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1.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 24(1): eRBCA-2020-1369, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765873

Resumo

Incubating temperature and timing or duration is critical to determine the optimum protocol of thermal manipulation (TM), which underlines muscle growth improvement. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the optimum period of embryonic TM that may result in the improvement of pectoral and thigh muscle myogenesis. This is done by investigating the level of mRNA expression of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). An additional goal is measuring the blood levels of CK and LDH as a biomarker of muscle injury due to the experimental thermal challenge on post-hatch day 35. The study was conducted on 1,440 fertile eggs (Ross broilers) that were divided randomly and equally into a control group and four treatment groups (TM1, TM2, TM3, and TM4). The treatment groups were daily subjected to TM at 39 ºC for 18h with 65% relative humidity (RH) during embryonic days (EDs) 7-11, 11-15, 15-18, and 7-18, respectively. Among the thermally manipulated groups that were investigated, TM1 (ED 7-11) resulted in significant improvement of mRNA expression and enzymatic concentration of CK and LDH in muscle during embryogenesis, as compared to the control. Six hours of TC showed the highest significant CK and LDH expression and concentration levels in the control as compared to TM groups. Thus, the results of this study indicate that TM during ED 7-11 improves pectoral and thigh muscles response to heat stress without adversely affecting their performance. This finding could be used by commercial breeders to enhance local broiler production.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Ativação Enzimática , Creatina Quinase , L-Lactato Desidrogenase
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. avic ; 24(1): eRBCA, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1490903

Resumo

Incubating temperature and timing or duration is critical to determine the optimum protocol of thermal manipulation (TM), which underlines muscle growth improvement. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the optimum period of embryonic TM that may result in the improvement of pectoral and thigh muscle myogenesis. This is done by investigating the level of mRNA expression of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). An additional goal is measuring the blood levels of CK and LDH as a biomarker of muscle injury due to the experimental thermal challenge on post-hatch day 35. The study was conducted on 1,440 fertile eggs (Ross broilers) that were divided randomly and equally into a control group and four treatment groups (TM1, TM2, TM3, and TM4). The treatment groups were daily subjected to TM at 39 ºC for 18h with 65% relative humidity (RH) during embryonic days (EDs) 7-11, 11-15, 15-18, and 7-18, respectively. Among the thermally manipulated groups that were investigated, TM1 (ED 7-11) resulted in significant improvement of mRNA expression and enzymatic concentration of CK and LDH in muscle during embryogenesis, as compared to the control. Six hours of TC showed the highest significant CK and LDH expression and concentration levels in the control as compared to TM groups. Thus, the results of this study indicate that TM during ED 7-11 improves pectoral and thigh muscles’ response to heat stress without adversely affecting their performance. This finding could be used by commercial breeders to enhance local broiler production.


Assuntos
Animais , Ativação Enzimática , Creatina Quinase , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Galinhas/fisiologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase
3.
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(5): 1975-1984, jun. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1395512

Resumo

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter time about some blood constituents used as stress indicators in the evaluation of animal welfare in cattle. In the practice of ethology, animal welfare is assessed through physiological and behavioral indicators. For the determination of serum biomarkers of animal stress, a total of 180 animals was used, divided into two major groups according to the time of pre-slaughter. In the acceptable group, the animals had a pre-slaughter time up to 24 hours and in the not acceptable group the pre-slaughter time was greater than 24 h. These two groups were split up into three animal categories (males, females and castrated males). In this study, 30 samples were collected from each animal category of the two groups, acceptable and not acceptable, totaling 180 samples. Samples were separated for analysis of muscle enzymes creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (CK and LDH), glucose and cortisol. Physiological values, regardless of the animal category and pre-slaughter time, were higher than the normal values of reference, expressing the prior management effect on animal welfare. The data clearly show a need to update and adapt the entire production chain to animal welfare practices, with the objective of producing competitive quality meat in the world market.(AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tempo de pré-abate sobre alguns constituintes sanguíneos utilizados como indicadores de estresse na avaliação do bem-estar animal em bovinos. Na prática da etologia, o bem-estar animal é avaliado por meio de indicadores fisiológicos e comportamentais. Para a determinação sérica de biomarcadores de estresse animal utilizaram-se 180 animais, divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tempo de pré-abate: até 24 horas ou acima de 24 horas. Esses dois grupos subdividiram-se em três categorias animais (machos não-castrados, machos castrados ou fêmeas). Foram coletadas 30 amostras de cada categoria animal nos dois grupos, totalizando 180 amostras. Foram separadas amostras para análise de enzimas musculares creatina quinase e lactato desidrogenase (CK e LDH), glicose e cortisol. Os valores fisiológicos, independentemente da categoria animal e do tempo de pré-abate, foram superiores aos valores de referência, expressando o efeito do manejo prévio sobre o bem-estar dos animais. Os dados evidenciam claramente a necessidade de atualização e adequação de toda a cadeia produtiva às práticas de bem-estar animal, com o objetivo de produzir carne de qualidade competitiva no mercado mundial.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Estresse Fisiológico , Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/química , Creatina Quinase/química , Abate de Animais/métodos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/química
4.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487691

