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Tratamento de tromboembolismo e preparo para implantação de prótese osteointegrada com oxigenioterapia hiperbárica em uma gata / Treatment of tromboembolism and preparation for an osseointegrated prothesis fixation with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a kitten

Reinstein, Rainer da Silva; Caye, Pâmela; Vargas, Daniel; Antunes, Bernardo Nascimento; Degregori, Emanuelle Bortolotto; Pozzobon, Franciéli Mallmann; Brun, Maurício Veloso; Muller, Daniel Curvello de Mendonça.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.); 51(supl.1): Pub. 865, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1434678


Background: Ischemic neuromyopathy is the most common reason for amputation in cats. In veterinary medicine, the use of prosthetic limbs is not widespread; therefore, in most cases total limb amputation is indicated. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an alternative with several benefits for the treatment of vascular disorders with reperfusion, ischemia, and infection. Therefore, this study aimed to report the positive effects of HBOT on the treatment of ischemic neuromyopathy secondary to arterial thromboembolism on the patient's clinical improvement, and on the preparation of the patient for insertion of an osseointegrated prosthesis. Case: A 6-month-old mixed-breed kitten returned for treatment after undergoing surgery seven days earlier for reduction of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, during which it suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest. The patient presented with acute pelvic limb paralysis with 24-h evolution, absent femoral pulse, plantar cushions and dorsal part of the limbs cold and pale. After supportive therapy and diagnosis of aortic thromboembolism by arterial Doppler, the patient started adjunctive treatment with HBOT from the first day of hospitalization. Sessions took place in an exclusive hyperbaric chamber for animals and lasted 60 min at a pressure of 2.5 absolute atmospheres and 100% oxygen, initially every 12 h. However, during the first 5 days of hospitalization, the distal region of both pelvic limbs began to show tissue devitalization and edema, and hematologic parameters showed changes on the 7th day. The right pelvic limb (RPL) showed more involvement of superficial tissues, extending to the tarsometatarsal joint region. After 8 days of hospitalization, the devitalized tissue was debrided. The RPL had an extensive devitalized area with exposed bone in the phalanges and necrosis in the pads. The left pelvic limb (LPL) suffered minor complications, with involvement of the phalangeal region. After 12 days, with HBOT every 48 h, exuberant granulation tissue was observed. After 17 days, the patient was discharged, and HBOT sessions were performed weekly. Gangrene of the midfoot and lack of proprioception were observed in RPL, while LPL showed bone divulsion of the 1st, 3rd, and 4th phalanges. Because of the poor prognosis for limb viability, the RPL was partially amputated, and a self-threaded intraosseous prosthesis was inserted. Discussion: The cardiorespiratory arrest that occurred during the surgical procedure to reduce the diaphragmatic hernia without thromboprophylaxis may have contributed to the peripheral ischemia. HBOT was proposed for the adjuvant treatment of ischemic injury because it is especially indicated for cases of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The main hematological parameters were evaluated at an average interval of 7 days. While the platelet count and hematocrit increased, the leukocytosis decreased. This demonstrates the benefit of oxygen therapy in the reported patient. The use of HBOT in orthopedic injuries is known to result mainly in stimulation of osteoblasts, promoting osseointegration of the prosthesis. We conclude that the adjuvant treatment with HBOT helped to preserve a large segment of both pelvic limbs, prevent the progression of necrosis, and provide a healthy bed for fixation of an osseointegrated prosthesis in the RPL, resulting in clinical improvement of the patient.
Biblioteca responsável: BR68.1