-rtPCR) for detection of rabies virus (RABV) in bovine samples. The primers were designed targeting a highly conserved region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene of RABV obtained from cattle. The detection limit corresponded to 13 DNA copies and the intra- and inter-run repeatability was adequate (CV<9%) in all dilutions tested. Amplification of other pathogens associated with neurological disease in cattle or cross-contamination was not observed. Brain samples from cattle suspicious of rabies (n=21) were tested in triplicate by the RT-rtPCR and by the gold-standard direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT), resulting in 100% of sensitivity and specificity of the RT-rtPCR. Testing of additional 41 bovine brain samples submitted to the routine DFAT testing yielded 37 (90.2%) concordant results (30 positive/7 negative) and 4 (9.7%) inconclusive in DFAT and RT-rtPCR positive. These results showed a good concordance between the tests and a higher sensitivity of the RT-rtPCR. This assay represents an alternative for RABV detection, either as a confirmatory test or for large-scale diagnosis in endemic regions.

A raiva bovina é endêmica na maioria dos estados brasileiros, inclusive no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), que enfrentou um surto de raiva sem precedentes entre 2011 e 2018. Descrevemos um PCR quantitativo de transcrição reversa em tempo real (RT-rtPCR) para detecção do vírus da raiva (RABV) em bovinos. Os primers foram desenhados visando uma região altamente conservada do gene da nucleoproteína (N) de RABV obtido de bovinos. O limite de detecção correspondeu a 13 cópias de DNA e a repetibilidade intra e inter-ensaios foi adequada (CV <9%) em todas as diluições testadas. Não foi observada amplificação de outros patógenos associados a doenças neurológicas em bovinos ou contaminação cruzada. Amostras de cérebro de bovinos com suspeita de raiva (n = 21) foram testadas em triplicata no RT-rtPCR e pelo teste de anticorpo fluorescente padrão ouro (DFAT), resultando em 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade do RT-rtPCR. O teste de 41 amostras de cérebro bovino adicionais submetidas ao teste de DFAT de rotina rendeu 37 (90,2%) resultados concordantes (30 positivos / sete negativos) e quatro (9,7%) inconclusivos em DFAT e RT-rtPCR positivo. Esses resultados mostraram boa concordância entre os testes e maior sensibilidade do RT-rtPCR. Este ensaio representa uma alternativa para a detecção do vírus da raiva, seja como teste confirmatório ou para diagnóstico em larga escala em regiões endêmicas.

Bovinos , Raiva , Transcrição Reversa , Diagnóstico , Bovinos
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(6): 1-7, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1413128


The study compared the economic results between five groups of Holstein steers with different arrival body weights (ABW) but similar ages in the feedlot. The average ABW were 105, 112, 117, 123 and 129 kg (30, 90, 87, 60, and 30 calves, respectively) with an age of 113 ± 1d. The calves were randomly distributed using an unbalanced design. The calves were weighed upon arrival at the feedlot and subsequently on days 112, 224, and 361 of the study. The calves were fed a steam- flaked corn-based diets. A receiving diet (2.21 Mcal of NEm/kg DM) was provided during the initial 112 days of feeding. From day 112 until harvest all steers received a finishing diet (2.27 Mcal of NEm/kg DM). Because two different diets were used, two partial (day 1 to day 112 and day 113 to day 361), and one full period (day1 to day 361) feeding periods were evaluated. Statistical differences between the final weights of all the groups were observed, which allowed a profit estimation, obtained by subtracting the purchase cost of calves plus the total feed cost from the revenue obtained from the sale of the steers. Overall weight gain and feed intake were higher with increased ABW, feeding efficiency was better for intermediate ABW groups (112 and 117 kg), with the calves with ABW of 112 kg being the most profitable (USD 15.8 more profit than the 117 Kg. group)

