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Mechanisms of acaricide resistance in ticks

Waldman, Jéssica; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Vaz Junior, Itabajara da Silva.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.); 51: Pub. 1900, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1415213

Resumo

Background: In several countries, including Brazil, the livestock industry plays a key role in the country's economy. Brazil has the second largest bovine herd in the world and the biggest commercial herd. Ticks are an ongoing problem for both large operation cattle producers and small family farmers. Rhipicephalus microplus causes expressive losses in cattle breeding, since it occurs in important beef production zones like South America, Africa, and Oceania. Some of the negative consequences of tick infestation to cattle breeding are anemia, loss in milk and beef production, and transmission of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Significant losses are caused by the cattle tick (R. microplus) in several regions of the world, costing around US$ 3.3 billion per year to the Brazilian livestock industry alone. The tick control methods are mainly based on synthetic acaricides. However, the improvement of current tick control requires the identification of new molecular targets in tick physiology and development of molecule compounds to target important physiology pathways. The strategies proposed to address this issue are expand the knowledge about the molecules involved in the detoxification of chemicals to enhance the efficacy of the acaricides as well as to develop new compounds for chemical control. Review: Tick control is currently based on chemical acaricides; however, effective control and prevention of tick infestation remain distant goals. In recent decades, a progressive decrease in the efficiency of acaricides due to drug resistance has been observed. Acaricide resistance is an evolutionary adaptation, which implies the existence of behavioral and physiological mechanisms that allow the survival of resistant individuals. Four resistance mechanisms are described: behavioral resistance, reduced drug penetration, target site insensitivity and increased drug detoxification. Augmented drug detoxification may be due to increased activity of enzymes or transporters due to increased gene expression or mutations in some genes. Research focus on mechanisms of acaricide resistance in ticks characterized detoxification pathways based on (1) increased activity of enzymes (cytochrome p450, esterase and GST) which play a role in biochemically altering acaricides towards decreased toxicity and, (2) enhanced excretion of the modified less toxic compounds. To bypass the current problems, a better understanding of the biology, physiology, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of resistance to acaricides is fundamental to prolong their efficiency in controlling ticks. Moreover, identifying the genes and proteins associated with resistance can support in the development of more sensitive diagnostic methods to identify acaricide resistance, as well as improving control strategies. Discussion: In the last years, many researchers have been studying resistance mechanisms and important advances have been made which showed that, in several tick species, ABC transporters, esterases, P-450 cytochromes and glutathione-S-transferases participate in acaricide resistance. The characterization of the alterations in the targets in tick physiology and identification of new drugs with potential to tick control are crucial goals to increase tick control
Biblioteca responsável: BR68.1