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Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(8): e20220076, 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1418143


The knowledge of water consumption and the efficiency of water use by crops is extremely important in the elaboration of agronomic and hydraulic projects of hydroponic systems. Thus, the present study determined the water consumption and water use efficiency of 'Biquinho' pepper cultivated in the hydroponic system using seven levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution (ECsol) of 2.70, 3.64, 4.58, 5.28, 6.09, 6.90, and 7.77 dS m-1 and six replicates in randomized blocks. The hydroponic system used was the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT). The water consumption per plant was determined at an interval of ten days in the crop cycle (120 days after transplanting). The maximum mean daily water consumption was equal to 5.88 L plant-1 during the period 111-120 DAT, for ECsol of 4.58 dS m-1. The maximum water consumption for the crop cycle (120 DAT) was 275.66 L per plant for an estimated ECsol = 4.11 dS m-1. The highest water use efficiency (WUE), based on the total production of fruit fresh mass (ripe and unripe fruits) of 'Biquinho' pepper was 10.84 kg m-3 up to an estimated ECsol of 5.18 dS m-1, with an exponential reduction thereafter. The salinity of the nutrient solution, biomass production, and evapotranspiration are factors that influence the most water consumption of 'Biquinho' pepper.

O conhecimento do consumo hídrico e eficiência do uso da água pelas culturas são extremamente importantes para o dimensionamento de sistemas agronômicos e projeto hidráulico dos sistemas hidropônicos. Neste contexto, o presente estudo determinou o consumo de água e a eficiência do uso da água da pimenta 'Biquinho' cultivada no sistema hidropônico utilizando sete níveis de condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva (CEsol) de 2,70, 3,64, 4,58, 5,28, 6,09, 6,90 e 7,77 dS m-1 e seis repetições em blocos casualizados. O sistema hidropônico utilizado foi a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes. O consumo hídrico por planta foi determinado em um intervalo de dez dias no ciclo da cultura (120 dias após o transplantio). O consumo hídrico médio diário máximo foi igual a 5,88 L planta-1 no período de 111-120 DAT, para a CEsol de 4,58 dS m-1. O consumo máximo de água para o ciclo da cultura (120 DAT) foi de 275,66 L por planta para uma estimada CEsol = 4,11 dS m-1. A maior eficiência do uso da água (EUA) observada foi de 10,84 kg m-3 (frutos maduros e não maduros) até ao CEsol estimada de 5,18 dS m-1, com posterior redução exponencial. A salinidade da solução nutritiva, a produção de biomassa e a evapotranspiração são fatores que mais influenciam o consumo de água da pimenta 'Biquinho'.

Capsicum , Águas Salinas , Consumo de Água (Saúde Ambiental) , Hidroponia , Uso Eficiente da Água
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51(supl.1): Pub. 875, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434874


Background: Ozone therapy (OT) is a type of treatment that uses ozone gas, which has high oxidizing power. OT has been utilized for various diseases and to accelerate the wound healing process and reduce inflammation. Additionally, OT is a low-cost treatment recommended for patients that can be easily restrained. There are several methods of ozone administration, including topical use through bagging, cupping, or rectal insufflation, in addition to ozonated autohemotherapy. Based on the benefits of OT and the scarcity of reports describing its effects on white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), we report on the use of ozone in the treatment of a severe facial wound in a white-eared opossum. Case: An adult female white-eared opossum weighing 1.6 kg was rescued from a fire. The patient was pregnant, dehydrated, hypothermic and had an extensive burn wound in the facial region. Due to the stress of captivity and its aggressive behavior, the animal needed to be chemically restrained with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol. Following sedation, the cephalic vein was catheterized and intravenous fluid therapy with ringer lactate was started to treat dehydration. Next, enrofloxacin, meloxicam, and tramadol hydrochloride were administered. Body rewarming was performed with thermal bags. The microbial load of the wound was reduced with chlorhexidine degerming solution followed by washing with saline solution. A thin layer of silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wound area. Over the following days the patient was treated with OT using the cupping technique combined with ozonated sunflower oil. After the first applications there was an improvement in the appearance of the wound, which initially had a purulent aspect. After 20 days of treatment the wound showed good granulation and there were no signs of infection, and at 45 days of treatment it was completely healed. The patient was then released with her baby. Discussion: Ozone therapy was included in the patient's treatment plan to enhance the tissue repair process in order to reintroduce the animal to the wild in the shortest possible time. The strategy was successful in improving healing and reducing tissue inflammation and infection. Ozone is known to cause the inactivation of microorganisms as a result of the oxidation of phospholipids and lipoproteins present in the cell membrane of bacteria and to interrupt viral replication. Ozone helps in the perfusion of injured tissues, contributing to the entry of humoral components, which control inflammation. Moreover, ozone contributes to increase supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and to stimulate increased production of fibrinogen and formation of granulation tissue. Ozone increases the enzymatic antioxidant response, while also playing a role in immunoregulation. Ozone can be used in several ways and via various methods with potential routes including intravenous, urethral, intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intra-articular, in addition to rectal and intramammary insufflation. Immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiseptic effects can be achieved with different doses and concentrations, which enables its application in different types of pathologies. Because of the aggressive behavior of the animal, in the current case we opted for the cupping technique combined with ozonated oil, both techniques which can be administered easily with only physical restraint of the patient. Cupping allows for the provision of a higher concentration of ozone gas locally whereas the ozonated oil maintains the effect of the gas for slightly longer, enhancing its effect and promoting tissue repair. The present report showed that OT is an effective alternative for the treatment of burn wounds in opossums, without causing adverse effects to the patient or her baby.