Resumo

ABSTRACT: Monensin is an ionophore antibiotic (IA) widely used for growth promotion and weight gain in the production of ruminants. However, it has caused intoxication in several species, including buffaloes, mainly because of the ignorance or disrespect of the recommendations for use in each animal species. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, clinical-epidemiological and anatomopathological data of an outbreak of accidental poisoning by monensin in buffalos and rediscuss the recommendation of the use of IA in the production of this species. The outbreak affected 21 adult buffaloes after consumption of remains from a feed formulated on the farm and whose constituents were mixed by hand. Clinical and first death signs were observed 24 hours after ingestion of this food. In general, the clinical picture was characterized by muscle weakness, tremors, difficulty in locomotion, and decubitus. Fifteen buffaloes presented clinical signs of poisoning (71.5% morbidity), followed by death (100% lethality), after acute to subacute evolution ( 24h to 96h). Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum activity of creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes. Three buffaloes underwent necropsy, and samples from several organs were collected for histopathological examination. The main injuries found were hyaline degeneration and multifocal segmental necrosis in the skeletal and cardiac striated muscles (myopathy and degenerative-necrotic multifocal multifocal-necrotic cardiopathy). The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxicological evaluation of suspected ration remains, which detected 461.67mg/kg of monensin. The death of 71.5% buffaloes in this lot occurred due to a succession of errors, which included faults in the formulation of the ration and, above all, due to the use of monensin in a highly sensitive species. Despite the possible beneficial effects of IA use as a dietary supplement for buffaloes, we are of the opinion that IAs should never be used in bubalinoculture since any increment in production does not compensate for the imminent risk of death due to a small safety margin for this species and the absence of antidotes.


RESUMO: Monensina é um antibiótico ionóforo (AI) amplamente empregado na produção de ruminantes para promoção de crescimento e ganho de peso, mas que tem causado intoxicação em diversas espécies, incluindo os búfalos, principalmente, pelo desconhecimento ou desrespeito das recomendações de uso e às particularidades de cada espécie animal. Objetivou-se descrever, pela primeira vez na Bahia, dados clínico-epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação acidental por monensina em búfalos e rediscutir a recomendação do uso de AI na produção de bubalinos. O surto acometeu um lote de 21 búfalos adultos após consumo de sobras de uma ração para bovinos formulada na fazenda e cujos constituintes eram misturados à mão. Os sinais clínicos e primeiros óbitos foram observados 24 horas após a ingestão dessa ração. O quadro clínico, em geral, se caracterizou por fraqueza muscular, tremores, dificuldade de locomoção e decúbito. Quinze búfalos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação (morbidade 71,5%), seguido de morte (letalidade 100%), após evolução aguda a subaguda ( 24h até 96h). Exames laboratoriais indicaram acentuada elevação na atividade sérica das enzimas CPK e AST. Três búfalos foram necropsiados, sendo coletadas amostras de diversos órgãos para exame histopatológico. A principal lesão encontrada foi degeneração hialina e necrose segmentar multifocal nos músculos estriados esqueléticos e cardíacos (miopatia e cardiopatia degenerativo-necrótica tóxica multifocal polifásica). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela avaliação toxicológica das sobras da ração suspeita, que detectou 461,67mg/kg de monensina. A morte de 71,5% dos búfalos deste lote ocorreu devido a uma sucessão de erros, que incluíram falhas na formulação da ração e, sobretudo, devido ao uso da monensina em uma espécie altamente sensível. Enfatizamos que, apesar dos possíveis efeitos benéficos do uso AIs como suplemento dietético para bubalinos, somos da opinião que os AIs nunca devem ser empregados na bubalinocultura, uma vez que os eventuais incrementos na produção não compensam o risco iminente de morte, devido a pequena margem de segurança para essa espécie e a inexistência de antídotos.

5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06937, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487682

Resumo

Monensin is an ionophore antibiotic (IA) widely used for growth promotion and weight gain in the production of ruminants. However, it has caused intoxication in several species, including buffaloes, mainly because of the ignorance or disrespect of the recommendations for use in each animal species. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, clinical-epidemiological and anatomopathological data of an outbreak of accidental poisoning by monensin in buffalos and rediscuss the recommendation of the use of IA in the production of this species. The outbreak affected 21 adult buffaloes after consumption of remains from a feed formulated on the farm and whose constituents were mixed by hand. Clinical and first death signs were observed 24 hours after ingestion of this food. In general, the clinical picture was characterized by muscle weakness, tremors, difficulty in locomotion, and decubitus. Fifteen buffaloes presented clinical signs of poisoning (71.5% morbidity), followed by death (100% lethality), after acute to subacute evolution (<24h to 96h). Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum activity of creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes. Three buffaloes underwent necropsy, and samples from several organs were collected for histopathological examination. The main injuries found were hyaline degeneration and multifocal segmental necrosis in the skeletal and cardiac striated muscles (myopathy and degenerative-necrotic multifocal multifocal-necrotic cardiopathy). The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxicological evaluation of suspected ration remains, which detected 461.67mg/kg of monensin. The death of 71.5% buffaloes in this lot occurred due to a succession of errors, which included faults in the formulation of the ration and, above all, due to the use of monensin in a highly sensitive species. Despite the possible beneficial effects of IA use as a dietary supplement for buffaloes, we are of the opinion that IAs should never be used in bubalinoculture since any increment in production does not compensate for the imminent risk of death due to a small safety margin for this species and the absence of antidotes.


