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Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20210229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1507919


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of either a limited forage intake or concentrate supplementation prior to the adaptation to high-concentrate diets on dry matter intake, ruminal pH, bacteria, and protozoa of Nellore cattle. The experiment was designed as a two 3×3 Latin square, and six cannulated Nellore steers were used. Each experimental period was composed by three feeding phases: pre-adaptation (14 days), adaptation (12 days), and finishing (seven days) diet, in a total of 33 days per period. The steers were assigned to one of three pre-adaptation dietary treatments: control (Tifton hay fed ad libitum + mineral supplement), restriction (Tifton hay fed at 1.4% of BW + mineral supplement), and concentrate (Tifton hay fed ad libitum + 0.5% of BW of a mix of concentrate feedstuffs and mineral supplement). The adaptation period consisted of two adaptation diets, which contained 72 and 79% concentrate for six days each. The finishing diet contained 86% concentrate. During the pre-adaptation phase, restricted cattle had higher pH than concentrate-fed cattle. There was a reduction in M. elsdenii relative population in cattle from either restriction or concentrate groups. During adaptation and finishing phases, cattle from concentrate group had smaller F. succinogenes populations compared with the control group. The previous nutritional backgrounds impact ruminal microbiota during adaptation and finishing phases without causing any negative effect on ruminal pH. Feeding concentrate prior to the adaptation positively impacted the transition to high-concentrate diets and promoted increased dry matter intake.

Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20220148, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1507920


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between preovulatory follicle (POF) and corpus luteum (CL) diameters, and POF and CL vascular perfusion with progesterone production, ovulation, and pregnancy in Nellore cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). Nellore cows (n = 201) were subjected to ovulation synchronization and later to ultrasound evaluation of POF and CL at the time of insemination (D0) and seven days later (D7), respectively. Females were divided into three categories according to the POF diameter assessed at the time of insemination: small (SF), medium (MF), and large (LF) follicles. The LF group had a greater number and intensity of pixels in the POF ultrasound exam compared with the SF group. The CL flow intensity and progesterone concentration were also higher in the LF group. The SF group showed lower flow intensity and lower ovulation rate compared with the others. When non-pregnant females were compared to pregnant ones, no difference was observed in any of the analyzed variables. The results show for the first time in Nellore cattle the relationship between the size of ovarian structures and blood flow (quantity and intensity) as well as the ability of the CL to produce progesterone. The intensity of the POF pixels proved to be relevant, demonstrating correlations with the size and flow of the CL, which were not found when evaluating only the number of pixels, thus revealing the importance of evaluating complementary characteristics of the flow.

Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: 73754, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439866


A new frame score system was developed for Nellore cattle, based upon ideal slaughter weights to achieve desired degrees of carcass fat cover. Data consisting of 688 complete records including sex, age, weight, hip height, and subcutaneous fat on growing Nellore cattle (190 males and 498 females) were obtained from the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (ANCP), Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil. Weight data were regressed on sex, age, hip height, and fat cover as covariates. Age was then fixed at 550 days and fat cover was set to 6 mm, and new equations for frame scores (1 to 11) in Nellore cattle were developed: FrameNellore (males) = -42.43 + 0.04919 × Age + 0.3368 × Height - 0.0003369 × Age × Height and FrameNellore (females) = -41.76 + 0.04919 × Age + 0.3368 × Height - 0.0003369 × Age × Height (Age and Height in days and cm, respectively). The Nellore equations resulted in average frame of 5.3, ranging from 2.3 to 7.7. Values were similar for males (5.4) and females (5.3). By contrast, previous equations gave higher values, that were very different between males and females. The new Nellore frame scores appear reasonable, particularly regarding body composition.(AU)

Um novo sistema de escore para estrutura corporal foi desenvolvido para bovinos Nelore, baseado em pesos de abate ideais para atingir os graus desejados de cobertura de gordura da carcaça. Dados de 688 registros completos incluindo sexo, idade, peso, altura do quadril e gordura subcutânea de bovinos Nelore em crescimento (190 machos e 498 fêmeas) foram obtidos da Associação Nacional de Criadores e Pesquisadores (ANCP), Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brasil. Os dados de peso foram regredidos por sexo, idade, altura do quadril e cobertura de gordura como covariáveis. A idade foi então fixada em 550 dias e a cobertura de gordura foi fixada em 6 mm, e novas equações para escores de estrutura corporal (1 a 11) em bovinos Nelore foram desenvolvidas: FrameNelore (machos) = -42,43 + 0,04919 × Idade + 0,3368 × Altura - 0,0003369 × Idade × Altura e FrameNellore (fêmeas) = -41,76 + 0,04919 × Idade + 0,3368 × Altura - 0,0003369 × Idade × Altura (Idade e Altura em dias e cm, respectivamente). As equações de Nelore resultaram em estrutura corporal médio de 5,3, variando de 2,3 a 7,7. Os valores foram semelhantes para machos (5,4) e fêmeas (5,3). Por outro lado, as equações anteriores deram valores mais altos, que eram muito diferentes entre machos e fêmeas. As novas pontuações de estruturacorporal no Nelore parecem razoáveis, principalmente em relação à composição corporal.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais , Melhoramento Genético
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol ; 11(3): e2023027, 2023. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1509957