Animais , Feminino , Cicatrização , Didelphis/lesões , Traumatismos Faciais/veterinária , Ozonioterapia , Animais Selvagens/lesões
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51: Pub. 1911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435048


Background: Topically administered 2% dorzolamide is among the most commonly used agents to lower IOP. As a complication of glaucoma, blind patients may develop corneal ulcers secondary to trauma. Nonetheless, in patients with a hypertensive or glaucomatous eye, in which the cornea has also been ulcerated, medical hypotensive therapy should not be discontinued. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether the instillation of a benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved 2% dorzolamide alters corneal wound healing time and the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9) in the tears of cats with experimentally induced corneal ulcers. Materials, Methods & Results: Sixteen cats (8/group) were randomly assigned to receive 40 µL of 2% dorzolamide (TG) or saline (CG) 3 times daily until corneal re-epithelialization. Experimental keratectomies were performed under general and topical anesthesia using an operating microscope. For this purpose, a millimitred trephine was calibrated and used to create a temporal paraxial corneal ulcer with a diameter of 6 mm and a depth of 200 µm. After corneal wounding, the ulcerated area, the healing time, blepharospasm, conjunctival hyperemia, and aqueous flare were compared between groups. Tears were collected at baseline and 24 and 48 h after keratectomy, and the total MMP-9 was quantified by ELISA. Data were assessed statistically using unpaired Student's t test, one-way, and two-way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 for all analyses. The average time to achieve corneal wound healing did not differ between groups (P = 0.36) and was 65.50 ± 3.62 h in the CG and 71.00 ± 4.58 h in the TG. Twenty-four h after keratectomy, the ulcerated area in the CG was 3.34 mm2 larger than that observed in the TG (P = 0.04); the rest of the comparisons did not reach statistical significance at any time point between groups (P > 0.05). Higher blepharospasm scores were observed in cats of TG (P = 0.04). When compared with baseline of both groups, the levels of MMP-9 increased significantly at 24 and 48 h post-keratectomy (P < 0.001), but differences between groups were not observed at 24 and 48 h post-keratectomy (P > 0.05). Discussion: In cats, 9 mm axial corneal ulcers created by superficial debridement re-epithelize approximately 48 h postwounding. In the present study, re-epithelialization post keratectomy occurred within an average time of 68.25 h in most cats and in a delayed manner in one cat of the TG after 96 h. In the current study, the lesions in both groups healed without corneal scarring, pigmentation, or vascularization. Although BAC was present in all topical medications used in the present study, the authors attribute the higher scores of blepharospasm in the TG to the rheological characteristics and the pH of the dorzolamide ophthalmic solution. Indeed, the pH value of dorzolamide (5.58) may cause signs of irritation, as the tear film has an approximate pH of 7.6. Previous studies showed that ulcerated corneas presented significantly higher levels of MMP-9 in tears at the early stages (8 to 36 h) post-wounding. In the current study, the levels of this enzyme after wounding did not change significantly in the tears of cats treated with 2% dorzolamide when compared to the eyes in the control group. This study showed that the instillation of a BAC-preserved 2% dorzolamide ophthalmic solution did not impair the corneal wound healing time or the early expression of MMP-9 in the tears of cats with experimentally induced corneal ulcers. However, our results warrant further investigation in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma presenting concomitant naturally occurring corneal ulcers to certify our findings.

Animais , Gatos , Úlcera da Córnea/veterinária , Glaucoma/veterinária , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/análise , Epitélio/fisiologia , Compostos de Benzalcônio/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 51: Pub. 1912, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1435059


Background: Trematode infections are of great importance as they affect the health of many species of mammals as cattle, sheep and goat. Fasciola hepatica represents the main trematode zoonosis and risks to human and cattle and paramphistomosis is one emerging parasitic diseases of ruminants widely distributed in the world. The economic expenses are incurred by the use of ineffective anthelmintics for trematode control. Besides to faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) to determine the anthelmintic efficacy, can be used in vitro assays, by this the aim of the study was to determine the lethal doses (LD) with hatching egg test (EHT) of the main commercial anthelmintics used for the control of trematodes in cattle. Materials, Methods & Results: Liver and rumen were examined from cattle slaughtered in Tabasco, Chiapas and Campeche states from Mexico. F. hepatica eggs were recovered from gallbladder and rumen fluke eggs collected from adult parasites in saline solution. Subsequently, the hatching egg assays were performed placing 100 trematode eggs in distilled water in each one of 96 wells of polystyrene plates. After making the appropriate dilutions, several concentrations of commercial anthelmintics were evaluated, ranging from 0.04 to 80.63 mM for triclabendazole + 0.046 to 96.87 mM febendazole (TC+FBZ), from 0.04 to 91 mM for rafoxanide (RAFOX), from 0.02 to 43.74 mM for closantel (CLOS), from 0.036 to 76.18 mM for clorsulon + 0.002 to 3.31 mM ivermectin (CLORS+ IVM) and from 0.163 to 334.47 mM for nitroxynil (NITROX). A control group (water) was included in each plate. Lethal doses were obtained using the Probit procedure and analysis of the means with a one-way statistical design. Most drugs used against rumen fluke eggs presented a high LD50 and therefore were ineffective to cause egg mortality, such was the case of RAFOX that presented LD50 from 4,580 to 10,790 µg/mL (7 to 17 mM). CLOS presented the lowest LD50 (80 µg/mL or 0.12 mM) on rumen fluke eggs. TC+FBZ was found to be effective drug against the development of F. hepatica eggs in many samples. In the same way NITROX showed a low LD50 (37 to 63 µg/mL or 0.13 to 0.22 mM), but RAFOX presented a highest LD50 (1,450 µg/mL or 2.32 mM). Discussion: The present study focused on screen the ovicidal activity and determining in vitro lethal doses 50 of main commercial anthelmintics used to control F. hepatica and rumen fluke as rapid tests in a tropical region from Mexico. The FECRT is the main method to detect effectiveness of anthelmintic and other method is the coproantigen reduction test (CRT) by ELISA. Both tests require many infected animals depending the number of treatments and by this the egg hatch assay (EHA) represent a complementary diagnosis of effectiveness of anthelmintic products to compare between regions and even between farms, because few animals are required from the farm to collect trematode eggs, and it is possible to know the effectiveness against various anthelmintics at the same time. Efficacy studies on trematodes using egg hatching tests are scarce, although they have the advantage that they can be applied to both F. hepatica and rumen fluke. TC+FBZ was one of the most effective products in inhibiting the development of F. hepatica eggs. However, RAFOX showed low effectiveness against trematode eggs, with very high lethal doses. These results agree with a study that show low efficacy against the development of Paramphistomum cervi eggs and with the FECRT test reductions of 75% and 80.58% were obtained, in times from 7 to 84 days after treatment with RAFOX. NITROX and CLORS were drugs that had good efficacy on the development of F. hepatica eggs. A differential response between liver and rumen fluke was observed. The anthelmintics used against rumen fluke eggs show low ovicidal activity and in Fasciola hepatica TC+FBZ show the best activity