Monensina é um antibiótico ionóforo (AI) amplamente empregado na produção de ruminantes para promoção de crescimento e ganho de peso, mas que tem causado intoxicação em diversas espécies, incluindo os búfalos, principalmente, pelo desconhecimento ou desrespeito das recomendações de uso e às particularidades de cada espécie animal. Objetivou-se descrever, pela primeira vez na Bahia, dados clínico-epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação acidental por monensina em búfalos e rediscutir a recomendação do uso de AI na produção de bubalinos. O surto acometeu um lote de 21 búfalos adultos após consumo de sobras de uma ração para bovinos formulada na fazenda e cujos constituintes eram misturados à mão. Os sinais clínicos e primeiros óbitos foram observados 24 horas após a ingestão dessa ração. O quadro clínico, em geral, se caracterizou por fraqueza muscular, tremores, dificuldade de locomoção e decúbito. Quinze búfalos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação (morbidade 71,5%), seguido de morte (letalidade 100%), após evolução aguda a subaguda (<24h até 96h). Exames laboratoriais indicaram acentuada elevação na atividade sérica das enzimas CPK e AST. Três búfalos foram necropsiados, sendo coletadas amostras de diversos órgãos para exame histopatológico. A principal lesão encontrada foi degeneração hialina e necrose segmentar multifocal nos músculos estriados esqueléticos e cardíacos (miopatia e cardiopatia degenerativo-necrótica tóxica multifocal polifásica). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela avaliação toxicológica das sobras da ração suspeita, que detectou 461,67mg/kg de monensina. A morte de 71,5% dos búfalos deste lote ocorreu devido a uma sucessão de erros, que incluíram falhas na formulação da ração e, sobretudo, devido ao uso da monensina em uma espécie altamente sensível. Enfatizamos que, apesar dos possíveis efeitos benéficos do uso AIs como suplemento dietético para bubalinos, somos da opinião que os AIs nunca devem ser empregados na bubalinocultura, uma vez que os eventuais incrementos na produção não compensam o risco iminente de morte, devido a pequena margem de segurança para essa espécie e a inexistência de antídotos.


Assuntos
Animais , Búfalos , Miotoxicidade/diagnóstico , Miotoxicidade/patologia , Monensin/intoxicação , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária , Evolução Fatal , Miotoxicidade/veterinária , Ração Animal/intoxicação
6.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210191, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1286061

Resumo

The downer cow syndrome (DCS) is characterized by an alert cow showing inability or reluctance to stand for 12 hours or more. This paper reported clinical, laboratory, and pathological findings in a Guzerá heifer with rhabdomyolysis, pigmenturia and acute renal failure following DCS. A 17-month-old Guzerá heifer was transported via a 350-km ride in a truck and showed sternal recumbency and severe difficulty in standing and walking. Neurological examination was unremarkable, and the heifer presented normal response to cranial nerves and spinal cord tests. Rectal palpation revealed a 5-month gravid uterus. No other abnormalities were noted in the pelvis or around the coxofemoral joints. Biochemical abnormalities included extremely high muscular enzyme activities (creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase) and high creatinine levels. Urinalysis revealed blackish and cloudy urine, proteinuria, and a positive occult blood test. Spinal cord ultrasonography showed no abnormalities. This report highlighted an uncommon clinical presentation (myoglobinuria) and pathological findings in a heifer with DCS as a consequence of severe compressive muscle damage. Practitioners and producers must be aware of the risk of careless road transportation for long distances of cattle, especially obese cows, avoiding unnecessary suffering and expenses due to DCS.


A síndrome da vaca caída (SVC) é caracterizada por um bovino alerta que mostra incapacidade ou relutância em permanecer em estação por 12 horas ou mais. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar os achados clínicos, laboratoriais e patológicos em uma novilha Guzerá com rabdomiólise, pigmentúria e insuficiência renal aguda após a SVC. Uma novilha da raça Guzerá, de 17 meses de idade, foi transportada de caminhão por 350 km e apresentou decúbito esternal, grande dificuldade para assumir estação e caminhar. O exame neurológico não demonstrou alterações, e a novilha possuía resposta normal aos testes de nervos cranianos e medula espinhal. A palpação retal revelou útero grávido de cinco meses. Nenhuma outra anormalidade foi observada na pelve ou na região das articulações coxofemorais. As anormalidades bioquímicas incluíram atividades de enzimas musculares (creatina fosfoquinase e aspartato aminotransferase) extremamente aumentadas e níveis elevados de creatinina. A urinálise revelou urina enegrecida e turva, proteinúria e teste de sangue oculto positivo. O exame ultrassonográfico da medula espinhal não apresentou anormalidades. Este relato evidencia uma apresentação clínica (mioglobinúria) e achados patológicos incomuns em uma novilha com SVC em consequência de extensa lesão muscular compressiva. Veterinários e produtores devem estar atentos aos riscos do transporte rodoviário descuidado por longas distâncias de bovinos, especialmente vacas obesas, evitando assim sofrimento e despesas desnecessárias decorrentes da SVC.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Postura , Rabdomiólise/veterinária , Insuficiência Renal/veterinária , Mioglobinúria/veterinária , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06937, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356550