We aimed to assess the physiological and biophysical responses of Nellore bulls exposed to solar radiation in semiarid conditions throughout the day. Sixteen Nellore bulls were examined in Tibau city, Northeast Brazil (5°52ʹ South, 37°20ʹ West, and 37 m above sea level) over four nonconsecutive days, with data collection taking place at one-hour intervals between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm. Four animals were analyzed each day and kept exposed to the sun for the duration of the study. The average age of the animals was three years, and their average body weight was 650±32 kg. The meteorological station measured air temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), solar radiation (W.m-2 ), and black globe temperatures (°C) every minute, while a digital anemometer thermohygrometer measured wind speed (m.s-1 ) at the same time. Respiratory rate (breaths.min-1 ), expired air temperature (°C), rectal temperature (°C), and body surface temperature (°C) were measured as physiological variables. Biophysical equations were used to estimate the sensible and latent heat transfer mechanisms (W.m-2 ). The air temperature ranged from 28.5 to 32.5°C, and direct solar radiation was between 21 and 891 W.m-². Between 11:00 am and 1:00 pm, the study observed heat gain through longwave radiation, which reached an average of 250 W.m-2 , with a significant increase (P < 0.05) in respiratory rate and body surface temperature during this time. Convection was significant in heat dissipation, particularly when the wind speed was increased from 11:00 am. However, latent heat loss mechanisms were more effective in losing excess body heat under total sun exposure, despite the positive effect of convection. The study findings showed that Nellore bulls maintained their body temperature within a narrow range even when exposed to high solar radiation, thus demonstrating the efficiency of physiological and biophysical mechanisms during times of greater thermal challenge.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Bovinos/fisiologia , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 44(1): 97-112, jan.-fev. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418811


The aim was to estimate the genetic correlations between residual feed intake (RFI) and dry matter intake (DMI) with carcass finish (CF), rib eye area (REA), and marbling (MAR) of Nellore cattle. Data from 7,808 animals were considered. In addition, data from 2,261 females included in the complete database were also considered. Estimates of variance and covariance components, as well as heritabilities and genetic correlations were obtained by means of two-character analysis under animal model. Heritability estimates were found to be moderate for the RFI (0.22) and DMI (0.29) traits. It was observed that genetic correlation was close to zero for all traits, except between RFI and REA (-0.11). However, considering the female population, there was an increase in the estimated genetic correlation between RFI and DMI, although still a favorable genetic association of low magnitude (-0.30). There was also an increase in the genetic association of REA with RFI (-0.21). It can be concluded that the direct selection for RFI and DMI will not influence the CF, MAR, or REA of Nellore cattle. However, this selection may generate some favorable responses in MAR and REA in Nellore females.

Objetivou-se estimar as correlações genéticas entre consumo alimentar residual (CAR) e ingestão de matéria seca com acabamento de carcaça (ACAB), área de olho de lombo (AOL) e marmoreio (MAR) para bovinos da raça Nelore. Foram consideradas informações de 7.808 animais. Além disso foram consideradas informações de 2.261 animais fêmeas que compunham o banco de dados completo. As estimativas dos componentes de variâncias e covariâncias, bem como das herdabilidades e correlações genéticas foram obtidas por meio de análises bicaracterísticas sob modelo animal. Verificou-se que as estimativas de herdabilidade foram moderadas para as características de CAR (0,22) e IMS (0,29). Observou-se que as estimativas de correlação genética foram próximos a zero para todas as Características, exceto entre CAR e AOL (-0,11). No entanto, considerando a população de fêmeas, houve um aumento na estimativa de correlação genética com CAR e IMS, apesar de ainda ser uma associação genética favorável de baixa magnitude (-0,30). Também houve um aumento na associação genética da AOL com o CAR (-0,21). Conclui-se, assim, que a seleção direta para o CAR e IMS não influenciará no ACAB, MAR e AOL de bovinos da raça Nelore. No entanto, essa seleção poderá gerar alguma resposta favorável em MAR e AOL em fêmeas Nelore.

Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos
Acta sci., Anim. sci ; 45: e59110, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418519


The influence of harvest method on proximate composition, protein oxidation, and texture profile of beef from Nellore cattle were investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were obtained from twelve grain-fed Nellore carcasses. The animals were slaughtered after stunning (STU; n=6) or without stunning (WST; n=6) and after 24 hours postmortem, the LL was sliced into 2.54-cm steaks, packed under aerobic conditions, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Proximate composition was analyzed on day 0, whereas protein oxidation (carbonyl content) and texture profile (hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and springiness) were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. STU and WST steaks exhibited similar proximate composition, hardness, and chewiness (p > 0.05). WST steaks exhibited greater protein oxidation and lower cohesiveness than their STU counterparts on day 0 (p < 0.05). Concerning the storage period, WST steaks demonstrated a decrease in springiness and a more pronounced increase in cohesiveness than their STU counterparts (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the harvest method influenced LL protein oxidation and texture profile from Bos indicus cattle.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Carne/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos adversos , Oxidação
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 43: e07131, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1422303


Laminitis is a disease that affects the dermis and epidermis of the bovine hoof, generating changes in the hoof capsule. This study evaluated the effects of clinical laminitis diagnosed after the adaptation phase to confinement on the morphology, density, and mineral composition of the hoof of Nellore cattle after finishing. The animals were separated in the first weeks of confinement into a sick group (SG), with clinical laminitis, and a healthy group (HG). SG animals had higher heel length, dorsal wall length, toe height, and diagonal hoof length (p<0.05) than healthy animals. The dermal laminae had similar measurements for thickness, length, and spacing between them between SG and HG. Animals with laminitis showed congestion, hemorrhage, and basement membrane irregularities on histology. Computed microtomography (µCT) revealed that the hoof density of sick animals is lower than healthy ones. According to the mineral composition by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry, the hooves of animals with laminitis (SG) and healthy ones (HG) were not biochemically different. Therefore, the occurrence of clinical laminitis in Nellore cattle in the first weeks of confinement causes an increase in the morphometric parameters of the hoof capsule and a reduction in the density of the abaxial hoof wall evaluated after the finishing period. This disease does not promote changes in the histomorphometric parameters of the dermal laminae and the percentage of minerals in the abaxial hoof wall.