O estudo comparou os resultados econômicos entre cinco grupos de bezerros de raça holandesa com pesos vivos de chegada diferente, mas com idades semelhante em confinamento. Os pesos corporais médios de chegada foram 105, 112, 123 e 129 kg (30, 90, 87, 60 e 30 bezerros, respectivamente) com idade de 113 ± 1-d. Os bezerros foram distribuídos em um desenho não balanceado completamente aleatório. Os bezerros foram pesados da chegada ao confinamento e, posteriormente, nos dias 112, 22 e 361 do estudo. Os bezerros foram alimentados com dietas à base de milho floculado. A dieta de adaptação (2,21 Mcal de NEm / kg MS) foi fornecida durante os 112 dias iniciais de ração. Após 112 até o final do estudo todos os novilhos receberam a dieta de terminação (2,27 Mcal de NEm /kg MS). Diante do exposto, foram avaliados dois períodos parciais de alimentação e um período completo (1 a 112, 113 a 361 e 1 a 361 d, respectivamente). O lucro de cada grupo foi estimado subtraindo o custo de compra dos bezerros mais o custo total da alimentação da receita obtida com a venda dos novilhos. O ganho de peso geral e o consumo de ração aumentaram com o aumento do ABW, mas a eficiência alimentar foi melhor para os grupos intermediários ABW (112 e 117 kg), sendo os novilhos com ABW de 112 kg os mais lucrativos (USD 15, 8 a mais do que o grupo de 117 kg.)

Animais , Bovinos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aumento de Peso
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(8): e20220182, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418172


Pooled data analysis is an analytical method that combines results from multiple studies. This technique provides a more robust estimate of the effects of an investigation. We performed a database analysis from seventeen experiments developed at Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, between 1999 and 2017 to characterize individual performance per area and stocking rate with or without supplementation of replacement heifers grazing winter pastures. Data were separated into two groups: with and without energy supplement provision, and into five subgroups based on supplement levels. Heifers from both groups were maintained under similar forage biomass and leaf blade allowance. Statistical analyses were run on R software using a 'meta' package. Supplement supply increased average daily gain and gain of body condition scores by 11.1% and 20.0%, respectively. Supplement levels higher than 1.2% of body weight resulted in higher weight gain per area, with the stocking rate increasing with higher supplement levels.

Análise conjunta de dados é um método analítico que integra os resultados de muitos estudos. Essa técnica fornece uma estimativa mais robusta sobre os efeitos de uma investigação. Com o objetivo de caracterizar o desempenho individual, por área e a taxa de lotação com uso ou não de suplementos para novilhas de reposição mantidas em pastagem de inverno, foi realizada uma análise de banco de dados de dezessete experimentos conduzidos na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS, Brasil, entre 1999 e 2017. Os dados foram estratificados em dois grupos: com e sem suplemento energético e cinco subgrupos de acordo com o nível de suplemento. As novilhas de ambos os grupos foram mantidas em similar massa de forragem e oferta de lâminas foliares. As análises estatísticas foram executadas no software R, pacote 'meta'. O fornecimento de suplemento aumentou o ganho médio diário em 11.1% e em 20.0% o ganho no escore de condição corporal. Níveis de fornecimento maiores que 1.2% do peso corporal proporcionaram o maior ganho de peso por área e a taxa de lotação aumenta à medida que os níveis de suplemento aumentam.

Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aumento de Peso , Suplementos Nutricionais
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(10): e20220236, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418791


The objectives were to analyze the genealogical information of Gyr (GY) and Nelore (NL) cattle from Costa Rica. Analyzed: pedigree integrity (GY, 13272; NL, 18153); number of complete, maximum traced and equivalent complete generations; inbreeding (FI); generation interval (GI) through four selection routes; average additive genetic ratio (AGR); effective number of founders (fe); effective number of ancestors (fa); effective population size (Ne). The analysis was performed with the ENDOG software. The maximum proportion of unknown parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents was 18.6%, 39.9%, and 59.3%, respectively. The average FI for NL was 8.87% and 2.85% in GY. The average consanguineous population (%) and FI was 53.9 and 16.5% in NL, 28.9 and 9.9% in GY. The average and maximum values of AGR for NL were 3.5 and 12.8, 1.4 and 5.6 in GY. The fe and fa for NL were 65.0 and 38.0, in GY 145.7 and 59.0. The Ne indicated increases in FI in the range of 1 to 2% in GY, for NL greater than 2%, with a status of care to monitor the evolution of F and AGR and their possible implications in genetic improvement. The GI ranged from 6.3 to 7.9 years with a general average of 6.9 years. These results show a summary of the genetic and reproductive management those breeders have carried out.