Resumo

Monensin is an ionophore antibiotic (IA) widely used for growth promotion and weight gain in the production of ruminants. However, it has caused intoxication in several species, including buffaloes, mainly because of the ignorance or disrespect of the recommendations for use in each animal species. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, clinical-epidemiological and anatomopathological data of an outbreak of accidental poisoning by monensin in buffalos and rediscuss the recommendation of the use of IA in the production of this species. The outbreak affected 21 adult buffaloes after consumption of remains from a feed formulated on the farm and whose constituents were mixed by hand. Clinical and first death signs were observed 24 hours after ingestion of this food. In general, the clinical picture was characterized by muscle weakness, tremors, difficulty in locomotion, and decubitus. Fifteen buffaloes presented clinical signs of poisoning (71.5% morbidity), followed by death (100% lethality), after acute to subacute evolution (<24h to 96h). Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum activity of creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes. Three buffaloes underwent necropsy, and samples from several organs were collected for histopathological examination. The main injuries found were hyaline degeneration and multifocal segmental necrosis in the skeletal and cardiac striated muscles (myopathy and degenerative-necrotic multifocal multifocal-necrotic cardiopathy). The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxicological evaluation of suspected ration remains, which detected 461.67mg/kg of monensin. The death of 71.5% buffaloes in this lot occurred due to a succession of errors, which included faults in the formulation of the ration and, above all, due to the use of monensin in a highly sensitive species. Despite the possible beneficial effects of IA use as a dietary supplement for buffaloes, we are of the opinion that IAs should never be used in bubalinoculture since any increment in production does not compensate for the imminent risk of death due to a small safety margin for this species and the absence of antidotes.(AU)


Monensina é um antibiótico ionóforo (AI) amplamente empregado na produção de ruminantes para promoção de crescimento e ganho de peso, mas que tem causado intoxicação em diversas espécies, incluindo os búfalos, principalmente, pelo desconhecimento ou desrespeito das recomendações de uso e às particularidades de cada espécie animal. Objetivou-se descrever, pela primeira vez na Bahia, dados clínico-epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação acidental por monensina em búfalos e rediscutir a recomendação do uso de AI na produção de bubalinos. O surto acometeu um lote de 21 búfalos adultos após consumo de sobras de uma ração para bovinos formulada na fazenda e cujos constituintes eram misturados à mão. Os sinais clínicos e primeiros óbitos foram observados 24 horas após a ingestão dessa ração. O quadro clínico, em geral, se caracterizou por fraqueza muscular, tremores, dificuldade de locomoção e decúbito. Quinze búfalos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação (morbidade 71,5%), seguido de morte (letalidade 100%), após evolução aguda a subaguda (<24h até 96h). Exames laboratoriais indicaram acentuada elevação na atividade sérica das enzimas CPK e AST. Três búfalos foram necropsiados, sendo coletadas amostras de diversos órgãos para exame histopatológico. A principal lesão encontrada foi degeneração hialina e necrose segmentar multifocal nos músculos estriados esqueléticos e cardíacos (miopatia e cardiopatia degenerativo-necrótica tóxica multifocal polifásica). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela avaliação toxicológica das sobras da ração suspeita, que detectou 461,67mg/kg de monensina. A morte de 71,5% dos búfalos deste lote ocorreu devido a uma sucessão de erros, que incluíram falhas na formulação da ração e, sobretudo, devido ao uso da monensina em uma espécie altamente sensível. Enfatizamos que, apesar dos possíveis efeitos benéficos do uso AIs como suplemento dietético para bubalinos, somos da opinião que os AIs nunca devem ser empregados na bubalinocultura, uma vez que os eventuais incrementos na produção não compensam o risco iminente de morte, devido a pequena margem de segurança para essa espécie e a inexistência de antídotos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Búfalos , Monensin/intoxicação , Miotoxicidade/diagnóstico , Miotoxicidade/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Miotoxicidade/veterinária , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária , Ração Animal/intoxicação
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(7): e360701, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339004

Resumo

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the effect of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) on skeletal muscle and its optimal protocol. Methods This article is about an animal study of rat model of crush syndrome. Sixty rats were randomized into nine different IPostC intervention groups and a control group. The anesthetized rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb 3-kg compression with a compression device for 6 h, followed by nine different IPostC intervention protocols. Results Serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) at 3 h post-crush became 2.3-3.9 times among all 10 groups after crush. At 72 h post-crush, serum CK level was reduced to 0.28-0.53 time in all intervention groups. The creatinine (CREA) level in the control group was elevated to 3.11 times at 3 h post-crush and reduced to1.77 time at 72 h post-crush. The potassium (K+) level in the control group was elevated to 1.65 and 1.41 time at 3 and 72 h post-crush, respectively. Conclusions Our IPostC intervention protocols can effectively protect rats from crush-induced elevation of serum CK, CREA, and K+ levels. The timing of IPostC intervention should be as early as possible, to ensure the protective effect.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Síndrome de Esmagamento/terapia , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Músculo Esquelético , Creatina Quinase
9.
R. bras. Ci. Vet. ; 28(1): 61-66, mai. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31175