A laminite é uma doença que afeta a derme e epiderme do casco de bovinos gerando alterações no estojo córneo. O estudo avaliou os efeitos da laminite clínica diagnosticada após a fase de adaptação ao confinamento na morfologia, densidade e composição mineral do casco de bovinos da raça Nelore após terminação. Nas primeiras semanas de confinamento, os animais foram separados em um grupo doente (GD) com laminite clínica e em um grupo saudável (GS). Os animais do GD apresentaram maior comprimento de talão, comprimento da parede dorsal, altura da pinça e comprimento diagonal do casco (p<0,05) do que os saudáveis. As lâminas dérmicas tiveram medidas semelhantes para espessura, comprimento e espaçamento entre elas entre GD e GS. Animais doentes apresentaram congestão, hemorragia e irregularidades da membrana basal na histologia. A microtomografia computadorizada (µCT) revelou que a densidade do casco de animais doentes é menor do que o saudável. Para a composição mineral por meio da espectrometria de fluorescência de raio-X por dispersão de energia (ED-XRF), o casco dos animais doentes (GD) e dos saudáveis (GS), não se mostraram diferentes bioquimicamente. Conclui-se que a ocorrência de laminite clínica em bovinos da raça Nelore nas primeiras semanas de confinamento ocasiona aumento de parâmetros morfométricos do estojo córneo e redução da densidade da parede abaxial do casco, avaliados após o período de terminação. Essa enfermidade não promove modificações nos parâmetros histomorfométricos das lâminas dérmicas e na porcentagem de minerais da parede abaxial do casco.

Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras/anatomia & histologia , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal , Bovinos
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20210225, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436810


The objectives were to evaluate the effects of monensin and virginiamycin, alone or combined, on supplemented Nellore cattle grazing tropical grass during the rainy season. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate intake, digestibility, CH4 emissions, blood parameters, performance, and carcass characteristics (Exp. 1), and ruminal fermentation and relative abundance of ruminal microorganisms (Exp. 2). Animals (n = 92 Exp. 1 and n = 12 Exp. 2) were distributed in a completely randomized design and allocated in twelve paddocks composed of Urochloa brizantha (A. Rich.) Stapf. cv. Xaraés. A protein-energetic supplementation of 3 g/kg of BW per day was provided to all animals. Supplements were: without additives (WA), monensin alone at 80 mg/kg of product (MN), virginiamycin alone at 150 mg/kg of product (VM), and monensin (80 mg/kg of product) combined with virginiamycin (150 mg/kg of product; MNVM). Treatments did not affect intakes of total dry matter (DM), supplement DM, and nutrients. However, the intakes of forage DM and crude protein decreased in cattle fed MNVM compared with animals fed WA, MN, and VM. Total volatile fatty acids increased in animals fed VM. Ruminal NH3-N decreased, and pH increased in animals fed MN, VM, and MNVM. Relative abundance of total F. succinogenes and S. ruminantium decreased and R. flavefaciens increased in animals fed MN and VM at d 118. Treatments had no effect on enteric CH4 emissions. The average daily gain (ADG) and total gain were greater in cattle fed MNVM than in cattle fed MN. Combination of monensin and virginiamycin altered the rumen microbial populations but did not decrease enteric CH4 emissions. However, it decreased forage dry matter intake without altering the ADG and total weight gain, leading to an increase in feed efficiency. Results from this study indicate an advantage in including feed additives combined in the diet of supplemented Nellore cattle grazing tropical grass during the rainy season.

Animais , Bovinos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Virginiamicina/administração & dosagem , Estação Chuvosa , Dieta/veterinária , Aditivos Alimentares
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 75(3): 391-394, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436906


Partial or complete bladder eversion is a rare condition of poor prognosis in cows, commonly associated with intense tenesmus observed in the peripartum period. A 14-year-old obese Nellore cow at 280 days of gestation was referred with 24-hour bladder prolapse. The bladder was complete eversion through the vulvar vestibule showing a thick congested wall and small residual urine volume. After clinical examination, the cow received scopolamine butylbromide and intercoccygeal epidural anesthesia, and the externalized bladder segment was partially reduced, remaining only 10 cm externalized. The cow was maintained with an intravesical human gastric tube number 16 and constant monitoring. The eversion was fully reduced after 12 hours of local treatment, and as the cow presented subclinical ketosis, hypocalcemia and cystitis, antibiotic, glucose, calcium and propylene glycol therapy were performed. We opted for induction of parturition, and after 24 hours, a healthy 52kg calf was born and the placenta was delivered 16 hours after calving. The cow and calf were discharged on the sixth day of hospitalization, with no recurrences or secondary complications after treatment.

A eversão vesical parcial ou completa é uma condição rara de mau prognóstico em vacas, comumente associada a tenesmo intenso observado no período periparto. Uma vaca Nelore obesa de 14 anos de idade, com 280 dias de gestação, foi encaminhada com prolapso de bexiga de 24 horas. A bexiga apresentava eversão completa por meio do vestíbulo vulvar apresentando parede espessa e congestionada e pequeno volume residual de urina. Após exame clínico, a vaca recebeu butilbrometo de escopolamina e anestesia peridural intercoccígea, e o segmento vesical exteriorizado foi parcialmente reduzido, permanecendo apenas 10cm exteriorizado. A vaca foi mantida com sonda gástrica humana número 16 por via intravesical e monitorada constantemente. A eversão foi totalmente reduzida após 12 horas de tratamento local, e, como a vaca apresentava cetose subclínica, hipocalcemia e cistite, foi realizada antibioticoterapia, glicose, cálcio e propilenoglicol. Optou-se pela indução do parto. Após 24 horas, nasceu um bezerro saudável de 52kg e a placenta foi expelida 16 horas após o parto. A vaca e o bezerro receberam alta no sexto dia de internação, sem recidivas ou complicações secundárias após o tratamento.

