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Fertility disorders in male dogs

Nizanski, Wojciech.
Rev. bras. reprod. anim; 46(4): 369-372, out.-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415071


Male dog fertility disorders are usually troublesome and challenging for a practicing veterinarian. It may be generally assumed, that reproductive potential in this species is lower than in farm animals and it is still decreasing. This situation starts to be similar to human medicine, where we observe dramatic drop of reproductive capacity, which resulted in the need of implementation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Situation in dogs is more complicated owing the fact, that the use of ART meets many obstacles. Low fertility potential in dogs appears to be the result of variable factors such as: specific criteria of selection for reproduction in which fertility performance in not a priority, lack of periodical obligatory fertility check, species specific predisposition for many reproductive diseases and no age limit for reproductive use of males. Dogs are kept in human environment and exposition for civilizational byproducts influences negatively not only on our health, but also on health our 'minor brothers'. It should be bear in mind, that reproductive organs are very sensitive for environmental factors disrupting homeostatic balance. The decline in male dog fertility over the past decades was proved, with potential link to environmental contaminants (4). They were found in pet foods and were also detected in the sperm and testes of adult dogs causing a detrimental effects on sperm function. Over the 26 years of the study of Lea et al. (4), authors found a decrease in the percentage of normal motile sperm. Between 1988 and 1998, sperm motility declined by 2.5 per cent per year. Then from 2002 to 2014 sperm motility continued to decline at a rate of 1.2% per year. In addition, the male pups had an increased incidence of cryptorchidism. Basics of physiology of reproduction of male dogs. Normally the puberty in males is associated with presence of normal sperm cells in genital organs. It is reached in male dogs at age around 5-6 months. Such a young dog obviously cannot be used for reproduction. Reproductive maturity is associated later, with development of normal sexual behavior and production of sufficient number of normal, fertilizing competent spermatozoa. It corresponds with 12-18 months of animal age. Testicular descent is completed usually before weaning period, but sometimes testicles may reach scrotum later, but never after the end of 6 month of age. That time inguinal canals start to be so narrow, that caudal passing of gonads is unlikely. Male dogs have only one accessory sexual gland - prostate, which produces vast portion of seminal plasma.(AU)
Biblioteca responsável: BR68.1