Os objetivos foram analisar as informações genealógicas de bovinos Gir (GY) e Nelore (NL) da Costa Rica. Foram considerados: integridade do pedigree (GY, 13272; NL, 18153); número de gerações completas, máximas traçadas e equivalentes completas; endogamia (FI); intervalo de geração (GI) por meio de quatro rotas de seleção; razão genética aditiva média (AGR); número efetivo de fundadores (fe); número efetivo de ancestrais (fa); tamanho efetivo da população (Ne). A análise foi realizada com o software ENDOG. A proporção máxima de pais, avós e bisavós desconhecidos foi de 18,6%, 39,9% e 59,3%, respectivamente. O FI médio para NL foi de 8,87% e 2,85% no GY. A média da população consanguínea (%) e FI foi de 53,9 e 16,5% em NL, 28,9 e 9,9% em GY. Os valores médios e máximos de AGR para NL foram 3,5 e 12,8, 1,4 e 5,6 no GY. Os fe e fa para NL foram 65,0 e 38,0, no GY 145,7 e 59,0. O Ne indicou aumentos de FI na faixa de 1 a 2% no GY, para NL superiores a 2%, com status de cuidado para acompanhar a evolução de F e AGR e suas possíveis implicações no melhoramento genético. O IG variou de 6,3 a 7,9 anos com média geral de 6,9 anos. Esses resultados mostram um resumo do manejo genético e reprodutivo realizado por esses criadores.

Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem , Bovinos/classificação , Costa Rica
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 44(1): 97-112, jan.-fev. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418811


The aim was to estimate the genetic correlations between residual feed intake (RFI) and dry matter intake (DMI) with carcass finish (CF), rib eye area (REA), and marbling (MAR) of Nellore cattle. Data from 7,808 animals were considered. In addition, data from 2,261 females included in the complete database were also considered. Estimates of variance and covariance components, as well as heritabilities and genetic correlations were obtained by means of two-character analysis under animal model. Heritability estimates were found to be moderate for the RFI (0.22) and DMI (0.29) traits. It was observed that genetic correlation was close to zero for all traits, except between RFI and REA (-0.11). However, considering the female population, there was an increase in the estimated genetic correlation between RFI and DMI, although still a favorable genetic association of low magnitude (-0.30). There was also an increase in the genetic association of REA with RFI (-0.21). It can be concluded that the direct selection for RFI and DMI will not influence the CF, MAR, or REA of Nellore cattle. However, this selection may generate some favorable responses in MAR and REA in Nellore females.

Objetivou-se estimar as correlações genéticas entre consumo alimentar residual (CAR) e ingestão de matéria seca com acabamento de carcaça (ACAB), área de olho de lombo (AOL) e marmoreio (MAR) para bovinos da raça Nelore. Foram consideradas informações de 7.808 animais. Além disso foram consideradas informações de 2.261 animais fêmeas que compunham o banco de dados completo. As estimativas dos componentes de variâncias e covariâncias, bem como das herdabilidades e correlações genéticas foram obtidas por meio de análises bicaracterísticas sob modelo animal. Verificou-se que as estimativas de herdabilidade foram moderadas para as características de CAR (0,22) e IMS (0,29). Observou-se que as estimativas de correlação genética foram próximos a zero para todas as Características, exceto entre CAR e AOL (-0,11). No entanto, considerando a população de fêmeas, houve um aumento na estimativa de correlação genética com CAR e IMS, apesar de ainda ser uma associação genética favorável de baixa magnitude (-0,30). Também houve um aumento na associação genética da AOL com o CAR (-0,21). Conclui-se, assim, que a seleção direta para o CAR e IMS não influenciará no ACAB, MAR e AOL de bovinos da raça Nelore. No entanto, essa seleção poderá gerar alguma resposta favorável em MAR e AOL em fêmeas Nelore.

Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(11): e20210541, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427350


The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends (GT) for 305-day milk yield (MY305) and 305-day fat yield (FY305) of purebred Dairy Gir animals of the National Dairy Gir Breeding Program. The restricted maximum likelihood method was used in an animal model. GT were obtained via linear regression and divided into two periods (1935-1992 and 1993-2013 for PL305; 1935-1992 and 1993-2010 for MY305). The estimated heritabilities were 0.23 (MY305) and 0.10 (FY305). The GT (kg/year) values for MY305 in the 2nd period for measured females (25.49), females (26.11), and males (35.13) were higher than those found in the 1st period (2.52; 2.06, and 1.00, respectively). The heritability estimated for MY305 confirmed the possibility of genetic improvement by selection and indicated a lower additive genetic effect on FY305 of purebred animals. The genetic progress for MY305 in all purebred population is denoted by the more expressive gains found from 1990's, when the first bull catalogs were published.