Animais , Bovinos , Bexiga Urinária/anormalidades , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cistite/veterinária , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/veterinária
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 20(1): e20220048, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1425290


The objective of this study was to reduce the effects of cryoinjury caused in bovine semen by cryopreservation. Ejaculates were collected from Nellore bulls and subjected to freezing in C (control), ozone (15, 30, and 60 µg mL-1 of ozone), quercetin (25, 50, and 100 µg mL-1 of quercetin), and carnosine groups (100, 200, and 300 ng mL-1 of carnosine). Samples were evaluated post-thaw (M0) and post-rapid thermoresistance test (M30) for sperm kinetics (total motility, progressive motility, curvilinear speed, linearity and amplitude of lateral head displacement) and cell structure viability (plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial potential, membrane fluidity, and lipid peroxidation). There were no differences (P > 0.05) between the control, quercetin, and carnosine-treated groups for the parameters evaluated at M0 and M30. In turn, supplementation with ozone resulted in lower values for sperm kinetics (P < 0.05) and lower mitochondrial potential at M30 (P < 0.05). Quercetin and carnosine at the concentrations used did not promote significant gains in frozen semen, nor did they demonstrate cytotoxicity. We expected to obtain positive results with the use of ozone. Nonetheless, the addition was harmful to the parameters of sperm kinetics, and its effect was not observed as a possible pro-antioxidant. We believe that the fact that the gas did not harm the sperm structure opens avenues for tests with lower dosages, since, by reducing its concentration, we could minimize the damage to sperm kinetics.(AU0

Animais , Masculino , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Quercetina/efeitos adversos , Preservação do Sêmen , Carnosina/efeitos adversos , Bovinos
Rev. bras. zootec ; 52: e20220041, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1441369


The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics of the testicular parenchyma and vascular parameters of the pampiniform plexus obtained by ultrasound, semen quality parameters, and sperm freezability in Nellore bulls classified based on residual feed intake (RFI). Twenty-seven bulls (21.82±0.88 months of age) evaluated for feed efficiency were sampled for the study, including 15 with low RFI (−0.592±0.09 kg dry matter/day) and 12 with high RFI (0.792±0.10 kg dry matter/day). In ultrasound and Doppler assessment, the most efficient animals (low RFI) showed higher pulsatility and resistive indexes, as well as a tendency towards greater heterogeneity of the testicular parenchyma (0.625±0.032 vs. 0.508±0.032, 1.012±0.072 vs. 0.802±0.072, and 12.9±0.96 vs. 10.2±0.96, respectively, for low vs. high RFI). However, these animals tended to have lower peak diastolic velocity (5.19±0.50 for low RFI vs. 6.54±0.50 for high RFI). Analysis of fresh semen showed a lower percentage of minor defects in low RFI animals (2.67±1.19%) compared with high RFI animals (8.10±1.19%), without differences in the other parameters in fresh or thawed semen and after thermoresistance testing. Evaluation of flow cytometry parameters showed a higher quality of mitochondrial respiration in semen samples of low RFI animals (22.04±2.50%) compared with high RFI animals (12.29±2.71%). Therefore, although RFI exerts an effect on the Doppler parameters of the pampiniform plexus, it is not sufficient to affect the quality of fresh or thawed semen.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Testículo/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
Rev. bras. saúde prod. anim ; 24: 20220012, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1449861


The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and leptin (LEP) genes with the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid profile of Nellore cattle. A total of 100 intact male Nelore cattle were used to analyze the performance, carcass, physicochemical and centesimal composition, and fatty acid profile of beef. To identify the polymorphisms, the PCR­single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique was applied to genomic DNA extracted from muscle tissue. The SSCP technique revealed the presence of four band patterns for the DGAT gene (AC, AD, AE and BB) with five alleles (A, B, C, D and E). For the LEP gene, five band patterns (AA, AB, AC, BB and BC) with three alleles (A, B and C) were observed. For the LEP gene, the AB genotype was associated with higher backfat thickness and ribs weight, while the BB genotype was associated with lower ribs yield; higher hindquarter yield was associated with AC and BB genotypes. Higher contents of C17:0, C18:0 and lower contents of C18:2ω6C, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, total ω6 and ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) were verified for the AC genotype of the LEP gene. The AC and AA genotypes of the LEP gene were associated with higher means of C15:0 and C18:1ω9t. For the DGAT gene, the highest C24:0 content was associated with the AE genotype and the lowest with the AD and BB genotypes. Polymorphisms in the DGAT and LEP genes influence carcass parameters and the lipid profile of the meat of Nellore cattle.

Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a associação do polimorfismo dos genes da Diacilglicerol Aciltransferase (DGAT) e Leptina ­ (LEP) em relação ao desempenho, características de carcaça, qualidade de carne e perfil lipídico de bovinos Nelore. Para o estudo, foram utilizados um total de 100 bovinos nelores machos inteiros e avaliado os parâmetros de desempenho, composição da carcaça, composição físico-química, centesimal e perfil lipídico da carne. Para identificação dos polimorfismos foi utilizada a técnica de PCR-SSCP a partir da extração do DNA genômico do tecido muscular. A técnica de SSCP revelou a presença de quatro padrões de banda para o gene DGAT (AC, AD, AE e BB) com cinco alelos (A, B, C, D e E) e, para o gene LEP foram verificados cinco padrões de bandas (AA, AB, AC, BB e BC) com três alelos (A, B e C). Para o gene LEP, o genótipo AB foi associado a maior espessura de gordura subcutânea e peso do corte ponta de agulha, enquanto o genótipo BB foi associado a menor rendimento do corte ponta de agulha; maior rendimento do corte traseiro foi associado aos genótipos AC e BB. Maiores teores de C17:0, C18:0 e menores de C18: 2ω6C, total de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, total de ω6 e a relação de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e saturados (POL/SAT) foram verificados para o genótipo AC do gene LEP. Os genótipos AC e AA do gene LEP foram associados a maiores médias de C15:0 e C18:1ω9t. Para o gene DGAT, os maiores teores de C24:0 foram associados o genótipo AE e o menores aos genótipos AD e BB. A ocorrência de polimorfismo nos genes DGAT e LEP revelaram influência destes sobre parâmetros de carcaça e perfil lipídico da carne de bovinos Nelore.

Animais , Bovinos , Polimorfismo Genético , Leptina/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: 75081, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439860


The use of morphological traits assessed using visual scores as indirect selection criteria in cattle has the advantage of evaluating young animals regarding potential productive and reproductive performance. This enables breeders to make earlier decisions compared to later measurements, such as scrotal circumference at 450 days (SC450) and stayability (STAY). The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for visual score traits and their associations with reproductive traits: scrotal circumference at 365 days of age (SC365), SC450, STAY, probability of precocious calving (PPC30) and age at first calving (AFC) in Nellore cattle. Visual score data from 4,175 Nellore cattle, with an average age of 22 months, and reproductive data from 3,075 cattle belonging to the HoRa Genetics Provada herd were used. The morphological traits were evaluated by the MERCOS methodology. The heritability estimates obtained ranged from 0.15 to 0.28 for visual scores and 0.10 to 0.54 for reproductive traits. Genetic correlations between visual scores and reproductive traits were generally low, except between: muscularity and PPC30; structure and STAY; racial and SC450; conformation and SC365, SC450, STAY, and AFC; navel and STAY and AFC; and sacrum and SC365, STAY, and AFC, which were moderate to high. The identification of animals with flat sacral bone (not protruding or sloping) can also be an efficient characteristic in the identification for early pregnancy, and together with the musculature score, they can be related to animals with lower age at the first calving.(AU)

A utilização de características morfológicas de bovinos, pelo uso de escores visuais como critério de seleção indireta tem como vantagem a avaliação em animais jovens quanto ao potencial desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo, antecipando a tomada de decisão em comparação a medidas tomadas de forma tardia, como perímetro escrotal aos 450 dias (PE450) e stayability (STAY). Objetivou-se estimar os parâmetros genéticos para características de escores visuais e a associação dessas com características reprodutivas, perímetro escrotal aos 365 (PE365) dias de idade, PE450, STAY, probabilidade de parto precoce (3P) e idade ao primeiro parto (IPP) em bovinos Nelore. Foram utilizadas informações de escores visuais e de reprodução de 4.175 e 3.075 bovinos, respectivamente, com idade média de 22 meses, pertencentes a fazenda HoRa Genética Provada. As características morfológicas foram avaliadas pela metodologia MERCOS. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas apresentam grande amplitude, variando de 0,15 a 0,28 para escores visuais e 0,10 a 0,54 para características reprodutivas. As correlações genéticas entre característica de escores visuais e reprodução foram, de maneira geral baixas (0.03-0.66), com exceção entre a musculosidade e 3P, estrutura e STAY, racial e PE450, conformação com PE365, PE450, STAY e IPP, ônfalo com STAY e IPP, e sacro com PE365, STAY e IPP, que foram moderadas a altas. A identificação de animais com melhor osso sacro (mesmo nível das ancas), ou seja, não saliente ou inclinado pode ser uma característica eficiente na identificação para prenhez precoce, e juntamente ao escore de musculatura poderão ser relacionados a animais com menor idade ao primeiro parto.(AU)

Animais , Puberdade Precoce , Bovinos/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Fenômenos Reprodutivos Fisiológicos
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: 74470, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439862


The objective was to evaluate the productive performance, apparent digestibility of the diet and ingestive behavior of beef cattle finished in feedlot under the effect of the inclusion of yeast culture or enzyme complex. The treatments were: diet without additives (control); diet with enzyme complex (7 g animal day-1); diet with yeast culture (7g animal day-1) and diet with the association of enzymatic complex (7 g animal day-1) and yeast culture (7g animal day-1). The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Forty ½ Angus ½ Nellore steers, with an average initial body weight of 362 kg ± 6 kg, were used. Regardless of the evaluation period, non-supplementation caused the animals to gain less weight (0 to 21 days: 1.267 kg day-1; 0 to 42 days: 1.377 kg day-1; 0 to 63 days: 1.368 kg day-1) compared to supplemented animals, feed conversion for non-supplemented animals was also worse. Starch apparent digestibility showed higher averages when steers were supplemented with yeast culture alone and yeast culture combined with enzyme complex (97.30% and 97.07%, respectively). Supplementation using a combination of yeast culture with enzyme complex did not cause additional effects on weight gain, but resulted in the lowest averages for feed conversion.(AU)

Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho produtivo, digestibilidade aparente da dieta e comportamento ingestivo de bovinos de corte terminados em confinamento sob efeito da inclusão de cultura de leveduras ou de complexo enzimático. Os tratamentos foram assim constituídos: dieta sem aditivos (controle); dieta com complexo enzimático (7 g animal dia-1); dieta com cultura de levedura (7g animal dia-1) e dieta com a associação de complexo enzimático (7 g animal dia-1) e cultura de levedura (7g animal dia-1). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se 40 novilhos inteiros, ½ sangue Angus ½ sangue Nelore, com peso vivo médio inicial de 362 kg ± 6kg. Independente do período de avaliação, a não suplementação fez com que os animais ganhassem menos peso (0 a 21 dias: 1,267 kg dia-1; 0 a 42 dias: 1,377 kg dia-1; 0 a 63 dias: 1,368 kg dia-1) em relação aos animais suplementados, a conversão alimentar para os animais não suplementados também foi pior. A digestibilidade aparente do amido apresentou maiores médias quando os novilhos foram suplementados com cultura de levedura isolada e com cultura de levedura associada com complexo enzimático (97,30% e 97,07% respectivamente). A suplementação na forma de associação da cultura de leveduras ao complexo enzimático não apresentou efeitos adicionais sobre o ganho de peso, mas possui as menores médias para conversão alimentar.(AU)

Leveduras/química , Bovinos/fisiologia , Aumento de Peso/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ensaios Enzimáticos/veterinária
Ciênc. anim. bras. (Impr.) ; 24: 74652, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439863


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the productive performance, the ingestive behavior, the apparent digestibility of the diet, and the carcass characteristics of beef steers finished in confinement under the effect of ammonium dipropionate in the diet, and the fractionation or not in the supply of the diet. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, totaling four treatments, as follows: Diet without ammonium dipropionate provided twice a day; Diet without ammonium dipropionate given once daily; Diet with ammonium dipropionate provided twice daily; Ammonium dipropionate diet provided once daily. Thirty-two ½ Angus ½ Nellore bulls were used, with an average age of 11 months. The use of ammonium dipropionate in the overall average increased average daily gain, dry matter intake, and carcass gain. The diet provided twice a day provided, on average, greater weight gain, greater carcass gain, and better feed conversion. When evaluating the association between treatments, the use of dipropionate plus the diet supplied twice a day showed greater daily carcass gain during the experimental period and higher hot carcass weight (1.251 kg, 111.4 kg, and 308.6 kg respectively), as well as ensuring better apparent digestibility of dry matter (74.57%). With the data obtained in the present study, it is possible to state that it is advisable to use ammonium dipropionate while maintaining the fractionation of the diet for beef steers in the finishing phase.(AU)

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo, o comportamento ingestivo, a digestibilidade aparente da dieta e as características de carcaça de novilhos de corte terminados em confinamento sob efeito do dipropionato de amônio na dieta, e do fracionamento ou não no fornecimento da dieta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2, totalizando quatro tratamentos, sendo: Dieta sem dipropionato de amônio fornecida duas vezes ao dia; Dieta sem dipropionato de amônio fornecida uma vez ao dia; Dieta com dipropionato de amônio fornecida duas vezes ao dia; Dieta com dipropionato de amônio fornecida uma vez ao dia. Utilizou-se 32 novilhos ½ sangue Angus ½ sangue Nelore, com idade média de 11 meses. O uso do dipropionato de amônio na média geral aumentou o ganho médio diário, a ingestão de matéria seca, e o ganho de carcaça. A dieta fornecida duas vezes ao dia proporcionou na média geral, maior ganho de peso, maior ganho de carcaça e melhor conversão alimentar. Ao avaliar a associação entre os tratamentos, o uso de dipropionato mais a dieta fornecida duas vezes ao dia mostrou maior ganho de carcaça diário, durante o período experimental e maior peso de carcaça quente (1,251 kg, 111,4 kg e 308,6 kg respectivamente), assim como garantiu melhor digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (74,57%). Com os dados obtidos no presente estudo é possível afirmar que é recomendável utilizar o dipropionato de amônio mantendo o fracionamento da dieta para novilhos de corte em fase de terminação.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Ração Animal/análise , Beclometasona/efeitos adversos
Sci. agric. ; 79(2)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762541


ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the quality traits and fatty acid profile of beef from Nellore and Angus bulls fed whole shelled corn (WSC) and ground corn plus maize silage (GC) diets. Eighteen Nellore and 18 Angus young bulls [381 ± 12 kg initial body weight (BW) and an average age of 20 ± 1.9 months] were used in a completely randomized design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and were slaughtered at a final BW of 451.5 kg and 545.5 kg, respectively. Twentyfour hours after slaughter, samples of longissimus thoracis muscle were collected for the analysis of lipid oxidation, color, fatty acid profile, shear force, and cooking loss. There was no effect of diet × breed interaction on meat color, lipid oxidation, shear force, and cooking loss. Angus beef had lower shear force (p 0.05) than Nellore beef and had a greater concentration of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (p 0.01). Beef of bulls fed WSC tended to have greater concentration of CLA C18:2c9t11 (p = 0.09), greater concentration of CLA C18:2t10c12 (p = 0.01), and PUFA (p = 0.05), and consequently, higher oxidation levels. Angus bulls produced beef with greater tenderness and PUFA concentration. The results of fatty acid show a possible change in biohydrogenation when animals are fed the WSC diet, reducing lipogenesis, as this diet increases the C18:2t10c12 content.

