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Bovine herpesviruses do not play a major role in the differential diagnosis of rabies in cattle in southern Brazil

Kunert Filho, Hiran Castagnino; Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Secchi, Priscila; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Brito, Wilia Marta Elsner Diederichsen de; Ferreira, José Carlos; Rijsewijk, Franciscus Antonius Maria; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.); 41: Pub. 1099, 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | SES-SP | ID: biblio-1059362


Background: Rabies has long been recognized as the major cause of encephalitis in cattle in Latin American countries. It has been estimated that nearly 50.000 cattle heads per year are lost due to encephalitis in that subcontinent, with a significant economic impact on cattle productive chains. In Brazil only, 2.500 to 3.000 cattle heads are estimated to be lost every year due to rabies. However, it is believed that rabies incidence in cattle is much larger, since usually only a few samples from affected animals in disease outbreaks are submitted to diagnostic laboratories. Rabies encephalitis is promptly and accurately diagnosed; however, particularly when rabies is excluded as causa mortis, the agent responsible for neurological disease of infectious origin often remains undetermined. Two bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) are major pathogens of cattle which are widely disseminated in Brazil. As usual in herpesvirus' biology, these tend to infect a large number of hosts and establish lifelong latent infections which may occasionally be reactivated. Both viruses, particularly BoHV-5, are often recovered from cases of neurological disease in cattle. The participation of BoHVs in the differential diagnosis of rabies must be evaluated. Besides, there might be associations between the occurrence of rabies and BoHV infections that deserve investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 would play a significant role in cases of neurological disease where rabies was the presumptive clinical diagnosis. In addition, associations between the occurrence of rabies and BoHV infections were searched for. The approach adopted for conducting such investigations was based on the search for viral nucleic acids as well as classical virus isolation on tissues of cattle submitted to rabies diagnosis over a two-year period, including rabies-positive and rabies-negative specimens. Materials, Methods & Results: Brain tissue samples of 101 cattle originally submitted to rabies diagnosis were collected over a two year period (2009-2010) from various municipalities within the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty nine of these samples had the diagnosis of rabies confirmed by standard laboratory diagnostic methods. Aliquots of tissues were submitted to DNA extraction and examined in search for genomes of bovine herpesviruses (BoHV) types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) by as well as for infectious virus. Bovine herpesvirus genomes were detected in 78/101 (77.2%) samples, in which BoHV-1 genomes were detected in 26/78 (25.7%), BoHV-5 genomes in 22/78 (21.8%) and mixed BoHV infections (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 genomes) were detected in 30/101 (29.7%) samples. In the 39 samples with confirmed rabies diagnosis, BoHV-1 DNA was detected in 9/39 (23%), BoHV-5 DNA in 6/39 (15.4%) and mixed infections with both BoHV types in 16/39 (41%) samples. However, no infectious herpesvirus was recovered from any of the specimens examined. Discussion: The high prevalence of BoHV1 and BoHV-5 infections was evidenced in the sampled population, but the absence of infectious BoHVs indicate that these were not associated to the occurrence of the cases of encephalitis where rabies was the primary suspicion. In addition, no association was detected between occurrence of rabies and detection of BoHVs, since the frequency of detection of herpesvirus genomes did not significantly differ between rabies-positive and rabies-negative samples. The detection of BoHV DNA in scattered areas of the brain with no infectious virus suggests that latency may take place in different regions of the brain.
Biblioteca responsável: BR68.1
Localização: BR84.1