Objetivou-se estimar os parâmetros genéticos e tendências genéticas (GT) para produção de leite (MY305) e produção de gordura (FY305), ambas em 305 dias, de animais puros Gir Leiteiro, integrantes do Programa Nacional de Melhoramento do Gir Leiteiro. Foi utilizada a metodologia da máxima verossimilhança restrita em modelo animal. As GT foram obtidas via regressão linear e divididas em dois períodos (1935-1992 e 1993-2013 para PL305; 1935-1992 e 1993-2010 para MY305). As herdabilidades foram de 0,23 (MY305) e 0,10 (FY305). Para PL305, as GT (kg/ano) do 2º período para fêmeas mensuradas (25,49), fêmeas (26,11) e, machos (35,13) foram claramente superiores às do 1º período (2,52; 2,06 e 1,00; respectivamente). A estimativa de herdabilidade para MY305 reafirma ser possível melhoramento genético por meio de seleção, enquanto para FY305 sugere uma menor influência genética aditiva em animais puros. O progresso genético para MY305 em toda a população pura está evidenciado pelos ganhos mais expressivos, observados a partir da década de 90, quando foram divulgados os primeiros sumários de touros.

Animais , Bovinos , Seleção Genética , Bovinos/genética , Melhoramento Genético
Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 45: e59307, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1428317


The objective was to assess the physiological and behavioral variables of pasture-raised Holstein heifers on the basis of their coat color. Eight heifers were used, four with black coat, and four with white coat. In the morning and afternoon periods, their physiological variables were measured, namely respiratory rate (RR, mov min. -1), rectal temperature (TR, ºC), and coat surface temperature (TS, ºC). The behavior analysis considered the site (sun or shade), position (standing or lying down), and activities (idleness, rumination, grazing, and others). The data of the physiological variables were assessed through analysis of variance, and significance, through Tukey's test at 5%, while behavioral data were assessed using the Chi-squared test (SAS Software). There was a difference for all of the heifers' physiological variables as a function of coat color (p < 0.0001) and period (p < 0.0001), with black ones showing greater results than white ones as to all physiological variables in the afternoon period (p < 0.0001). Grazing behavior is reduced during the hottest hours of the day. We conclude that solar radiation changes the physiological variables and grazing behavior of pasture-raised Holstein heifers.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/fisiologia , Pastagens , Radiação Solar , Comportamento Animal , Modalidades Fisiológicas
Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 45: e57545, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396846


This study aimed to perform a strategic diagnosis on a property specialized in breeding, rearing and finishing beef cattle in the southern region of Piauí. It was conducted at Agropecuária Alvorada, located in the countryside, municipality of Bom Jesus, PI, Brazil. The farm develops the full cycle of beef cattle production, which is divided into breeding, rearing and finishing. A SWOT analysis (which stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) was carried out, consisting of an assessment of the property's internal and external environments. To evaluate the internal environment, an interview was held for data collection by means of questionnaires. The evaluation included: breeding management, sanitary management, nutritional management, infrastructure, workforce, technologies used in pasture formation, conservation and recovery, pasture management and zootechnical indices. To analyze the external environment, a group of people (experts) with deep knowledge of the subject addressed during the study was used as source of information. A matrix was generated with all the information from the SWOT analysis, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, culminating with the establishment of strategies to increase the productive efficiency of the cattle raising activity.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Brasil , Pastagens
Sci. agric ; 80: e20220008, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1410176


The environment is vital to the agricultural sector since it can cause adversities throughout the entire productive chain. This study evaluated the geographical distribution of zebu breeds in Brazil and correlated their occurrence with environmental variables and the human development index. Herds of purebred zebu cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil were classified as beef, dairy, and dual-purpose breeds, and all breeds were spatialized in the ArcGIS program. Environmental (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity index) and the human development index (HDI) were examined. We conducted regression and logistic analyses. Zebu cattle showed a lower distribution in the Northeastern states compared to other locations, possibly due to harsh weather conditions, namely long periods of high temperatures and lower precipitation, directly affecting local livestock. Beef breeds were evenly spread throughout the country in regions influenced by environmental variables of higher precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperature, relative humidity (RH), and temperature humidity index (THI), as well as properties without smallholder farmers and rivers and streams with riparian vegetation. The regions for dual-purpose and dairy breeds were predominantly cultivated with cutting forages (e.g., sugarcane - Saccharum officinarum), with the integration of crops, livestock and/or forestry (i.e., combining different activities in the same area) and areas with a rotational grazing system (i.e., grazing management), indicating a higher occupation in fertile lands. The Gir breed, the only dairy breed evaluated in this study, was seen in establishments with smallholder farmers, characterized by small to medium farms, and in regions at higher altitudes.