Resumo

Com o propósito de estabelecer valores de hematócrito, proteínas plasmáticas totais, fibrinogênio, creatina quinase , aspartato transferase e lactato em potros da raça Crioula, do nascimento até os dois anos, utilizaram-se amostras sanguíneas de 85 animais, divididos pela estratificação etária: Grupo 1 (G1) Até 15 dias de vida (n=70); grupo 2 (G2), entre 16 dias até um mês (n=67); grupo 3 (G3), entre 1 e 3 meses (n=75); grupo 4 (G4), entre 3 e 6 meses (n=64); grupo 5 (G5), entre 6 e 9 meses (n=59); grupo 6 (G6), entre 9 e 18 meses (n=39); e grupo 7 (G7), entre 18 meses até 2 anos (n=17). Foi realizado estudo estatístico entre os grupos pela análise de variância unidirecional (one-wayANOVA), complementada pelo teste de Tukey. Para comparação das médias entre os sexos utilizou-se o teste t de Student. O hematócrito foi significativamente mais elevado até os 90 dias e nas fêmeas do G7. Para proteínas plasmáticas totais, notou-se aumento significativo nos grupos 3, 4, 6 e 7. Os valores de fibrinogênio foram maiores no G1. A CK apresentou maior concentração no G5 e a AST no G7. A AST assumiu valores semelhantes dos 30 dias até os 2 anos. A concentração de lactato foi mais elevada no G3. Conclui-se que na interpretação dos exames laboratoriais de potros da raça crioula, o gênero não interfere significativamente nos resultados, porém a idade deve ser considerada devido à ocorrência de variações relevantes. Recomenda-se que para interpretação sejam consultadas tabelas específicas para cada análise.(AU)


Plasma levels of hematocrit, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transferase, and lactate were analyzed in blood samples of 85 Crioula breed foals, from birth to two years of age. The animals were divided into age groups: G1 (up to 15 days of age; n=70), G2 (from 16 days to one month of age; n=67), G3 (between one and three months of age; n=75), G4 (between three and six months of age; n=64), G5 (between six and nine months of age; n=59), G6 (between nine and 18 months of age; n=39), and G7 (between 18 months and two years of age; n=17). These groups were statistically analyzed by one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and Tukeys test. Male and female means were compared by Students t-test. Hematocrit levels were significantly higher up to 90 days of age and in G7 females. Total plasma proteins increased significantly in groups 3, 4, 6, and 7. The highest fibrinogen levels were found in G1. Yet for creatine phosphokinase, the highest concentrations were detected in G5, whereas those of aspartate aminotransferase in G7. The levels of this enzyme remained similar from 30 days to two years of age. Lactate concentrations were higher in G3. We concluded that the sex of the animal had no significant effect on laboratory test interpretations. By contrast, the age of the animal should be considered since relevant variations were observed with time. Nevertheless, specific tables for each analysis should be consulted for interpretation of results.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Creatina Quinase/análise , Fibrinogênio/análise , Hematócrito
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 61-66, jan./mar. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491703

Resumo

Com o propósito de estabelecer valores de hematócrito, proteínas plasmáticas totais, fibrinogênio, creatina quinase , aspartato transferase e lactato em potros da raça Crioula, do nascimento até os dois anos, utilizaram-se amostras sanguíneas de 85 animais, divididos pela estratificação etária: Grupo 1 (G1) Até 15 dias de vida (n=70); grupo 2 (G2), entre 16 dias até um mês (n=67); grupo 3 (G3), entre 1 e 3 meses (n=75); grupo 4 (G4), entre 3 e 6 meses (n=64); grupo 5 (G5), entre 6 e 9 meses (n=59); grupo 6 (G6), entre 9 e 18 meses (n=39); e grupo 7 (G7), entre 18 meses até 2 anos (n=17). Foi realizado estudo estatístico entre os grupos pela análise de variância unidirecional (one-wayANOVA), complementada pelo teste de Tukey. Para comparação das médias entre os sexos utilizou-se o teste t de Student. O hematócrito foi significativamente mais elevado até os 90 dias e nas fêmeas do G7. Para proteínas plasmáticas totais, notou-se aumento significativo nos grupos 3, 4, 6 e 7. Os valores de fibrinogênio foram maiores no G1. A CK apresentou maior concentração no G5 e a AST no G7. A AST assumiu valores semelhantes dos 30 dias até os 2 anos. A concentração de lactato foi mais elevada no G3. Conclui-se que na interpretação dos exames laboratoriais de potros da raça crioula, o gênero não interfere significativamente nos resultados, porém a idade deve ser considerada devido à ocorrência de variações relevantes. Recomenda-se que para interpretação sejam consultadas tabelas específicas para cada análise.


Plasma levels of hematocrit, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transferase, and lactate were analyzed in blood samples of 85 Crioula breed foals, from birth to two years of age. The animals were divided into age groups: G1 (up to 15 days of age; n=70), G2 (from 16 days to one month of age; n=67), G3 (between one and three months of age; n=75), G4 (between three and six months of age; n=64), G5 (between six and nine months of age; n=59), G6 (between nine and 18 months of age; n=39), and G7 (between 18 months and two years of age; n=17). These groups were statistically analyzed by one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. Male and female means were compared by Student’s t-test. Hematocrit levels were significantly higher up to 90 days of age and in G7 females. Total plasma proteins increased significantly in groups 3, 4, 6, and 7. The highest fibrinogen levels were found in G1. Yet for creatine phosphokinase, the highest concentrations were detected in G5, whereas those of aspartate aminotransferase in G7. The levels of this enzyme remained similar from 30 days to two years of age. Lactate concentrations were higher in G3. We concluded that the sex of the animal had no significant effect on laboratory test interpretations. By contrast, the age of the animal should be considered since relevant variations were observed with time. Nevertheless, specific tables for each analysis should be consulted for interpretation of results.