Animais , Bovinos , Trematódeos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Fasciola hepatica , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e205091, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1436898


The evaluation of animal locomotor activity is a behavioral tool widely used to measure the mechanisms underlying a particular disease, disorder, or injury, as well as the effects of exposure to a xenobiotic. The elevated beam test is one of the most used tests in rodents to assess balance and motor coordination. Despite being inexpensive and utilizing a simple apparatus, the high beam test requires a long period of animal training and habituation. The development and characterization of an alternative test, namely the gait test, has the potential to circumvent the time and effort required for animal training, deeming it an effective, inexpensive, and fast method for the analysis of behaviors that are comparably assessed by the high beam test. Therefore, the present study focused on determining the effectiveness and feasibility of the gait test for assessing rodent locomotion and balance as a replacement for the elevated beam test. For this purpose, male rats were divided into three groups: one control group exposed to a saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) and two experimental groups exposed to a single dose of either 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg of ivermectin intraperitoneally for induction of locomotor disturbance. The high beam and gait tests were performed 15 min and 24 h after drug administration. Results show that the experimental groups had difficulty performing the tasks of either test at both time points analyzed compared to the control groups. At the high beam, experimental animals had trouble maintaining balance and walking. At the gait test, experimental animals showed alterations in gait, which were quantitated by: (a) shortening of step length, (b) decrease of stride, (c) altered step symmetry, and (d) altered stride area. Such results are indicative of compensatory efforts and were comparable between both tests. Altogether, the data indicate that the gait test meets all requirements for assessing motor coordination in rodents. The gait test is therefore validated as a complement to the elevated beam test for the study and analysis of neurodegenerative impairment and other disorders involving neuromuscular disturbances.(AU)

A avaliação da atividade locomotora animal é uma ferramenta comportamental bastante utilizada para mensurar os mecanismos subjacentes a uma determinada doença, distúrbio ou lesão e efeitos da exposição a um xenobiótico. Um dos testes mais utilizados em roedores para avaliar o equilíbrio e coordenação motora é o teste da trave elevada que, apesar de ser um teste barato e que exige um aparato simples, é necessário um longo período de treino e habituação dos animais. O desenvolvimento e caracterização de um teste alternativo, chamado de teste da marcha, tem o potencial de contornar o tempo e o esforço necessários ao treino dos animais, considerando-o um método eficaz, barato e rápido para a análise de comportamentos avaliados comparativamente pelo alto teste de feixe. Portanto, o presente estudo concentrou-se em determinar a eficácia e viabilidade do teste de marcha para avaliação da locomoção e equilíbrio de roedores em substituição ao teste da trave elevada. Para isso, ratos machos foram divididos em 3 grupos, sendo 1 grupo controle exposto à solução salina (NaCl 0,9%) e 2 grupos experimentais expostos à dose única de 0,2 e 1,0 mg/kg de ivermectina por via intraperitoneal para indução da alteração locomotora. Os testes de trave elevada e marcha foram realizados 15 min e 24 h após a administração da droga. Os resultados mostram que os grupos experimentais tiveram dificuldade em realizar as tarefas de qualquer teste em ambos os momentos analisados em comparação com os grupos de controle. Na trave elevada, os animais experimentais tiveram dificuldade em manter o equilíbrio e andar. No teste de marcha, os animais experimentais apresentaram alterações na marcha, que foram quantificadas por: (a) encurtamento do comprimento da passada, (b) diminuição da passada, (c) alteração da simetria da passada e (d) alteração da área da passada. Tais resultados são indicativos de esforços compensatórios e foram comparáveis entre os dois testes. Em conjunto, os dados indicam que o teste de marcha atende a todos os requisitos para avaliação da coordenação motora em roedores. O teste de marcha é, portanto, validado como um complementar para o teste da trave elevada e para o estudo e análise de comprometimento neurodegenerativo e outros distúrbios envolvendo distúrbios neuromusculares.(AU)

Animais , Roedores/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/veterinária , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Locomoção/fisiologia
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 75(1): 98-106, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416594


Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a rare congenital deformity of variable clinical relevance, often reported in association with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) is the first choice for diagnosis, but complementary techniques, such as microbubble contrast, should be used. Despite its importance, in Veterinary Medicine, there is little information related to the subject, and the present study is the second report of this condition in dogs. The objective was to report a case of ASA type IV LR associated with PFO in a Shar Pei bitch, diagnosed by a combined approach of transthoracic echocardiography backed by agitated saline solution (microbubbles). During clinical care, the owners reported episodes of seizures as their main complaint. Echocardiographic examination revealed a type 4 LR atrial septal aneurysm and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The use of microbubble contrast showed right-to-left shunt, confirming PFO. The recommended treatment was medication. It was concluded that the rarity of ASA in dogs may be due to incomplete diagnoses and the transthoracic echocardiographic examination allows its analysis and classification. Furthermore, ASA can be found in animals with or without evidence of heart disease and it should be investigated in patients with neurological alterations.