Animais , Bovinos , Estatística , Gado , Desenvolvimento Humano
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 20(1): e20220076, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418557


The establishment of epigenetic marks during the reprogramming window is susceptible to environmental influences, and stimuli during this critical stage can cause altered DNA methylation in offspring. In a previous study, we found that low levels of sulphur and cobalt (low S/Co) in the diet offered to oocyte donors altered the DNA methylome of bovine embryos. However, due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs during embryogenesis, we hypothesized that the different methylation regions (DMRs) identified in the blastocysts may not maintain in adulthood. Here, we aimed to characterize DMRs previously identified in embryos, in the blood and sperm of adult progenies of two groups of heifers (low S/Co and control). We used six bulls and characterized the DNA methylation levels of KDM2A, KDM5A, KMT2D, and DOT1L genes. Our results showed that all DMRs analysed in both groups and tissues were hypermethylated unlike that noticed in the embryonic methylome profiles. These results suggest that embryo DMRs were reprogrammed during the final stages of de novo methylation during embryogenesis or later in development. Therefore, due to the highly dynamic epigenetic state during early embryonic development, we suggest that is essential to validate the DMRs found in embryos in adult individuals.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos/embriologia , Epigenômica
Braz. j. vet. pathol ; 16(2): 155-158, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1509634


Clinical History: A 436 kg, 2-year-old, pregnant Angus cross cow was presented for necropsy with a history of sudden death during calving season. Two other heifers on the property recently had late term abortions with the calves having to be pulled out from the birth canal. Gross Findings: The subcutaneous tissue, omentum, mesentery, perirenal adipose tissue, and intima of the major vessels were diffusely and markedly yellow (Figure 1). The right liver lobe had a large (15x11x7 cm) area of pale tan discoloration covered by a thin layer of fibrin. On the cut surface, this area was pale red and dry (Figure 2). Throughout the remaining hepatic parenchyma were irregularly shaped, serpiginous, dark green to black tracks. Some of these tracks contained adult Fasciola hepatica flukes in the lumen. The gallbladder was distended and filled with large amounts of dark green, thick bile. The kidneys were diffusely dark red with disseminated pinpoint, dark red foci in the cortex (Figure 3). The urinary bladder contained approximately 300 mL of dark red urine (Figure 4). The brain had a slight yellow discoloration. Approximately 300 mL of red-tinged fluid was in the thorax. Large numbers of fibrous adhesions were present between the visceral pleura, the parietal pleura, and the pericardium. Approximately 200 mL of red-tinged fluid was in the pericardial sac. There was extensive hemorrhage on the epicardium.

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/fisiologia , Hemoglobinúria/diagnóstico , Autopsia/veterinária , Morte Súbita/veterinária
Vet. zootec ; 30: [001-005], 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434189


Allergy to milk is the only auto-allergic disease in cattle. It is characterized by the retention and absorption of milk itself, making milk proteins, especially alpha casein, have access to the bloodstream, resulting in a type I hypersensitivity. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of auto-allergic disease in cattle. Here we report the case of a four-year-old Jersey female bovine, which was pregnant and weighing 400Kg. The animal was being treated at (hidden for revision)and had a history of an acute allergic reaction. Its owner reported sudden onset of skin lesions, salivation, and difficulty breathing. As the animal was participating in an agricultural exhibition, it was not being milked to generate mammary gland engorgement (milk retention). Inphysical examination findings wherein there is presence of multifocal urticarial papules and plaques, mainly on the sides and right and left flanks, besides the absence of pruritus, edema in mucocutaneous regions of the upper and lower eyelids of the right and left eyes, submandibular edema, excessive salivation, inspiratory dyspnea with half-open mouth breathing, respiratory distress, apathy, cough, tachycardia tachypnea, ruminal hypomotility and increased volume of the mammary gland, characterizing milk retention. Clinical suspicion was milk allergy with anaphylactic reaction (type I hypersensitivity). Treatment was based on promethazine administration (1mg/kg; IV) and immediate full milking of the mammary gland. After 12 h of treatment, clinical respiratory signs resolved, and after 24 h, skin changes resolved completely. Based on clinical signs and treatment success, the clinical suspicion of milk allergy causing anaphylactic reaction (type I hypersensitivity) was confirmed.(AU)