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos/fisiologia , Cavalos/sangue , Creatina Quinase/análise , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Fibrinogênio/análise , Hematócrito
11.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 61-66, jan./mar. 2021. il.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1368827

Resumo

Plasma levels of hematocrit, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transferase, and lactate were analyzed in blood samples of 85 Crioula breed foals, from birth to two years of age. The animals were divided into age groups: G1 (up to 15 days of age; n=70), G2 (from 16 days to one month of age; n=67), G3 (between one and three months of age; n=75), G4 (between three and six months of age; n=64), G5 (between six and nine months of age; n=59), G6 (between nine and 18 months of age; n=39), and G7 (between 18 months and two years of age; n=17). These groups were statistically analyzed by one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Male and female means were compared by Student's t-test. Hematocrit levels were significantly higher up to 90 days of age and in G7 females. Total plasma proteins increased significantly in groups 3, 4, 6, and 7. The highest fibrinogen levels were found in G1. Yet for creatine phosphokinase, the highest concentrations were detected in G5, whereas those of aspartate aminotransferase in G7. The levels of this enzyme remained similar from 30 days to two years of age. Lactate concentrations were higher in G3. We concluded that the sex of the animal had no significant effect on laboratory test interpretations. By contrast, the age of the animal should be considered since relevant variations were observed with time. Nevertheless, specific tables for each analysis should be consulted for interpretation of results.


Com o propósito de estabelecer valores de hematócrito, proteínas plasmáticas totais, fibrinogênio, creatina quinase , aspartato transferase e lactato em potros da raça Crioula, do nascimento até os dois anos, utilizaram-se amostras sanguíneas de 85 animais, divididos pela estratificação etária: Grupo 1 (G1) Até 15 dias de vida (n=70); grupo 2 (G2), entre 16 dias até um mês (n=67); grupo 3 (G3), entre 1 e 3 meses (n=75); grupo 4 (G4), entre 3 e 6 meses (n=64); grupo 5 (G5), entre 6 e 9 meses (n=59); grupo 6 (G6), entre 9 e 18 meses (n=39); e grupo 7 (G7), entre 18 meses até 2 anos (n=17). Foi realizado estudo estatístico entre os grupos pela análise de variância unidirecional (one-wayANOVA), complementada pelo teste de Tukey. Para comparação das médias entre os sexos utilizou-se o teste t de Student. O hematócrito foi significativamente mais elevado até os 90 dias e nas fêmeas do G7. Para proteínas plasmáticas totais, notou-se aumento significativo nos grupos 3, 4, 6 e 7. Os valores de fibrinogênio foram maiores no G1. A CK apresentou maior concentração no G5 e a AST no G7. A AST assumiu valores semelhantes dos 30 dias até os 2 anos. A concentração de lactato foi mais elevada no G3. Conclui-se que na interpretação dos exames laboratoriais de potros da raça crioula, o gênero não interfere significativamente nos resultados, porém a idade deve ser considerada devido à ocorrência de variações relevantes. Recomenda-se que para interpretação sejam consultadas tabelas específicas para cada análise.


Assuntos
Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , /métodos , Cavalos/sangue , Fibrinogênio/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Creatina Quinase/análise , Testes Laboratoriais/análise , Hematócrito/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária
12.
Braz. J. Vet. Pathol. ; 14(2): 111-116, jul. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31223

Resumo

Plant poisoning is an important cause of death in horses and cattle in Brazil. Crotalaria spp. has stood out in this scenario due to its toxic potential caused by monocrotaline, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid found throughout the plant, mainly in seeds. Here is reported a case of Crotalaria spectabilis poisoning a horse. A horse consumed oats contaminated with Crotalaria spectabilis seed and presented clinical signs of toxicosis characterized by jaundice, progressive weight loss, hemoglobinuria, subcutaneous edema in the pectoral region and neurological symptoms typical of hepatic encephalopathy. In the serum evaluation, there was an increase in the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), urea, creatinine and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). At necropsy, the main macroscopic findings were opaque and congested liver with capsular irregularity and accentuated the lobular pattern, trachea with foamy and pinkish fluid and congested and edematous pulmonary lobes. The main histopathological findings were hepatic fibrosis, periportal ductal hyperplasia, centrilobular necrosis, megalocytosis and binucleated hepatocytes. The brain parenchyma showed perivascular edema and Alzheimer type II astrocytes. Crotalaria spp. is among the main plants that cause acute or chronic mortality after exposure to the toxic compound in horses and farm animals.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos , Crotalaria/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas , Monocrotalina , Encefalopatias
13.
Braz. j. vet. pathol ; 14(2): 111-116, jul. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469796

Resumo

Plant poisoning is an important cause of death in horses and cattle in Brazil. Crotalaria spp. has stood out in this scenario due to its toxic potential caused by monocrotaline, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid found throughout the plant, mainly in seeds. Here is reported a case of Crotalaria spectabilis poisoning a horse. A horse consumed oats contaminated with Crotalaria spectabilis seed and presented clinical signs of toxicosis characterized by jaundice, progressive weight loss, hemoglobinuria, subcutaneous edema in the pectoral region and neurological symptoms typical of hepatic encephalopathy. In the serum evaluation, there was an increase in the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), urea, creatinine and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). At necropsy, the main macroscopic findings were opaque and congested liver with capsular irregularity and accentuated the lobular pattern, trachea with foamy and pinkish fluid and congested and edematous pulmonary lobes. The main histopathological findings were hepatic fibrosis, periportal ductal hyperplasia, centrilobular necrosis, megalocytosis and binucleated hepatocytes. The brain parenchyma showed perivascular edema and Alzheimer type II astrocytes. Crotalaria spp. is among the main plants that cause acute or chronic mortality after exposure to the toxic compound in horses and farm animals.