O aneurisma do septo atrial (ASA) é uma rara deformidade congênita, de relevância clínica variável, frequentemente relatado em associação a forame oval patente (PFO). O ecodopplercardiograma transtorácico (TTE) é a primeira escolha para o diagnóstico, mas técnicas complementares, como o contraste por microbolhas, devem ser utilizadas. Apesar da importância, em medicina veterinária existe uma carência de informações relacionadas ao tema, sendo esse o segundo relato dessa condição em cão. Objetivou-se relatar um caso de ASA tipo IV LR, associado a PFO, em uma cadela Shar Pei, diagnosticado por uma abordagem combinada por ecodopplercardiograma transtorácico e costrastado com solução salina agitada (microbolhas). Ao atendimento clínico, os proprietários relataram, como queixa principal, episódios de crises convulsivas. O exame ecocardiográfico revelou aneurisma de septo atrial tipo 4 LR e disfunção sistólica em ventriculo esquerdo. A utilização de contraste por microbolhas constatou shunt direita-esquerda, confirmando PFO. O tratamento recomendado foi medicamentoso. Concluiu-se que a raridade do ASA em cães pode ser devido a diagnósticos incompletos, e o exame ecocardiográfico transtorácico permite sua análise e classificação. Ainda, ASA pode ser encontrado em animais com ou sem evidências de cardiopatia e sua investigação deve ser feita em pacientes com alterações neurológicas.

Animais , Feminino , Cães , Forame Oval Patente/veterinária , Aneurisma Cardíaco/veterinária , Cardiopatias Congênitas/veterinária , Comunicação Interatrial/veterinária , Ecocardiografia/veterinária
Rev. Ciênc. Agrovet. (Online) ; 21(3): 256-262, 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1410620


Rice production (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most economically important activities in the world. However, soil and salinity coming from irrigation water reduce rice yield. Therefore, the identification and/or development of salt-tolerant rice genotypes is a strategy to minimize this problem. The development of new genotypes depends on the presence of genetic diversity, and understanding the heritability of a desired trait can help in the selection process. Thus, this study aimed to identify superior genotypes, analyze the genetic diversity and estimate the heritability for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage in rice genotypes used in Brazil. For this, seedlings of 69 genotypes were kept in hydroponic solution with 40mM NaCl (4 dSm-1) for seven days. Shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight) were evaluated and the results were converted into relative performance. Tolerant and moderately salt-tolerant genotypes were identified at the seedling stage, which can be used in breeding programs and can be cultivated in high salinity areas. Principal component analysis showed the presence of genetic diversity for salinity response. Finally, it was shown that most of the observed variation is of genetic origin, which can make the breeding process less difficult.

O arroz (Oryza sativa L.) é uma espécie com grande importância econômica no mundo. A salinidade do solo ou da água reduz a produtividade da cultura. Por isso, a identificação e/ou desenvolvimento de genótipos de arroz com tolerância à salinidade é uma estratégia para minimizar esse problema. O desenvolvimento de novos genótipos depende da presença de variabilidade genética, e o conhecimento da herdabilidade da característica de interesse pode auxiliar no processo de seleção. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo identificar genótipos superiores, analisar a variabilidade genética e estimar a herdabilidade para tolerância a salinidade no estádio de plântula em genótipos de arroz utilizados no Brasil. Para isso, plântulas de 69 genótipos foram mantidas em solução hidropônica acrescida de 40 mM de NaCl (4 dSm-1) durante sete dias. Foram avaliados comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, peso seco de parte aérea, e peso seco de raiz e os resultados foram convertidos em desempenho relativo. Foram identificados genótipos tolerantes e moderadamente tolerantes à salinidade no estádio de plântula, os quais podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento e cultivados em áreas com ocorrência desse estresse. A análise de componentes principais mostrou a presença de variabilidade genética para resposta à salinidade. Finalmente, foi demonstrado que a maior parte da variação observada nos caracteres é de origem genética, o que pode tornar o processo de melhoramento menos difícil.

Oryza/genética , Plântula/genética , Hereditariedade/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Variação Genética , Estresse Salino
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(4): 1497-1516, jul.-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369719


The use of marginal quality water can be a viable alternative in regions with water scarcity when associated with an adequate irrigation management strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of 'Sugar Baby' mini watermelon as a function of irrigation management and salinity of the nutrient solution (ECsol). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, in the municipality of Cruz das Almas - BA, in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The plants were grown under two types of irrigation management (conventional drip - CD and pulse - PD) and four saline levels of the fertigation nutrient solution (2.5 - control; 4.5; 5.5; 6.5 dS m-1). At 65 days after cultivation, the following variables were evaluated: chlorophyll a and b content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and organic and inorganic solutes content. The treatments did not influence the levels of chlorophyll a and b. Salinity decreased the quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion due to the increased quantum yield of unregulated energy loss. Irrigation management and water salinity did not affect carbohydrate content in mini watermelons leaves. However, soluble proteins were higher in the CD than in PD and decreased with increasing salinity in both managements. Salinity increased free amino acids in CD but did not change the content of these solutes in PD. Free proline was only influenced by the management system and was higher in CD than in PD. Sodium, chloride, and sodium to potassium ratio increased with ECsol, but these increases were more pronounced in PD. Salinity increased potassium content in PD and reduced in CD. The CD led to lower absorption of toxic ions, reducing the effects of salinity on the mini watermelon.(AU)