A alergia ao leite é a única doença auto-alérgica em bovinos. Caracteriza-se pela retenção e absorção do próprio leite, fazendo com que as proteínas do leite, principalmente a alfa caseína, tenham acesso à corrente sanguínea, resultando em uma hipersensibilidade do tipo I. O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de doença autoalérgica em bovinos. Relatamos o caso de uma fêmea bovina da raça Jersey, com quatro anos de idade, prenhe e pesando 400Kg. O animal estava em tratamento (oculto para revisão)e tinha histórico de reação alérgica aguda. Proprietário relatou aparecimento súbito de lesões na pele, salivação e dificuldade respiratória. Oanimal estava participando de uma exposição agrícola, e não estava sendo ordenhado para gerar ingurgitamento da glândula mamária (retenção de leite). No exame físico identificou-sepápulas e placas urticariformes multifocais, principalmente nas laterais e flancos direito e esquerdo, ausência de prurido, edema em regiões mucocutâneas das pálpebras superior e inferior dos olhos direito e esquerdo, edema submandibular, salivação excessiva, dispneia inspiratória com respiração de boca entreaberta, desconforto respiratório, apatia, tosse, taquicardia, taquipneia, hipomotilidade ruminal e aumento do volume da glândula mamária, caracterizando retenção de leite. A suspeita clínica foi alergia ao leite com reação anafilática (hipersensibilidade tipo I). O tratamento baseou-se na administração de prometazina (1mg/kg; IV) e ordenha completa imediata da glândula mamária. Após 12 h de tratamento, os sinais clínicos respiratórios foram resolvidos e, após 24 h, as alterações cutâneas desapareceram completamente. Com base nos sinais clínicos e no sucesso do tratamento, confirmou-sea suspeita de alergia ao leite causando reação anafilática (hipersensibilidade tipo I).(AU)

La alergia a la leche es la única enfermedad autoalérgica en el ganado bovino. Se caracteriza por la retención y absorción de la propia leche, provocando que las proteínas de la leche, especialmente la alfa caseína, tengan acceso al torrente sanguíneo, dando lugar a una hipersensibilidad tipo I. El objetivo de este reporte es describir un caso de enfermedad autoalérgica en bovinos. Presentamos el caso de una vaca Jersey hembra de cuatro años, gestante y de 400 kg de peso. El animal estaba siendo atendido en el (oculto para revision)y tenía antecedentes de reacción alérgica aguda. Propietario refirió aparición repentina de lesiones en la piel, salivación y dificultad respiratoria. Como el animal participaba en una exhibición agrícola, no estaba siendo ordeñado para generar congestión de la glándula mamaria (retención de leche). En examen físico en los que se observan pápulas y placas urticariales multifocales, principalmente en costados y flancos derecho e izquierdo, además de ausencia de prurito, edema en las regiones mucocutáneas de los párpados superior e inferior del lado derecho e ojos izquierdos, edema submandibular, salivación excesiva, disnea inspiratoria con respiración con la boca abierta, dificultad respiratoria, apatía, tos, taquicardia (frecuencia cardíaca 88 latidos/minuto), taquipnea (100 movimientos/minuto), normotermia (39,0°C), hipomotilidad ruminal (2 movimientos ruminales/5 minutos) y aumento de volumen de la glándula mamaria, caracterizando la retención de leche. La sospecha clínica fue alergia a la leche con reacción anafiláctica (hipersensibilidad tipo I). El tratamiento se basó en la administración de prometazina (1 mg/kg; IV) y ordeño completo inmediato de la glándula mamaria. Después de 12 h de tratamiento, los signos clínicos respiratorios se resolvieron y, después de 24 h, los cambios en la piel desaparecieron por completo. Sobre la base de los signos clínicos y el éxito del tratamiento, se confirmó la sospecha clínica de alergia a la leche que causaba una reacción anafiláctica (hipersensibilidad tipo I).(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Leite/efeitos adversos , Prometazina/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Prenhez
Rev. Ciênc. Agrovet. (Online) ; 22(3): 453-462, ago. 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1451552