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos , Crotalaria/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas , Monocrotalina , Encefalopatias
14.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489068

Resumo

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade sérica da creatinoquinase (CK), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), lactato desidrogenase (LDH) e lactato plasmático em cavalos da raça American Trotter após a realização de atividade física. Mensurou-se as concentrações séricas destas enzimas em dois momentos: M1 - imediatamente após o exercício, e M2 - 24 horas após o exercício. Não houveram diferenças entre os momentos para CK, AST e LDH. Para o lactato plasmático, os valores foram maiores em M1. O nível de significância foi fixado em 5%. Conclui-se que a atividade física realizada por cavalos American Trotter, em níveis submáximos pouco afeta a atividade sérica de enzimas musculares. O bom condicionamento físico favorece a rápida recuperação dos animais após atividades físicas de grande exigência.


This study aimed to evaluate the serum activity of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasma lactate in Standardbred horses after performing physical activity. The serum levels of these enzymes were measured in two moments: M1 immediately after exercise, and M2 24 hours after exercise. There were no differences in CK, AST and LDH concentrations between M1 and M2. For plasma lactate, there were higher values in M1. The level of significance was set at 5%. It concludes that the physical activity performed by Standardbred horses, at submaximal levels, no affects the serum activity of muscle enzymes. Good physical conditioning favors the quick recovery of animals after demanding physical activities.


Assuntos
Animais , Ativação Enzimática , Atividade Motora , Cavalos/fisiologia , Cavalos/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase , Fator de Resposta Sérica/análise
15.
R. Educ. contin. Med. Vet. Zoot. ; 18(3): E38124, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30710

Resumo

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade sérica da creatinoquinase (CK), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), lactato desidrogenase (LDH) e lactato plasmático em cavalos da raça American Trotter após a realização de atividade física. Mensurou-se as concentrações séricas destas enzimas em dois momentos: M1 - imediatamente após o exercício, e M2 - 24 horas após o exercício. Não houveram diferenças entre os momentos para CK, AST e LDH. Para o lactato plasmático, os valores foram maiores em M1. O nível de significância foi fixado em 5%. Conclui-se que a atividade física realizada por cavalos American Trotter, em níveis submáximos pouco afeta a atividade sérica de enzimas musculares. O bom condicionamento físico favorece a rápida recuperação dos animais após atividades físicas de grande exigência.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the serum activity of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasma lactate in Standardbred horses after performing physical activity. The serum levels of these enzymes were measured in two moments: M1 immediately after exercise, and M2 24 hours after exercise. There were no differences in CK, AST and LDH concentrations between M1 and M2. For plasma lactate, there were higher values in M1. The level of significance was set at 5%. It concludes that the physical activity performed by Standardbred horses, at submaximal levels, no affects the serum activity of muscle enzymes. Good physical conditioning favors the quick recovery of animals after demanding physical activities.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos/fisiologia , Fator de Resposta Sérica/análise , Ativação Enzimática , Atividade Motora , Creatina Quinase
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190079, 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135133

Resumo

Scolopendra polymorpha (S. polymorpha) is a predatory centipede whose venom contains a multiplicity of biochemical effectors that can cause muscle damage and cumulative cell destruction in its prey. Despite previous investigations of S. polymorpha and other centipede venoms, there is a lack of information on the morphological and biochemical patterns elicited by their myotoxic effects. To elucidate these processes, this paper presents evidence of skeletal muscle damage, and alterations in key biochemical mediators that appear only after exposure to centipede venom. Methods: Venom was collected and fractionated using RP-HPLC; mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle was exposed to whole venom and venom fractions to evaluate myotoxicity by means of creatine kinase (CK) - a muscle damage marker - activity measurements and histochemical analysis. Results: CK activity was higher in EDL muscle exposed to venom than in unexposed muscle. This increase was observed after 15 min of venom incubation, and remained stable up to 45 min. Venom-exposed EDL muscle showed signs of muscle damage including necrosis, loss of fascicular structure as well as mitochondrial accumulations and ragged red fibers (RRF), suggesting an impairment in the normal mitochondrial arrangement. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and cytochrome oxidase (COX) tests also indicate that respiratory complexes might be affected. Conclusion: Our results suggest a different biochemical composition of S. polymorpha venom, based on the different effects of four venom fractions on the cells tested, according to statistical evidence. Fractions F6 and F7 caused the most important alterations.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Creatina Quinase , Miotoxicidade , Quilópodes , Bioquímica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
17.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 48: Pub.1752-Jan. 30, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458275

Resumo

Background: Displaced abomasum (DA) is a common and economically important disorder that affects dairy cattle. Nutritional factors and adaptive responses that occur in the peripartum play a central role in the pathogenesis. The measurement of blood metabolites represents a useful tool for monitoring and prognostic determination in affected animals. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate cardiac, energy and hormonal blood markers, lactatemia, and insulin sensitivity in cows diagnosed with right displaced abomasum (RDA) and left displaced abomasum (LDA), comparing them with each other. Materials, Methods & Results: Nineteen cases of abomasum displacement in cows were studied, including 9 cases of RDA and 10 cases of LDA. The diagnosis was established by means of physical examination and measurement of the concentration of chlorides in the ruminal fluid (> 30 mEq/L). After diagnosis, clinical-surgical therapeutic management was instituted. At the time of diagnosis (M1) and at the resolution of the case (M2), blood samples were collected to assess the variables: non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxybutyrate (βHB), L-lactate, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose, insulin, and cortisol. In addition, insulin sensitivity was estimated using the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) and RQUICKI-βHB. The means of the variables were compared, separating the effects of groups (RDA and LDA) and moments (M1 and M2), at the level of 5% probability. The concentrations of NEFA, CK-MB, L-lactate, glucose, insulin, and cortisol were higher at M1 and the RQUICKI and RQUICKI-βHB indices were lower at this moment. L-lactate, CK, and CK-MB were higher in the RDA group, while cTnI, βHB, and LDH did not present a group or moment effect. Cardiac markers correlated with the energy profile metabolites, L-lactate, and cortisol. Discussion: The high...