A utilização de água da qualidade marginal pode ser uma alternativa viável em regiões com escassez hídrica, quando associada a estratégias de manejo de irrigação adequadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas da minimelancia 'Sugar Baby' em função dos manejos de irrigação e da salinidade da solução nutritiva (CEsol). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, no município de Cruz das Almas, BA, Brasil, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições. As plantas foram cultivadas sob dois tipos de manejo de irrigação (gotejamento convencional - GC e por pulsos ­ GP) e quatro níveis salinos da solução nutritiva de fertirrigação (2,5 - controle; 4,5; 5,5; 6,5 dS m-1). Aos 65 dias após semeadura, foram avaliadas as variáveis: teores de clorofilas a e b, fluorescência da clorofila a e teores de solutos orgânicos e inorgânicos. Os tratamentos não influenciaram os teores de clorofila a e b. A salinidade diminuiu o rendimento quântico da conversão de energia fotoquímica com aumento na dissipação de energia não regulada, sendo que ambos são vias competitivas de energia entre si. O tipo de manejo e a salinidade não afetaram os teores de carboidratos nas folhas de minimelancia. Entretanto, as proteínas solúveis foram maiores no GC que no GP e diminuíram com o incremento da salinidade em ambos os manejos. A salinidade aumentou os aminoácidos livres no GC, mas não alterou o conteúdo destes solutos no GP. Os teores de prolina livre só foram influenciados pelo tipo de manejo, sendo maiores no GC que no GP. Os íons sódio e cloreto e a razão sódio/potássio aumentaram com a CEsol, sendo esses aumentos mais pronunciados no GP. A salinidade aumentou os teores de potássio no GP e diminuiu no GC. O GC levou a uma menor absorção de íons tóxicos, atenuando os efeitos da salinidade sobre a minimelancia.(AU)

Fotoquímica , Plantas , Águas Salinas , Substâncias Tóxicas
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(3): 1167-1186, maio.-jun. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369385


Saline water has been used in irrigation due to the limited availability of fresh water, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the use of this type of water can affect crop growth and development. Studies have tested the use of chemical conditioners to minimize the negative effects of salinity on plants. In this scenario, the present study examined the role of hydrogen peroxide in mitigating the negative effects of salt stress on zucchini plants grown in a hydroponic system. The study was carried out in a greenhouse in Pombal - PB, Brazil. The NFT (nutrient film technique) hydroponic system was employed. A randomized complete experimental design was set up with a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement consisting of four levels of electrical conductivity in the nutrient solution (ECns: 2.1 [control], 3.6, 5.1, and 6.6 dS m-1) and four concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2: 0, 20, 40, and 60 µM), in three replicates. Foliar spraying with H2O2 at 60 and 40 µM associated with the nutrient solution of 2.1 dS m-1 increased stem diameter and root length, respectively, at 47 days after transplanting. However, at ECns higher than 2.1 dS m-1, the application of H2O2 at the concentrations of 60 and 40 µM intensified salt stress, reducing stem diameter and root length. Nutrient solution salinity levels above 2.1 dS m-1 reduce photosynthetic pigments; the number of leaves; leaf area; the length of the main branch; and the dry biomass of stems, leaves, and roots of zucchini plants. Chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents are the variables most sensitive to changes in salinity levels.(AU)

A água salina vem sendo utilizada na irrigação devido à disponibilidade limitada de água doce, principalmente em regiões áridas e semiáridas. No entanto, o uso deste tipo de água pode afetar o crescimento e desenvolvimento das culturas. Alguns estudos têm testado o uso de condicionadores químicos a fim de minimizar os efeitos negativos provocados pela salinidade nas plantas. Nesse contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o papel do peróxido de hidrogênio como mitigador dos efeitos negativos do estresse salino em plantas de abobrinha italiana cultivadas em sistema hidropônico. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em Pombal ­ PB. O sistema de cultivo utilizado foi o hidropônico tipo NFT - Técnica de Fluxo Laminar de Nutriente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 × 4, sendo quatro níveis de condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva - CEsn (2,1 (controle); 3,6; 5,1 e 6,6 dS m-1), e quatro concentrações de peróxido de hidrogênio ­ H2O2 (0; 20; 40 e 60 µM), com 3 repetições. A pulverização foliar de H2O2 na concentração de 60 e 40 µM associada a solução nutritiva com condutividade elétrica de 2,1 dS m-1 promoveu aumento no diâmetro do caule e comprimento da raiz, respectivamente, aos 47 dias após o transplantio. Contudo, em soluções nutritivas com condutividade elétrica superior a 2,1 dS m-1 a aplicação de H2O2 em concentrações de 60 e 40 µM intensificou o efeito do estresse salino, reduzindo o diâmetro de caule e o comprimento das raízes, respectivamente. A salinidade da solução nutritiva acima de 2,1 dS m-1 reduziu os pigmentos fotossintéticos, o número de folhas, área foliar, o comprimento do ramo principal, fitomassa seca do caule, de folhas e de raiz da abobrinha italiana, sendo os teores de clorofila b e carotenoides as variáveis mais sensíveis.(AU)

Cucurbita pepo , Hidroponia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
Acta cir. bras ; 37(5): e370503, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1383307


Purpose: To investigate the effect of givinostat treatment in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis model in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used. Rats were randomly divided into three equal groups, and colitis was induced on 20 rats by rectal administration of %4 solutions of acetic acid. Twenty rats with colitis were randomly divided into two groups. %0.9 NaCl (saline) solution was administered intraperitoneally to the first group of rats (saline group, n=10) at the dose of 1 mL/kg/day. Givinostat was administered intraperitoneally to the second group rats (Givinostat group, n=10) at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day. Samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Colon was removed for histopathological and biochemical examinations. Results: Plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), and malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the givinostat group compared to the saline group (p<0.05, p<0.001, and p<0.001 respectively; p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). Colon TNF-α and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF-2) levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). The givinostat group had a significantly lower histologic score than saline group (p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Givinostat, a good protector and regenerator of tissue and an anti-inflammatory agent, may be involved in the treatment of colitis in the future.