Depth dimensions are a fundamental linear type trait in the animal body included in dairy cattle science. Unfortunately, the prominent body depth dimension to milk yield is unspecified in lucidity. Thus, the objective of the current research was to identify the excellent body depth dimension of dairy cattle for milk yield as a selection precedence trait. The experiment employed 121 lactation Holstein cows aged specifyas 2­6, raised on an Indonesian smallholder commercial dairy farm. R version 4.2.1 with RStudio software simultaneously worked as a statistical analysis tool. The principal component analysis (PCA), correlation, and regression analyses were executed sequentially. The product of the PCA revealed that the chest depth (CHD), body depth (BDD), and udder depth (UDD) traits are the essential body depth dimensions in dairy cattle. A crowning envoy associated with the milk yield capacity was delegated to the UDD trait. However, the UDD is the finest trait for the lactation cow selection program. Presumably, the BDD trait is the prime characteristic for calves and heifer selection schemes.(AU)

As dimensões de profundidade são uma característica fundamental do tipo linear no corpo animal incluída na ciência do gado leiteiro. Infelizmente, a dimensão proeminente da profundidade do corpo para a produção de leite não é especificada na lucidez. Assim, o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi identificar a dimensão de profundidade corporal excelente de bovinos leiteiros para produção de leite como característica deprecedência de seleção. O experimento empregou 121 vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, com idades entre 2 e 6 anos, criadas em uma fazenda leiteira comercial de pequeno porte na Indonésia. R versão 4.2.1 com software RStudio funcionou simultaneamente como uma ferramenta de análise estatística. As análises de componentes principais (PCA), correlação e regressão foram executadas sequencialmente. O produto da PCA revelou que as características de profundidade do peito (CHD), profundidade do corpo (BDD) e profundidade do úbere (UDD) são as dimensões essenciais da profundidade do corpo em bovinos leiteiros. Um enviado de coroação associado à capacidade de produção de leite foi delegado ao traço UDD. No entanto, o UDD é a melhor característica para o programa deseleção de vacas em lactação. Presumivelmente, a característica BDD é a principal característica para esquemas de seleção de bezerras e novilhas.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol ; 11(2): e2023017, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1438504


In tropical developing regions, such as Brazil, animal welfare (AW) has been gaining increasing attention, while stockperson job satisfaction, which is intimately related to AW, is often neglected. This research evaluated the effects of AW training on stockpersons' attitudes and behaviour towards dairy cows and the impact on cows' fear of humans. Ten dairy farms with pasture-based systems where animal handlers are farm owners or employees were selected from three regions of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The experiment consisted of four stages: 1) Selection of pasture-based dairy farms; 2) First assessment of attitudes, human behaviour, and cows' flight distance (day one ­ D1); 3) Pre-assessment of owners' and employees' AW knowledge, and training (day two ­ D2); and 4) Final assessment of attitudes, human behaviour, cows' flight distance, and owners' and employees' AW knowledge (day three ­ D3), focusing on the training's effects on human attitudes and behaviour, and cows' fear of humans. Among owners and employees, positive attitudes were more often expressed, and negative attitudes were less frequent on day three (D3) after training. Nevertheless, the expression of positive attitudes by farm owners was less common compared to employees. Stockpersons manifested positive behaviour more frequently at D3 than on day one (D1), before training, in contrast to negative behaviour at D1. Taking all cow handling observations together, including those before and after training, the greatest percentage of negative behaviour was at the time of moving the cows from the holding area to the milking stalls (18% of all observed human behaviour), followed by moving cows out of the milking parlour (17%), positioning cows for milking (15%) and placing/removing the milking suction devices (1%). Positive human behaviour usually occurred when moving cows from the holding area to the milking stalls (21%) and during the positioning of cows for milking (19%). After training, cows' flight distances decreased. In conclusion, the training may have promoted positive human behaviour and reduced the number of fearful cows. Therefore, AW training may positively influence human behaviour, technical expertise, the reduction of fear in cows, and stockpersons' attitudes.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fazendeiros , Brasil