Vet. zootec ; 29: 1-10, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1400242


O presente trabalho consistiu num estudo de caso dentro de um confinamento comercial, para avaliar o efeito da condição sexual (CS) sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça (RC) no cruzamento Angus x Nelore. Foram registrados dados de 33 lotes com n° de animais/lote variados, ao todo, foram 3049 bovinos (1674 M e 1402 F). Os animais foram apartados por peso e sexo, buscando a homogeneização dos lotes, sendo as fêmeas com peso médio (PM) de 350 kg e os machos de 400 kg. O PM dos bovinos Angus x Nelore apresentaram diferença significativa entre machos e fêmeas durante todas as pesagens, sendo a média de peso maior para os animais machos. A CS se mostrou influente, também, no consumo de matéria seca e no consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais, onde as fêmeas Angus x Nelore apresentaram médias maiores para ambos os casos, comparados com os machos igualmente confinados. Machos tiveram maiores médias para ganho de peso diário e ganho de peso total por arroba, já para ganho diário de carcaça, as fêmeas apresentaram média superior por Kg/cabeça comparado aos machos. Ao considerar as eficiências produtivas, o estudo apontou diferença significativa apenas para a média de eficiência biológica, onde as fêmeas foram menos eficientes biologicamente em relação a quantidade de dieta usada para produzir uma @ de carcaça, uma vez que consumiram mais e ganharam menos, embora a eficiência alimentar entre os animais machos e fêmeas tenha se mantido indiferente estatisticamente. O RC total foi superior nos machos Angus x Nelore. Contudo, a CS foi um fator influenciador no desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de bovinos cruzados Angus x Nelore dentro do confinamento comercial estudado.

The present work consisted of a case study within a commercial confinement, to evaluate the effect of sexual condition (SC) on carcass performance and yield (CR) in the Angus x Nellore crossing. Data from 33 lots with varied number of animals/lots were recorded, in all, were 3049 cattle. The animals were apart by weight and sex, seeking the homogenization of the lots, being the females with average weight (PM) of 350 kg and males of 400 kg. The PM of Angus x Nellore cattle showed a significant difference between males and females during all weighing´s, with the mean weight higher for male animals. SC was also influential in dry matter intake and total digestible nutrient intake, where Angus x Nellore females presented higher means for both cases, compared with equally confined males. Males had higher averages for daily medium gain (GMD) and total weight gain per art (GPT@) already for daily carcass gain (GDC), females presented higher average per Kg/head compared to males. When considering the productive efficiencies, the study showed a significant difference only for the average biological efficiency, where females were less biologically efficient in relation to the amount of diet used to produce carcass @ since they consumed more and gained less, although feed efficiency between male and female animals remained statistically indifferent. Total CR was higher in Angus x Nelores males. However, SC was an influencing factor in the performance and carcass yield of Angus x Nellore crossed cattle within the commercial feedlot studied.

El presente trabajo consistió en un estudio de caso dentro de un confinamiento comercial, para evaluar el efecto de la condición sexual (CS) sobre el rendimiento y el rendimiento en canal (RC) en el cruce Angus x Nellore. Se registraron datos de 33 lotes con diferente número de animales/lote, en total hubo 3049 bovinos (1674 M y 1402 F). Los animales se separaron por peso y sexo, buscando homogeneizar los lotes, con hembras de 350 kg y machos de 400 kg. El PM del ganado Angus x Nellore mostró una diferencia significativa entre machos y hembras durante todos los pesajes, siendo el peso medio mayor para los machos. CS también influyó en el consumo de materia seca y en el consumo de nutrientes digestibles totales, donde las hembras Angus x Nellore mostraron promedios más altos para ambos casos, en comparación con los machos igualmente confinados. Los machos tuvieron promedios más altos de ganancia promedio diaria y ganancia de peso total por arroba, mientras que para la ganancia diaria de canal, las hembras tuvieron un promedio más alto por kg/cabeza en comparación con los machos. Al considerar las eficiencias productivas, el estudio mostró una diferencia significativa solo para la eficiencia biológica media, donde las hembras fueron menos eficientes biológicamente en relación a la cantidad de dieta utilizada para producir una @ canal, ya que consumieron más y ganaron menos, aunque la eficiencia alimenticia entre animales machos y hembras permaneció estadísticamente indiferente. La RC total fue mayor en los machos Angus x Nellore. Sin embargo, la CS fue un factor que influyó en el rendimiento y rendimiento en canal de los bovinos mestizos Angus x Nellore dentro del confinamiento comercial estudiado.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Bovinos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/genética , Aumento de Peso/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Seleção Artificial/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos
Sci. agric ; 79(3): e20200340, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1290198


Bos taurus indicus temperament is variable and affects beef tenderization. Our objective was to investigate temperament and performance of non­castrated Nellore and identify groups based on Longissimus lumborum (LL) pH decline as well as beef characteristics produced by those groups. We investigated 94 animals with a subset of carcasses (n = 24) selected based on LL pH at 24 h postmortem (pm) to represent two groups: resistant to pH decline (> 5.8 called pH­Res; n = 10) and normal (< 5.7 called pH­Nor; n = 14). Steaks were fabricated from the LL muscle and randomly assigned to aging (2, 7, 14, and 21 days). Sarcomere length, cooking loss, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), and Warner­Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were determined. Data on temperament were investigated in a multivariate approach, while beef data were compared between groups using the analysis of variance. Rectal temperature at the beginning of the finishing phase and total weight gain were greater and related to animals in the pH­Res group (p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Temperature and pH decline curves, sarcomere length, and cooking loss revealed that pH­Res produced beef with lower quality compared to the pH­Nor group. Results for MFI and WBSF did not show differences between groups within each time pm; however, overall steaks from pH­Res were tougher (p = 0.06). Incidence of LL pH between 5.8 and 5.9 at 24 h pm did not compromise the tenderization rate or extension; however, it affected the water holding capacity in this population of Nellore cattle.(AU)