Assuntos
Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Abomaso/patologia , Biomarcadores , Creatina Quinase Forma MB , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Antagonistas da Insulina , Troponina I
18.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 46(supl): Pub.336-2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1458003

Resumo

Background: Equidae nutritional change increased the frequency of diseases due to inappropriate administration and storage of rations. Although there are reports of ionophore poisoning (IP) and leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) in equidae from Brazil, the concurrent occurrence of both diseases by the same contaminated commercial ration is unprecedented. Therefore, the present paper aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial and pathological findings of concurrent IP and LEM outbreaks in horses.Cases: Eleven farmers from seven different locations in Distrito Federal, Midwestern Brazil, reported sudden clinical signs in 27 horses after the ingestion of commercial pelleted ration. During the farm visits, it was found that the ration brand and batches were identical, and macroscopic evaluation revealed no abnormalities. Eight horses were clinically evaluated and presented hyporexia, apathy, hypermetria, ataxia, dehydration, dyspnea, tongue hypotonia, muscle tremors, tachycardia, facial hypoalgesia, dysphagia, and sporadic or permanent recumbence. Laboratorial changes were restricted to creatine phosphokinase (mean: 1,573.4 ± 16.9 IU/L) and gammaglutamyl transferase (mean: 34.85 ± 29.14 IU/L) serum increases. Pathological evaluation has performed in eight horses presenting pallor and whitish striations in the gluteal, longissimus dorsi, femoral quadriceps muscles and myocardium, varying from mild to moderate. One horse also showed a soft and yellowish focal area on the right temporal lobe white matter. Microscopically, alterations in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues included striated muscle fibers and cardiomyocytes segmental necrosis, characterized by sarcoplasmic fragmentation with clusters of eosinophilic debris, cellular retraction and hypereosinophilia. Histological alterations in the central nervous system of one horse were characteristic of LEM.[...]


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos , Ionóforos/intoxicação , Micotoxicose/complicações , Micotoxicose/epidemiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sintomas Concomitantes
19.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 46(supl): Pub. 336, 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-734620

Resumo

Background: Equidae nutritional change increased the frequency of diseases due to inappropriate administration and storage of rations. Although there are reports of ionophore poisoning (IP) and leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) in equidae from Brazil, the concurrent occurrence of both diseases by the same contaminated commercial ration is unprecedented. Therefore, the present paper aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial and pathological findings of concurrent IP and LEM outbreaks in horses.Cases: Eleven farmers from seven different locations in Distrito Federal, Midwestern Brazil, reported sudden clinical signs in 27 horses after the ingestion of commercial pelleted ration. During the farm visits, it was found that the ration brand and batches were identical, and macroscopic evaluation revealed no abnormalities. Eight horses were clinically evaluated and presented hyporexia, apathy, hypermetria, ataxia, dehydration, dyspnea, tongue hypotonia, muscle tremors, tachycardia, facial hypoalgesia, dysphagia, and sporadic or permanent recumbence. Laboratorial changes were restricted to creatine phosphokinase (mean: 1,573.4 ± 16.9 IU/L) and gammaglutamyl transferase (mean: 34.85 ± 29.14 IU/L) serum increases. Pathological evaluation has performed in eight horses presenting pallor and whitish striations in the gluteal, longissimus dorsi, femoral quadriceps muscles and myocardium, varying from mild to moderate. One horse also showed a soft and yellowish focal area on the right temporal lobe white matter. Microscopically, alterations in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues included striated muscle fibers and cardiomyocytes segmental necrosis, characterized by sarcoplasmic fragmentation with clusters of eosinophilic debris, cellular retraction and hypereosinophilia. Histological alterations in the central nervous system of one horse were characteristic of LEM.[...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos , Ionóforos/intoxicação , Micotoxicose/complicações , Micotoxicose/epidemiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sintomas Concomitantes
20.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 19(1): 69-74, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-688271

Resumo

There are several causes of carcass condemnation in poultry processing plants, including dorsal cranial myopathy (DCM), in which the anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle is affected. DCM etiology has not been elucidated yet, but this lesion impairs the visual quality of carcasses and causes economic losses due to downgrading and condemnation. The effects of this lesion on the systemic health of broilers are still unknown. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate muscle injury and systemic health indicators in broilers presenting or not DCM. The following parameters were evaluated: complete blood count (CBC), total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, lactate, and glucose serum levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) serum activities, and breast muscle pH. Blood samples were collected from 800 42-day-old broilers before feed withdrawal and transportation. In the processing plant, 28 carcasses presented DCM during inspection, and 28 carcasses with no DCM were used as controls. Blood biochemical parameters were not significantly different between broilers with DCM and the controls, except for AST and CK, which activities were higher in the DCM group than in the control group, suggesting that the DCM does not affect the systemic health of the broilers.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Creatina Quinase , Aspartato Aminotransferases
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