Animais , Ratos , Regeneração , Terapêutica , Colite Ulcerativa , Anti-Inflamatórios
Vet. zootec ; 29: 1-10, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1433653


Este estudio fue conducido para verificar el efecto del extracto acuoso y de la pomada basada en cáscara de Caryocar brasiliense sobre la retracción de heridas en conejos. Fueron utilizados 12 conejos Nueva Zelanda Blanco divididos en dos grupos y cuatro lesiones fueron producidas en la región dorsal de cada animal. Las lesiones a la derecha fueron tratadas con extracto acuoso (grupo 1) o con la pomada (grupo 2) y las lesiones a la izquierda fueron tratadas con solución salina 0,9% (grupo control). Los niveles de colágeno y fibroblastos fueron menores (P<0,05) en lesiones tratadas con extracto acuoso, comparado con el grupo control. A los 7 y 14 días después del procedimiento, la retracción de las lesiones era mayor (P<0,05) cuando tratadas con extracto acuoso y en las lesiones tratadas con la pomada, la mejora ocurrió solamente el 7º día, comparado con el grupo control. Se concluyó que el extracto acuoso de la cáscara de Caryocar brasiliense mejoro la retracción de heridas por un período de tiempo mayor do que la pomada. 

This study was carried out to verify the effect of the aqueous extract and the ointment of the stem bark from Caryocar brasiliense on the wound healing in rabbits. Twelve New Zealand rabbits were divided in two groups and four lesions were produced on the back of each animal. The lesions on the right side were treated with aqueous extract (group 1) or with ointment (group 2), while the lesions on the left side were the control group (treated with 0.9% saline solution). Collagen and fibroblast levels were lower (P<0.05) in wounds treated with aqueous extract, compared to the control group. On days 7 and 14 after the procedures, the wound retraction was better (P<0.05) when treated with aqueous extract, while in wounds treated with the ointment, the improvement occurred only on the 7th day. The aqueous extract of stem bark from Caryocar brasiliense improved the wound retraction longer than the ointment. 

Este estudo foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do extrato aquoso e da pomada à base de casca de Caryocar brasiliense sobre a retração de feridas em coelhos. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco divididos em dois grupos e quatro lesões foram produzidas na região dorsal de cada animal. As lesões à direita foram tratadas com extrato aquoso (grupo 1) ou com a pomada (grupo 2) e as lesões à esquerda foram tratadas com solução salina 0,9% (grupo controle). Os níveis de colágeno e fibroblastos foram menores (P<0,05) em lesões tratadas com extrato aquoso, comparado com o grupo controle. Aos 7 e 14 dias após o procedimento, a retração das lesões era maior (P<0,05) quando tratadas com extrato aquoso e nas lesões tratadas com a pomada, a melhora ocorreu apenas no 7º dia, comparado com o tratamento controle. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de casca de Caryocar brasiliense melhorou a retração de feridas por um período de tempo maior do que a pomada.   

Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468611


Abstract The ability of pathogenic bacteria acquire resistance to the existing antibiotics has long been considered a dangerous health risk threat. Currently, the use of visible light has been considered a new approach to treat bacterial infections as an alternative to antibiotics. Herein, we investigated the antimicrobial effect of two range of visible light, blue and red, on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two pathogenic bacterial commonly found in healthcare settings-acquired infections and responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality. Bacterial cultures were exposed to blue or red light (470 nm and 660 nm) provided by light-emitting diodes - LED. The fluencies and irradiance used for blue and red light were 284.90 J/cm2, 13.19 mW/cm2 and 603.44 J/cm2, 27.93 mW/cm2 respectively. Different experimental approaches were used to determine the optimal conditions of light application. Only exposure to blue light for 6 hours was able to inhibit about 75% in vitro growth of both bacterial species after 24 hours. The surviving exposed bacteria formed colonies significantly smaller than controls, however, these bacteria were able to resume growth after 48 hours. Blue light was able to inhibit bacterial growth upon inoculation in both saline solution and BHI culture medium. We can conclude that blue light, but not red light, is capable of temporarily retarding the growth of gram negative and gram positive bacteria.

Resumo A capacidade das bactérias patogênicas adquirirem resistência aos antibióticos existentes há muito tempo é considerada uma ameaça perigosa à saúde. Atualmente, o uso da luz visível tem sido considerado uma nova abordagem no tratamento de infecções bacterianas como alternativa aos antibióticos. Neste trabalho, investigamos o efeito antimicrobiano de duas faixas de luz visível, azul e vermelha, em Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, duas bactérias patogênicas comumente encontradas em infecções adquiridas em instituições de saúde e responsáveis por alta taxa de morbimortalidade. As culturas bacterianas foram expostas à luz azul ou vermelha (470 nm e 660 nm) fornecida por diodos emissores de luz - LED. As fluências e irradiâncias utilizadas para luz azul e vermelha foram 284,90 J/cm2, 13,19 mW/cm2 e 603,44 J/cm2, 27,93 mW/cm2, respectivamente. Várias abordagens experimentais foram utilizadas para determinar as condições ótimas de aplicação da luz. Apenas a exposição à luz azul por 6 horas foi capaz de inibir cerca de 75% o crescimento in vitro de ambas as espécies bacterianas após 24 horas. As bactérias expostas sobreviventes formaram colônias com um tamanho significativamente menor do que os controles, contudo, essas bactérias conseguiram retomar o crescimento normal após 48 horas. A luz azul foi capaz de inibir o crescimento das bactérias após sua inoculação em solução salina ou no meio de cultura rico em nutrientes BHI. Podemos concluir que a luz azul mas não a luz vermelha é capaz de retardar temporariamente o crescimento de bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positivas.

Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468650


Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P 0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P 0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P 0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P 0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.

Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P 0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P 0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P 0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P 0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468766


Abstract Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.

Resumo Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.

Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(3): 1079-1094, maio.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369357


The demand for high-quality vegetable seeds and the production of vigorous seedlings has increased in recent years, as these characteristics are determining factors of production success. Vegetables are growing in national importance, and kale stands out as an important source of income for small farmers. The objective of this study was to adapt the traditional accelerated aging test methodology with a saturated NaCl solution of kale seeds and evaluate the enzymatic activity after the vigour test. Six batches of kale seeds were used, and the moisture content, weight of one thousand seeds, first germination count, germination, germination speed index, emergence, initial stand, and emergence velocity index were determined. In the accelerated ageing test, the seeds were submitted to the traditional accelerated ageing test method and the accelerated ageing test method with a saturated NaCl solution for ageing periods of 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Electrophoretic analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes was also performed. The accelerated ageing test, using the traditional method for 72 hours at 41 °C, is adequate for evaluating the physiological potential of kale seeds. The isoenzymatic analyses of SOD, CAT, and ADH demonstrate that the biochemical markers are efficient at differentiating kale seeds after accelerated ageing.(AU)

A demanda por sementes de hortaliças com alta qualidade e a obtenção de mudas vigorosas tem aumentado nos últimos anos, pois estas características constituem fatores determinantes do êxito da produção. As hortaliças têm uma importância nacional crescente, dentre elas se destaca a couve, por ser importante fonte de renda para pequenos agricultores. Objetivou-se adequar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl em sementes de couve e avaliar a atividade enzimática após o teste de vigor. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de couve e determinouse o grau de umidade, peso de mil sementes, primeira contagem de germinação, germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, emergência, estande inicial e índice de velocidade de emergência. No teste de envelhecimento acelerado, as sementes foram submetidas ao método tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl, por períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas. Realizou-se também a análise eletroforética das isoenzimas superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e álcool desidrogenase (ADH). O teste de envelhecimento acelerado, utilizando o método tradicional na combinação de 72 horas a 41 °C é adequado para avaliar o potencial fisiológico de sementes de couve. As análises isoenzimáticas superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e álcool desidrogenase (ADH) demonstram que os marcadores bioquímicos são eficientes e promissores na diferenciação de sementes de couve após o envelhecimento acelerado.(AU)

Sementes/enzimologia , Brassica/enzimologia , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Isoenzimas
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 50(supl.1): 777, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370115


Background: Stephanofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Stephanofilaria spp., considered a zoonotic disease, that affects several species, mainly dairy cattle. The condition causes chronic ulcerative dermatitis, due to the mechanical action of the parasite on the hair follicles and dermal papillae. The recommended diagnostic method is histopathological examination, but alternative methods have been studied for the detection of the agent since it does not demonstrate good results. There is no specific treatment, however, the use of organophosphates is recommended. The objective of this work is to report an outbreak of stephanofilariasis with unusual lesions in cattle from a dairy cattle farm in the city of Boa Vista do Buricá, RS, Brazil, as well as to demonstrate an alternative method for the diagnosis of the disease. Cases: We prospectively evaluated 15 Holstein cows, aged between 1 and 10-year-old whose data and materials for diagnosis, were provided by the property owner. The outbreak occurred in the summer, in a period of greater rainfall, affecting cows of different ages and totaling 48% of the herd. These showed ulcerative lesions on the skin of the groin, limbs and interdigital regions, and less frequently in the udder. The samples were obtained through tissue biopsy and scraped from the lesions, being packed in 10% formaldehyde for fixation. Afterward, the formaldehyde was centrifuged at 800 g for 5 min, which consisted of analyzing the sediment through optical microscopy and without staining, aiming at the direct search of the agent. The tissues, on the other hand, underwent routine processing and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Histopathological analysis did not reveal Stephanofilaria sp. subjects in morphological analysis and revealed acanthosis, spongiosis, ulcers and fibrosis in the analyzed tissue. The examination of direct research with formaldehyde proved to be efficient, and fast. In the direct examination of the agent, structures similar to filarial and compatible with Stephanofilaria sp. in all samples. Thus, the present study demonstrated that filariasis can present in the form of outbreaks and with unusual injuries. The examination of direct research with formaldehyde, proved to be efficient and fast. Discussion: Semi-confined and confined animals may have a higher occurrence of strephanofilariasis, since the parasite needs humid and warm environments to proliferate and that, the proliferation of stephanophilariasis vectors is intensified in environments with low sunlight, high temperatures, high humidity, and low cleaning frequency. The city of Boa Vista do Buricá, where the outbreak occurred, reached a minimum average temperature of 18.5ºC and an average of 29ºC, with an average rainfall of 120.5 mm. Cutaneous lesions have been seen in animals from 1 to 10 years of age and no racial predisposition, age, or blackout stage is reported. The histological diagnosis, although mentioned as a form of diagnosis, has low efficacy in finding parasites in the tissue, is also used as a diagnosis, direct examination of the agent with saline solution, and impression of the lesion stained by the Romanoswsky method. However, in this report, formaldehyde proved to be a new option, as efficiently as saline.

Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Dípteros , Filariose/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária
Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468632


Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P 0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P 0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.

Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P 0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P 0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

Acta cir. bras ; 37(10): e371006, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415441


Purpose: To analyze the effects of Anacardium occidentale Linn on the healing of skin wounds. Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats were distributed into four groups (with five animals each one): negative control group (NCG), treated with saline solution; cashew tree group (CG), treated with hydroalcoholic extract of the bark of A. occidentale Linn; manipulated cashew tree group (MCG), with the ointment of extract of the bark of A. occidentale Linn; positive control group (PCG), treated with sunflower oil. All animals were examined daily, observing the macroscopic aspects of the surgical wound. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for tissue morphology analysis and Masson's trichrome for better collagen fiber characterization. Results: On day 7, the MCG group had the expansion of the surgical wound covered by crust, exceeding the initial limits. On day 21, the wounds were observed to be completely closed and epithelialized in the NCG and CG groups. PCG and MCG still had remnants of crusts on the wound. The NCG was the only one not to present an abscess in histopathological analysis. Conclusions: There was a prolongation of the healing phase of the animals treated with the extract, and the animals in the NCG showed a better outcome by histological analysis.

Animais , Ratos , Plantas Medicinais , Anormalidades da Pele , Cicatrização , Anacardium , Animais de Laboratório
Rev. Ciênc. Agrovet. (Online) ; 21(1): 79-84, mar. 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366133


Soil salinity has been a limiting barrier for the production of vegetables in protected environments. Thus, the understanding of the sensitivity of species to this stress factor must be explored, seeking better growing conditions.Under the hypothesis that beet and radish crops are sensitive to variations in soil salinity, even at low levels, the objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of these two species in soils with different salinities in a protected environment. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments were formed by the soil salinity levels, obtained with the application of saline solution (NaCl in water), considering the soil electrical conductivity of 0.36 dS m-1as low salinity, of 1.05 dS m-1as moderate salinity and 2.43 dS m-1as elevated. For all variables analyzed, except for the relative chlorophyll index in beet plants, it was found that the increase in soil salinity resulted in significant development losses of beet and radish plants. Therefore, we concluded that beet and radish crops are sensitive to the variation in soil salinity, even in relatively low concentrations, making these species an unattractive choice for cultivation in systems that present this problem.(AU)

A salinidade dos solos tem sido uma barreira limitadora para a produção de hortaliças em ambientes protegidos. Assim, o entendimento quanto a sensibilidade das espécies a esse fator de estresse deve ser explorado, buscando melhores condições de cultivo. Sob a hipótese de que as culturas de beterraba e rabanete são sensíveis às variações da salinidade do solo, mesmo em níveis baixos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade dessas duas espécies em solos comdiferentes salinidades em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e os tratamentos foram formados pelos níveis de salinidade do solo, obtidos com a aplicação de solução salina (NaCl em água), considerando a condutividade elétrica do solo de 0,36 dS m-1como baixa salinidade, de 1,05 dS m-1como salinidade moderada e 2,43 dS m-1como elevada. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, com exceção do índice relativo de clorofila em plantas de beterraba, verificou-se que o aumento da salinidade do solo resultou em perdas significativas de desenvolvimento de plantas de beterraba e rabanete. Assim, concluímos que as culturas de beterraba e rabanete são sensíveis à variação da salinidade do solo, mesmo em concentrações relativamente baixas, tornando essas espécies uma escolha pouco atrativa para cultivo em sistemas que apresentam este problema.(AU)

Solos Salitrosos , Estresse Salino , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Oxidação , Osmorregulação/fisiologia
Anim. Reprod. (Online) ; 19(3): e20210112, set. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393239


Resynchronization protocols have been proposed as a way of shortening females' unproductive time in the flock, with good results in cattle and sheep. In goats, initial studies have shown that a second progestogen device inserted before luteolysis and pregnancy diagnosis does not interfere with the corpus luteum lifespan or functionality. This study aimed to evaluate the follicular growth, ovulation pattern and pregnancy rate after insertion of a second and new progestogen device for resynchronizing, with or without equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG), submitted to natural mating (NM) or artificial insemination (AI) to propose a viable resynchronization protocol for dairy goats. A total of 38 multiparous Saanen goats underwent a short-term progesterone protocol [six days exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) intravaginal sponges + 200 IU eCG and 0.12 mg of cloprostenol sodium on the 5th day + 0.025 mg of lecirelin 34 hours after sponge withdrawal] and, on day 16th after the ovulation, received a new MAP device which was retained until day 21. At this moment females were split into four groups: GeCG+NM ­ 100 IU eCG with NM; GSal+NM ­ saline solution with NM; GeCG+AI ­ 100 IU eCG with AI; and GSal+AI ­ saline solution with AI. Ultrasound scans were performed every 12 h from sponge withdrawal (day 21) until 108 h after sponge withdrawal (day 25) for follicular dynamics evaluation, at 240 h (day 31) for assessing the presence of active corpus luteum, and on day 60 for pregnancy diagnosis. No differences were found regarding ovulation time, synchronization and follicle size. However, GeCG+NM presented a greater estrus manifestation rate (100%) and pregnancy rate (62.5%) when compared to GSal+AI. In conclusion, resynchronization protocols in dairy goats may present satisfactory results.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Detecção da Ovulação/veterinária , Cabras/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos adversos , Sincronização do Estro/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/análise , Progestinas/análise , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Prenhez/fisiologia