Temperamento/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Variância , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Sci. agric. ; 79(1)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-760488


ABSTRACT Myoglobin (Mb) is a sarcoplasmic heme protein present in muscle cells, which acts as a shortterm oxygen (O2) reserve in the muscle tissue. After slaughtering and exsanguination, Mb is the major pigment that provides the red color in meat. The concentration of Mb together with its redox state are two pivotal factors that determine meat color. The elevated pH of darkcutting beef can affect both physical and biochemical properties resulting in decreased oxygenation. The darkening observed in high ultimate pH (pHu) beef concerns meat processors as color is the initial attribute that impacts on the purchase. Thus, any atypical meat color (i.e., loss of brightness) reduces consumer interest in the product. Several studies have demonstrated that immunological castration is effective in preventing both aggressive behavior and undesirable darkcutting of bull meat. However, little information is available on the effects of processing techniques that limit the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe2+), Mb or promote metmyoglobin (MMb) reduction in darkcutting beef. Because of the importance of color to fresh beef marketability, this review aimed at overviewing the significance of pHu in beef color and color stability and to discuss new alternatives for improving and assessing the beef color of darkcutting beef, especially in Nellore bulls and their crossbreds, which are widely used in beef cattle production in Brazil.

Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(1): 73-90, jan.-fev. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1368566


The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of young bulls from three genetic groups, ½ Brangus x ½ Nellore (BRN), Nellore (NEL) and ½ Canchim x ½ Nellore (CAN), reared on pasture and supplemented with mineral (MS) or energy-mineral (MES) supplement. Eighty-one bulls, with a mean age of 12 months and mean body weight of 252 ± 33 kg were used. The experiment was conducted in a 3x2 factorial completely randomized design. Each genetic group was subdivided into six experimental plots, three received MS and three received MES. Animals were managed in a rotational stocking system in a Tifton 85 grass pasture. The consumption of MS was similar between the genetic groups with an average of 0.073 kg animal-1 day-1, whereas the consumption of MES was higher for BRN, 2.10 kg animal-1 day-1, followed by CAN, with 1.57 kg animal-1 day-1, and lower for NEL, with 1.28 kg animal-1 day-1. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was greater for animals that received MES compared to those that were given MS. For animals that received MS, the BRN group had ADG of 0.64 kg animal-1, while the NEL and CAN groups were similar with a mean of 0.46 kg animal-1. For animals that received MES, the CAN group had higher ADG, 0.97 kg animal-1, while the NEL and BRN groups were similar, with an average of 0.86 kg animal-1. Blood levels of total protein, albumin, creatinine, glucose and cholesterol did not change depending on the types of supplements used or between genetic groups. Higher serum urea levels were observed in NEL and CAN animals that received MS. Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in BRN and CAN animals that received MES. Gains in rump height, height at the withers, body length, rump width and chest perimeter were greater in animals that received MES. Mostly, the gains in morphometric measurements were greater for crossbred animals than for the NEL group. The supply of mineral-energy supplement in Tifton 85 grass pasture during the rainy season is recommended only for Nellore and ½ Canchim x ½ Nellore young bulls. Crossbred young bulls show greater gains in morphometric measurements than Nellore young bulls during rearing.(AU)

Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o desempenho de tourinhos de três grupos genéticos, ½ Brangus x ½ Nelore (BRN), Nelore (NEL) e ½ Canchim x ½ Nelore (CAN), recriados à pasto e suplementados com mineral (SM) ou energético-mineral (SEM). Foram utilizados 81 tourinhos, com idade média de 12 meses e peso corporal médio de 252 ± 33 kg. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3x2. Cada grupo genético foi subdividido em seis parcelas experimentais, em que três delas receberam SM e três receberam SEM. Os animais foram manejados em sistema de lotação rotacionada em pasto de capim Tifton 85. O consumo de SM foi semelhante entre os grupos genéticos com média de 0,073 kg animal-1 dia-1, já o consumo de SEM foi maior para o BRN com 2,10 kg animal-1 dia-1, seguido pelo CAN com 1,57 kg animal-1 dia-1 e menor para o NEL com 1,28 kg animal-1 dia-1. O ganho de peso médio diário (GMD) foi maior para os animais que receberam SEM em relação aos que receberam SM. Para os animais que receberam SM, o grupo BRN apresentou GMD de 0,64 kg animal-1, enquanto os grupos NEL e CAN foram semelhantes com média de 0,46 kg animal-1. Para os animais que receberam SEM o grupo CAN apresentou maior GMD com 0,97 kg animal-1, enquanto os grupos NEL e BRN foram semelhantes com média de 0,86 kg animal-1. Os níveis sanguíneos de proteína total, albumina, creatinina, glicose e colesterol não foram alterados em função dos tipos de suplementos utilizados ou entre os grupos genéticos. Maiores níveis séricos de ureia foram observados nos animais NEL e CAN que receberam SM. Os níveis séricos de aspartato aminotransferase foram maiores em animais BRN e CAN que receberam SEM. Os ganhos de altura de garupa, altura de cernelha, comprimento, largura de garupa, perímetro torácico e largura de peito foram maiores em animais que receberam SEM. Em sua maioria, os ganhos de medidas morfométricas foram maiores para os animais mestiços do que para o NEL. O fornecimento de suplemento energético-mineral em pasto de capim Tifton 85 durante o período das águas é recomendado apenas para tourinhos Nelore e ½ Canchim x ½ Nelore. Tourinhos mestiços apresentam maiores ganhos em medidas morfométricas que tourinhos Nelore durante a recria.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos , Peso Corporal , Pastagens , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo , Aumento de Peso , Cynodon